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Remote Ischemic Conditioning in Patients With Acute Stroke (RESIST) (RESIST)

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ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03481777
Recruitment Status : Recruiting
First Posted : March 29, 2018
Last Update Posted : February 15, 2019
Sponsor:
Collaborators:
Center of Functionally Integrative Neuroscience (CFIN) Aarhus University
Central Denmark Region
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
Grethe Andersen, Aarhus University Hospital

Brief Summary:
Our primary aim is to investigate whether remote ischemic conditioning (RIC) as an adjunctive treatment can improve long-term recovery in acute stroke patients as an adjunct to standard treatment.

Condition or disease Intervention/treatment Phase
Stroke, Acute Ischemic Stroke Hemorrhagic Stroke Intracerebral Hemorrhage Cerebrovascular Disorders Central Nervous System Diseases Device: Remote Ischemic Conditioning Device: Sham Remote Ischemic Conditioning Not Applicable

Detailed Description:

Stroke is the second-leading cause of death worldwide and a leading cause of serious, long-term disability. The most common type is acute ischemic stroke (AIS) which occurs in 85% of cases. Acute cerebral thromboembolism leads to an area of permanent damage (infarct core) in the most severely hypoperfused area and a surrounding area of impaired, yet salvageable tissue known as the "ischemic penumbra".

Intravenous alteplase (IV tPA) and endovascular treatment (EVT) are approved acute reperfusion treatments of AIS to be started within the first 4½-6 hours (in some up to 24 hours) and as soon as possible after symptom onset to prevent the evolution of the infarct core. However, reperfusion itself may paradoxically result in tissue damage (reperfusion injury) and may contribute to infarct growth. Infarct progression can continue for days following a stroke, and failure of the collateral flow is a critical factor determining infarct growth.

On the other hand, in intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) the culprit is an eruption of blood into the brain parenchyma causing tissue destruction with a massive effect on adjacent brain tissues. Hematoma expansion as well as inflammatory pathways that are activated lead to further tissue damage, edema, and penumbral hypoperfusion. The prognosis after ICH is poor with a one-month mortality of 40%.

Novel therapeutics and neuroprotective strategies that can be started ultra-early after symptom onset are urgently needed to reduce disability in both AIS and ICH.

Ischemic conditioning is one of the most potent activators of endogenous protection against ischemia-reperfusion injury. Remote Ischemic Conditioning (RIC) can be applied as repeated short-lasting ischemia in a distant tissue that results in protection against subsequent long-lasting ischemic injury in the target organ. This protection can be applied prior to or during a prolonged ischemic event as remote ischemic pre-conditioning (RIPreC) and per-conditioning (RIPerC), respectively, or immediate after reperfusion as remote ischemic post-conditioning (RIPostC). RIC is commonly achieved by inflation of a blood pressure cuff to induce 5-minute cycles of limb ischemia alternating with 5 minutes of reperfusion.

Preclinical studies show that RIC induces a promising infarct reduction in an experimental stroke model. Results from a recent proof-of-concept study at our institution indicate that RIPerC applied during ambulance transportation as an adjunctive to in-hospital IV tPA increases brain tissue survival after one month. Furthermore, RIPerC patients had less severe neurological symptoms at admission and tended to have decreased perfusion deficits.

To-date, no serious adverse events have been documented in RIC.

RIC is a non-pharmacologic and non-invasive treatment without noticeable discomfort that has first-aid potential worldwide. However, whether combined remote ischemic per- and postconditioning can improve long-term recovery in AIS and ICH has never been investigated in a randomized controlled trial.


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Study Type : Interventional  (Clinical Trial)
Estimated Enrollment : 1500 participants
Allocation: Randomized
Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
Intervention Model Description: Prospective, randomized, patient-assessor blinded, sham-controlled trial
Masking: Double (Participant, Outcomes Assessor)
Masking Description: Participant. Outcome assessor.
Primary Purpose: Treatment
Official Title: Remote Ischemic Conditioning in Patients With Acute Stroke: a Multicenter Randomized, Patient-assessor Blinded, Sham-controlled Study
Actual Study Start Date : April 3, 2018
Estimated Primary Completion Date : December 31, 2022
Estimated Study Completion Date : December 31, 2024

Arm Intervention/treatment
Active Comparator: Remote Ischemic Conditioning

Remote ischemic conditioning (RIC) is applied in the hyperacute prehospital phase using an automated RIC device.

Treatment characteristics: Five cycles (50 minutes), each consisting of five minutes of cuff inflation followed by five minutes with a deflated cuff. The cuff pressure will be 200 mmHg; but if initial systolic blood pressure is above 175 mmHg, the cuff is automatically inflated to 35 mmHg above the systolic blood pressure.

  • Initial remote ischemic conditioning: prehospital phase, all included patients
  • Remote ischemic conditioning at +6 hours: In-hospital, only patients with AIS and ICH, all centres
  • Remote Ischemic Postconditioning (twice daily for 7 days): In-hospital/rehabilitation, Only patients with AIS and ICH and only at Aarhus University Hospital

Usual care with or without acute reperfusion therapy

Device: Remote Ischemic Conditioning
RIC is commonly achieved by inflation of a blood pressure cuff to induce 5-minute cycles of limb ischemia alternating with 5 minutes of reperfusion.

Sham Comparator: Sham - Remote Ischemic Conditioning

Sham remote ischemic conditioning (Sham-RIC) is applied in the hyperacute prehospital phase using an automated Sham-RIC device.

Treatment characteristics: Five cycles (50 minutes), each consisting of five minutes of cuff inflation followed by five minutes with a deflated cuff. The cuff pressure will be always be 20 mmHg.

  • Initial Sham remote ischemic conditioning: prehospital phase, all included patients
  • Sham Remote ischemic conditioning at +6 hours: In-hospital, only patients with AIS and ICH, all centres
  • Sham Remote Ischemic Postconditioning (twice daily for 7 days): In-hospital/rehabilitation, Only patients with AIS and ICH and only at Aarhus University Hospital

Usual care with or without acute reperfusion therapy.

Device: Sham Remote Ischemic Conditioning
Sham Comparator (Sham-RIC)




Primary Outcome Measures :
  1. Clinical outcome (mRS) at 3 months in acute stroke (AIS and ICH) [ Time Frame: 3 months ]

    Clinical outcome (modified Rankin Scale) at 3 months in acute stroke patients (target diagnosis) (generalized ordinal logistic regression). The assessment will performed by two independent telephone or face-to-face assessors.

    If disagreement occurs the patient will be contacted by a third assessor (face-to-face or telephone) who is blinded to the intervention who will assess the level of dependency.

    • If disagreement occurs between two telephone assessments - a third, and final, telephone or face-to-face assessment will be made.
    • If disagreement occurs between one face-to-face assessment and one telephone assessment

      • the face-to-face will be considered the final assessment
    • If disagreement occurs between two face-to-face assessments - a third, and final, telephone or face-to-face assessment will be made.


Secondary Outcome Measures :
  1. Difference neurological impairment during the first 24 hours in all randomized patients [ Time Frame: 24 hours ]
    Neurological deficits are documented using PreSS (Prehospital Stroke score both prehospital and in-hospital). Prehospital Stroke Score is assessed at 24-hour or at discharge (if discharge occurs before 24 hours). The PreSS score consists of the Cincinnati Prehospital Stroke Scale (CPSS) with an additional opportunity to report other neurological symptoms (e.g. ataxia, sensory disturbances and visual field loss), and PASS (Prehospital Acute Stroke Severity Scale) Ordinal logistic regression

  2. Clinical outcome (modified Rankin Scale (mRS) at 3 months in acute ischemic stroke [ Time Frame: 3 months ]
    The assessment will performed by two independent telephone or face-to-face assessors Ordinal logistic regression analysis will be performed.

  3. Clinical outcome (modified Rankin Scale (mRS) at 3 months in acute ischemic stroke receiving reperfusion therapy [ Time Frame: 3 months ]
    The assessment will performed by two independent telephone or face-to-face assessors Ordinal logistic regression analysis will be performed.

  4. Clinical outcome (modified Rankin Scale (mRS) at 3 months in patients with intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) [ Time Frame: 3 months ]
    The assessment will performed by two independent telephone or face-to-face assessors Ordinal logistic regression analysis will be performed.

  5. Difference in proportion of patients with complete remission of symptoms within 24 hours (TIA; both with and without DWI) [ Time Frame: 3 months ]
    Difference in proportion of patients with complete remission of symptoms within 24 hours (TIA; both with and without DWI) Diagnosis of TIA is documented in the electronic case report form

  6. Major Adverse Cardiac and Cerebral Events (MACCE) and recurrent ischemic events based on registry data at 3 and 12 months in ICH, AIS patients, TIA and non-vascular diagnosis [ Time Frame: 12 months ]

    MACCE is defined as: Cardiovascular events (cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, acute ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke)

    Cardiovascular death: Death from known cardiovascular cause or sudden death from unknown cause (no identified cause of death in medical history and/or autopsy)

    Acute myocardial infarction: Admission with a discharge diagnosis of ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) and non-ST elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) and unstable angina pectoris (UAP)

    Stroke: Admission with a discharge diagnosis of acute ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke. Evaluation is performed using the Danish National Patient Register (LPR) and the DSR at two time points (6 and 15 months after the inclusion of the last patient).

    Diagnosis of AIS/TIA, ICH and MI (STEMI, NSTEMI, and UAP) are made according to national clinical practice guidelines.


  7. Early neurological improvement in acute ischemic stroke patients (AIS) [ Time Frame: 24 hours ]
    Reduction in National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) ≥ 4 (baseline versus 24-Hour NIHSS)

  8. Early neurological improvement in patients with intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) [ Time Frame: 24 hours ]
    Reduction in National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) ≥ 4 (baseline versus 24-Hour NIHSS)

  9. Quality of life measures at 3 months in AIS and ICH patients [ Time Frame: 3 months ]
    Quality of life (WHO-5) measures in AIS and ICH patients

  10. Bed-day use in AIS and ICH patients [ Time Frame: 3 months ]
    Bed-day use, measured at 3 months, in AIS and ICH patients

  11. Three-month and one-year mortality [ Time Frame: 3 and 12 months ]
    All-cause mortality is assessed and subdivided into cardiovascular mortality versus non-cardiovascular mortality


Other Outcome Measures:
  1. Clinical outcome (modified Rankin Scale (mRS) at 3 months in ischemic stroke patients and the extended remote ischemic postconditioning protocol (substudy at Aarhus University Hospital) [ Time Frame: 3 months ]
    The assessment will performed by two independent telephone or face-to-face assessors Ordinal logistic regression analysis will be performed.

  2. Clinical outcome (modified Rankin Scale (mRS) at 3 months in intracerebral hemorrhage patients and the extended remote ischemic postconditioning protocol (substudy at Aarhus University Hospital) [ Time Frame: 3 months ]
    The assessment will performed by two independent telephone or face-to-face assessors Ordinal logistic regression analysis will be performed.

  3. Endovascular treatment(EVT) -eligibility (MRI assessed) in RIC treated AIS patients with large vessel (substudy at Aarhus University Hospital) [ Time Frame: 6 hours ]

    Proportion of RIC treated AIS patients with large vessel occlusion (LVO) eligible to EVT treatment compared to standard treatment, adjusted for prehospital stroke severity (PreSS) and symptom duration

    • Severe Stroke (NIHSS ≥ 10)
    • Groin puncture feasible within 6 hours from stroke onset
    • MRI-time-of-flight (TOF) documented internal carotid artery (ICA), Intracranial ICA (ICA-T) and first and second stem of the middle cerebral artery (M1 and M2, respectively)
    • No contraindications to MRI (pacemaker, vomiting, respiratory insufficiency, obesity)
    • MRI-Diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) lesion volume ≤ 70 mL

  4. Infarct growth in AIS patients (substudy at Aarhus University Hospital) [ Time Frame: 24 hour ]
    24-hour infarct growth on DWI-MRI (Difference in lesion volume between acute and 24-hour DWI-MRI) (Substudy at Aarhus University Hospital)

  5. Difference in acute (24-hour) hematoma expansion in patients with ICH (substudy at Aarhus University Hospital) [ Time Frame: 24 hour ]
    24-hour hematoma growth (Difference in hematoma volume between acute and 24-hour CT/MRI) (Substudy at Aarhus University Hospital)

  6. Difference in 7 days hematoma volume in patients with ICH (substudy at Aarhus University Hospital) [ Time Frame: 7 days ]
    7-day hematoma reduction (Difference in hematoma volume between acute and 7-day (day 5 to 9) CT ) (Substudy at Aarhus University Hospital)

  7. Ektacytometry and Analytical Flow Cytometry for eryNOS3 phosphorylation [ Time Frame: 12 months ]
    Ektacytometry for Erythrocytic Deformability and Analytical Flow Cytometry (FC) for eryNOS3 phosphorylation (pNOS3Ser1177) and s-nitrosylation (-SNO) in RBC

  8. MicroRNA and extracellular vesicle profile of RIC-induced neuroprotection (substudy at Aarhus University Hospital) [ Time Frame: 12 months ]
    MicroRNA and extracellular vesicle characterization of a possible RIC treatment profile

  9. Prehospital microRNA and extracellular vesicles (substudy at Aarhus University Hospital) [ Time Frame: 12 months ]
    Diagnostic abilities of a prehospital microRNA and extracellular vesicles blood samples profile combined with prehospital stroke severity on the differentiation of hemorrhagic from ischemic stroke and to grade ischemic stroke severity

  10. Prehospital Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein (substudy at Aarhus University Hospital) [ Time Frame: 12 months ]
    Predictive abilities of Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein (GFAP) in prehospital obtained blood samples combined with prehospital stroke severity to differentiate hemorrhagic from ischemic stroke and to grade ischemic stroke severity

  11. Coagulation profile of putative stroke patients in prehospital obtained blood samples (substudy at Aarhus University Hospital) [ Time Frame: 12 months ]
    Functional and immunologic plasma assays will be employed to analyze proteins and pathways in coagulation and fibrinolysis.



Information from the National Library of Medicine

Choosing to participate in a study is an important personal decision. Talk with your doctor and family members or friends about deciding to join a study. To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contacts provided below. For general information, Learn About Clinical Studies.


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Ages Eligible for Study:   18 Years and older   (Adult, Older Adult)
Sexes Eligible for Study:   All
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   No
Criteria

Inclusion Criteria:

  • Male and female patients (≥ 18 years)
  • Prehospital putative stroke (Prehospital Stroke Score, PreSS >= 1)
  • Onset of stroke symptoms < 4 hours before RIC/Sham-RIC
  • Independent in daily living before symptom onset (mRS ≤ 2)

Exclusion Criteria:

  • Intracranial aneurisms, intracranial arteriovenous malformation, cerebral neoplasm or abscess
  • Pregnancy
  • Severe peripheral arterial disease in the upper extremities
  • Concomitant acute life-threatening medical or surgical condition
  • Arteriovenous fistula in the arm selected for RIC

Information from the National Library of Medicine

To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contact information provided by the sponsor.

Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier (NCT number): NCT03481777


Contacts
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Contact: Rolf A Blauenfeldt, MD 61368874 ext 0045 rolfblau@rm.dk
Contact: Niels Hjort, MD, PhD 78454200 ext 0045 nielhjor@rm.dk

Locations
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Denmark
Department of Neurology Aarhus University Hospital Recruiting
Aarhus, Danmark, Denmark, DK-8000
Contact: Rolf Blauenfeldt, MD    20774053 ext 0045    rolfblau@rm.dk   
Principal Investigator: Grethe Andersen, MD, DMSc         
Department of Neurology Regional Hospital West Jutland Recruiting
Holstebro, Denmark, DK-7500
Contact: Birgitte Sandal, MD    78437280 ext 0045      
Principal Investigator: Birgitte Sandal, MD         
Sponsors and Collaborators
Grethe Andersen
Center of Functionally Integrative Neuroscience (CFIN) Aarhus University
Central Denmark Region
Investigators
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Principal Investigator: Grethe Andersen, MD, DMSc Aarhus University Hospital, Department of Neurology
  Study Documents (Full-Text)

Documents provided by Grethe Andersen, Aarhus University Hospital:

Publications:
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Responsible Party: Grethe Andersen, Professor, DMSc, Senior Consultant, MD, Aarhus University Hospital
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03481777     History of Changes
Other Study ID Numbers: 2017114177
First Posted: March 29, 2018    Key Record Dates
Last Update Posted: February 15, 2019
Last Verified: February 2019
Individual Participant Data (IPD) Sharing Statement:
Plan to Share IPD: Undecided

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Studies a U.S. FDA-regulated Drug Product: No
Studies a U.S. FDA-regulated Device Product: No
Keywords provided by Grethe Andersen, Aarhus University Hospital:
Remote Ischemic Conditioning
Neuroprotection
Additional relevant MeSH terms:
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Stroke
Cerebral Hemorrhage
Central Nervous System Diseases
Cerebrovascular Disorders
Ischemia
Hemorrhage
Nervous System Diseases
Brain Diseases
Vascular Diseases
Cardiovascular Diseases
Pathologic Processes
Intracranial Hemorrhages