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Oral vs Intravenous Diltiazem for Rapid Atrial Fibrillation/Flutter Trial (OVID RAF)

The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Read our disclaimer for details.
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03472495
Recruitment Status : Completed
First Posted : March 21, 2018
Results First Posted : March 1, 2023
Last Update Posted : March 1, 2023
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
Virginia Commonwealth University

Brief Summary:
The primary objective of this study is to compare the incidence of rate control (defined as: HR <110 beats/min or conversion to sinus rhythm) at 2 hours after medication administration between oral immediate release diltiazem and intravenous continuous infusion diltiazem.

Condition or disease Intervention/treatment Phase
Atrial Fibrillation and Flutter Drug: Diltiazem Oral Product Drug: Diltiazem Injectable Product Phase 4

Detailed Description:

Atrial fibrillation (AF), a supraventricular tachyarrhythmia, is the primary diagnosis for over 467,000 hospitalizations each year. Historically, there have been two approaches to managing AF in the emergency department (ED): rate control and rhythm control.

The AFFIRM trial compared rate and rhythm control in 4,060 patients. It found no difference in mortality with the rate control approach and less hospitalizations. As a result, both rhythm and rate control are options in stable patients with an AF duration of < 48 hours. After 48 hours, rate control is preferred because of the increased risk of ischemic stroke. The subsequent RACE II trial, established that lenient heart rate control (HR <110 beats/min) was as effective as strict control (HR <80 beats/min) in preventing cardiovascular events and required less outpatient visits to achieve the goal HR. As a result of both the AFFIRM and RACE II trials, a rate control approach with a goal HR of <80-110 beats/min is the management plan for a majority of patients who present to the ED in AF. According to the American Heart Association 2014 guidelines, the initial acute, emergent management of atrial fibrillation and flutter (AFF) are similar and there are a number of medications used for rate control including beta blockers and non-dihydropyridine calcium channel blockers.

Diltiazem, a non-dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker, is often the medication of choice in the management of AFF due to its ability to be given as an intravenous (IV) push, continuous infusion, and oral (PO) immediate release or extended release tablet. In the ED, a loading dose of IV diltiazem 0.25 mg/kg is usually administered to obtain a heart rate of < 110 beats/min or a decrease of at least 20% in the ventricular rate. If this does not work then a second bolus of 0.35mg/kg is administered. Once rate control of <110 beats/min or a 20% decrease in ventricular rate is obtained physicians typically chose between oral immediate release diltiazem tablet or IV continuous infusion diltiazem to maintain heart rate control. Both options allow for dose changes in the short term. The oral immediate release diltiazem tablet has a fast onset of action of 30-60 minutes and is dosed every 6 hours. Intravenous continuous infusion diltiazem has a variable onset of action with a titration frequency of every 15-30 minutes. The use of oral diltiazem allows for possible placement on a monitored general floor bed, whereas an intravenous drip requires placement to step down or intensive level of care. This impacts bed status and length of stay in the emergency department. Both oral and intravenous diltiazem are used clinically; however, no prospective studies exist comparing the two strategies. Retrospective data suggests that both forms are equal in their ability to control heart rate.

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Study Type : Interventional  (Clinical Trial)
Actual Enrollment : 19 participants
Allocation: Randomized
Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
Masking: None (Open Label)
Primary Purpose: Treatment
Official Title: Oral vs Intravenous Diltiazem for Rapid Atrial Fibrillation/Flutter Trial
Actual Study Start Date : June 1, 2018
Actual Primary Completion Date : March 21, 2021
Actual Study Completion Date : March 21, 2021

Resource links provided by the National Library of Medicine

Arm Intervention/treatment
Active Comparator: Oral Immediate Release Diltiazem
Diltiazem immediate release 60mg orally once (Diltiazem oral product)
Drug: Diltiazem Oral Product
Diltiazem Immediate Release 60 MG PO Q6H (30 MG PO Q6H if patient is <60 kg)

Active Comparator: Continuous Infusion IV Diltiazem
Diltiazem 2.5-5 mg/hour intravenous Titrate by 1.25 mg every 15-60 minutes. Maximum titration dose 15 mg/hour. Titration Goal of HR <110 (Diltiazem Injectable Product)
Drug: Diltiazem Injectable Product
Diltiazem Continuous Infusion Titrated

Primary Outcome Measures :
  1. Heart Rate Control [ Time Frame: 2 hrs ]
    Number of participant achieving heart rate control (defined as: HR <110 beats/min or conversion to sinus rhythm) at 2 hours after medication administration between oral immediate release and intravenous continuous infusion diltiazem

Secondary Outcome Measures :
  1. Adverse Event Rate [ Time Frame: 4 hrs ]
    Number of participants with heart rate or blood pressure adverse events: Heart rate < 60 beats/min, or systolic blood pressure <90 mmHg requiring intervention (intravenous fluid bolus, vasopressors, medication discontinuation)

Other Outcome Measures:
  1. Participant Specific Variables Associated With Heart Rate Control in Each Treatment Arm [ Time Frame: 4 hrs ]
    These variables include: Age, sex, race, weight, history of atrial fibrillation or flutter, history of hypertension, history of congestive heart failure, prior medication therapy, mean initial HR, duration of atrial fibrillation or flutter episode (<48 hrs or >48 hrs), mean initial diltiazem dose (mg/kg)

Information from the National Library of Medicine

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Ages Eligible for Study:   18 Years and older   (Adult, Older Adult)
Sexes Eligible for Study:   All
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   No

Inclusion Criteria:

  • >/= 18 years old
  • Atrial fibrillation or flutter on electrocardiogram
  • Heart rate >110 beats/min
  • Systolic blood pressure >/= 90 mmHg

Exclusion Criteria:

  • Limited English proficiency (LEP)
  • Pregnant
  • Prisoners
  • Wolff Parkinson White syndrome
  • Administration of electrical or chemical cardioversion before screening
  • Administration of other antiarrhythmics for acute heart rate control (excluding adenosine)
  • History of allergy or idiosyncratic reaction to diltiazem
  • Unable to take oral medications
  • Heart rate <60 beats/min

Information from the National Library of Medicine

To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contact information provided by the sponsor.

Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier (NCT number): NCT03472495

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United States, Virginia
Virginia Commonwealth University
Richmond, Virginia, United States, 23298
Sponsors and Collaborators
Virginia Commonwealth University
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Principal Investigator: Tammy T Nguyen, PharmD, BCPS Virginia Commonwealth University
  Study Documents (Full-Text)

Documents provided by Virginia Commonwealth University:
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Responsible Party: Virginia Commonwealth University
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03472495    
Other Study ID Numbers: HM20009559
First Posted: March 21, 2018    Key Record Dates
Results First Posted: March 1, 2023
Last Update Posted: March 1, 2023
Last Verified: February 2023
Individual Participant Data (IPD) Sharing Statement:
Plan to Share IPD: No

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Studies a U.S. FDA-regulated Drug Product: Yes
Studies a U.S. FDA-regulated Device Product: No
Keywords provided by Virginia Commonwealth University:
Atrial Fibrillation
Atrial Flutter
Emergency Medicine
Additional relevant MeSH terms:
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Atrial Fibrillation
Arrhythmias, Cardiac
Heart Diseases
Cardiovascular Diseases
Pathologic Processes
Antihypertensive Agents
Calcium Channel Blockers
Membrane Transport Modulators
Molecular Mechanisms of Pharmacological Action
Calcium-Regulating Hormones and Agents
Physiological Effects of Drugs
Vasodilator Agents