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Controlled Human Malaria Infection Model for Evaluation of Transmission-blocking Interventions - Study 2 (CHMI-trans2)

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ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03454048
Recruitment Status : Recruiting
First Posted : March 5, 2018
Last Update Posted : March 29, 2018
Sponsor:
Collaborators:
The PATH Malaria Vaccine Initiative (MVI)
QIMR Berghofer Medical Research Institute
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
Robert Sauerwein, Radboud University

Brief Summary:
This is a single-center, open label study. The primary aim of this project is to develop a controlled human malaria infection transmission model ("CHMI-trans") or "challenge model" to evaluate the capacity of vaccines, biologics (monoclonal antibodies, or mAbs), and drugs to block malaria parasite transmission by assessing infectiousness of Plasmodium falciparum (Pf) gametocyte carriers for Anopheles mosquitoes.

Condition or disease Intervention/treatment Phase
Malaria,Falciparum Gametocytes Controlled Human Malaria Infection Transmission Drug: Piperaquine (low dose) Drug: Piperaquine (high dose) Drug: Sulfadoxine pyrimethamine Drug: Atovaquone Proguanil Other: malaria challenge infection, P. falciparum 3D7 Other: Blood stage malaria challenge infection, P. falciparum 3D7 Not Applicable

Detailed Description:

A total of 24 volunteers, in two cohorts (n=12), will be randomly assigned to two groups per cohort (n=6). Cohort A will be subjected to a standard controlled human malaria infection (CHMI) delivered by five Pf-infected mosquitoes (groups 1 and 2). Cohort B will be subjected to a standard blood stage challenge with ~2,800 Pf-infected erythrocytes by intravenous injection (groups 3 and 4).

Treatment is subsequently initiated to induce gametocytemia (treatment 1, T1) and to clear pathogenic asexual parasites whilst leaving gametocytes unaffected (treatment 2 and 3, T2 and T3). At the end of the study, treatment of all parasite stages is provided following national treatment guidelines (end treatment, ET).

Once malaria infections are detected by 18S qPCR positive (sporozoite challenge) or on day 8 (blood stage challenge), all volunteers will be treated with a single oral subcurative low-dose of piperaquine (LD-PIP, 480 mg, T1). Using blood samples taken twice daily, the initial clearance of parasitemia will be carefully monitored. After T1, volunteers will receive a second treatment (T2, LD-PIP2, 480mg) if a recrudescence of asexual parasitemia occurs before day 21 post challenge infection. On day 21 or when a recrudescence occurs after T2, volunteers in group 1 and 3 (LD-PIP/LD-PIP2/PIP) will be curatively treated with piperaquine (960mg) and group 2 and 4 (LD-PIP/LD-PIP2/SP) with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (1000mg/50mg). These treatment regimens cure asexual parasitemia while leaving immature and mature gametocytes unaffected. To ensure the radical clearance of all parasite stages, all volunteers will receive a final treatment (ET) according to national guidelines with atovaquone/proguanil (Malarone®) on day 36. Daily blood samples will allow detailed quantification of gametocytes, gametocyte sex ratio and ex vivo assessments of gametocyte fitness. Additionally, blood samples will be obtained for Direct Membrane Feeding Assay (DMFA) and volunteers will be subjected to Direct Skin Feeding Assays (DFA). These assays will provide evidence on the infectivity of volunteers.


Study Type : Interventional  (Clinical Trial)
Estimated Enrollment : 24 participants
Allocation: Randomized
Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
Masking: None (Open Label)
Primary Purpose: Other
Official Title: Controlled Human Malaria Infection Study to Assess Gametocytemia and Mosquito Transmissibility in Participants Challenged With Plasmodium Falciparum by Sporozoite or Blood Stage Challenge to Establish a Model for the Evaluation of Transmission-blocking Interventions
Estimated Study Start Date : May 7, 2018
Estimated Primary Completion Date : November 1, 2018
Estimated Study Completion Date : December 1, 2018

Resource links provided by the National Library of Medicine

MedlinePlus related topics: Malaria
U.S. FDA Resources

Arm Intervention/treatment
Experimental: Group 1 (Cohort A) LD-PIP/LD-PIP2/PIP
Cohort A will be subjected to a standard controlled human malaria infection (CHMI) delivered by five Pf-infected mosquitoes. All volunteers will be treated with a single oral subcurative low-dose of piperaquine (LD-PIP, 480 mg, T1). Volunteers will receive a second treatment (T2, LD-PIP2, 480mg) if a recrudescence of asexual parasitemia occurs before day 21 post challenge infection. Volunteers in group 1 (LD-PIP/LD-PIP2/PIP) will be curatively treated with piperaquine (960mg).
Drug: Piperaquine (low dose)
subcurative regimen (480 mg)
Other Name: piperaquine phosphate
Drug: Piperaquine (high dose)
Curative regimen (960mg)
Other Name: piperaquine phosphate
Drug: Atovaquone Proguanil
Curative regimen (1000/400 mg, for 3 days)
Other Name: Malarone
Other: malaria challenge infection, P. falciparum 3D7
malaria challenge infection by P. falciparum 3D7-infected mosquito bites
Other Name: 3D7 Plasmodium falciparum
Experimental: Group 2 (Cohort A) LD-PIP/LD-PIP2/SP
Cohort A will be subjected to a standard controlled human malaria infection (CHMI) delivered by five Pf-infected mosquitoes. All volunteers will be treated with a single oral subcurative low-dose of piperaquine (LD-PIP, 480 mg, T1). Volunteers will receive a second treatment (T2, LD-PIP2, 480mg) if a recrudescence of asexual parasitemia occurs before day 21 post challenge infection. Volunteers in group 2(LD-PIP/LD-PIP2/SP) will be curatively treated with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (1000mg/50mg).
Drug: Piperaquine (low dose)
subcurative regimen (480 mg)
Other Name: piperaquine phosphate
Drug: Sulfadoxine pyrimethamine
Curative regimen (1000mg/50mg)
Other Name: Fansidar
Drug: Atovaquone Proguanil
Curative regimen (1000/400 mg, for 3 days)
Other Name: Malarone
Other: malaria challenge infection, P. falciparum 3D7
malaria challenge infection by P. falciparum 3D7-infected mosquito bites
Other Name: 3D7 Plasmodium falciparum
Experimental: Group 3 (Cohort B) LD-PIP/LD-PIP2/PIP
Cohort B will be subjected to a standard blood stage challenge with ~2,800 Pf-infected erythrocytes by intravenous injection. All volunteers will be treated with a single oral subcurative low-dose of piperaquine (LD-PIP, 480 mg, T1). Volunteers will receive a second treatment (T2, LD-PIP2, 480mg) if a recrudescence of asexual parasitemia occurs before day 21 post challenge infection. Volunteers in group 3 (LD-PIP/LD-PIP2/PIP) will be curatively treated with piperaquine (960mg)
Drug: Piperaquine (low dose)
subcurative regimen (480 mg)
Other Name: piperaquine phosphate
Drug: Piperaquine (high dose)
Curative regimen (960mg)
Other Name: piperaquine phosphate
Drug: Atovaquone Proguanil
Curative regimen (1000/400 mg, for 3 days)
Other Name: Malarone
Other: Blood stage malaria challenge infection, P. falciparum 3D7
P. falciparum 3D7-infected human erythrocytes administered intravenously for the purpose controlled human malaria infection.
Other Name: P. falciparum 3D7-infected human erythrocytes
Experimental: Group 4 (Cohort B) LD-PIP/LD-PIP2/SP
Cohort B will be subjected to a standard blood stage challenge with ~2,800 Pf-infected erythrocytes by intravenous injection. All volunteers will be treated with a single oral subcurative low-dose of piperaquine (LD-PIP, 480 mg, T1). Volunteers will receive a second treatment (T2, LD-PIP2, 480mg) if a recrudescence of asexual parasitemia occurs before day 21 post challenge infection. Volunteers in group 4 (LD-PIP/LD-PIP2/SP) will be curatively treated with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (1000mg/50mg).
Drug: Piperaquine (low dose)
subcurative regimen (480 mg)
Other Name: piperaquine phosphate
Drug: Sulfadoxine pyrimethamine
Curative regimen (1000mg/50mg)
Other Name: Fansidar
Drug: Atovaquone Proguanil
Curative regimen (1000/400 mg, for 3 days)
Other Name: Malarone
Other: Blood stage malaria challenge infection, P. falciparum 3D7
P. falciparum 3D7-infected human erythrocytes administered intravenously for the purpose controlled human malaria infection.
Other Name: P. falciparum 3D7-infected human erythrocytes



Primary Outcome Measures :
  1. Frequency of adverse events in the CHMI-trans model [ Time Frame: up to day 51 after challenge infection ]
    Frequency of adverse events in the CHMI-trans model.

  2. Gametocyte prevalence [ Time Frame: up to day 51 after challenge infection ]
    Prevalence of gametocytes and gametocyte infectiousness for Anopheles mosquitoes. through mosquito membrane feeding assay (Direct Membrane Feeding Assay, DMFA)

  3. Magnitude of adverse events in the CHMI-trans model [ Time Frame: up to day 51 after challenge infection ]
    Magnitude of adverse events in the CHMI-trans model


Secondary Outcome Measures :
  1. Peak density gametocytes [ Time Frame: up to day 51 after challenge infection ]
    Peak density and time-point of peak density of gametocytes by qRT-PCR.

  2. AUC gametocytes [ Time Frame: up to day 51 after challenge infection ]
    The area under the curve of gametocyte density versus time.

  3. Gametocyte commitment [ Time Frame: up to day 51 after challenge infection ]
    Assessment of the dynamics of gametocyte commitment.

  4. Gametocyte maturation [ Time Frame: up to day 51 after challenge infection ]
    Assessment of the dynamics of gametocyte maturation.

  5. Gametocyte sex-ratio [ Time Frame: up to day 51 after challenge infection ]
    Assessment of the dynamics of gametocyte sex-ratio.

  6. Gametocyte infectiousness through DFA [ Time Frame: up to day 51 after challenge infection ]
    Prevalence of gametocyte infectiousness for Anopheles mosquitoes through Direct Feeding Assays (Direct Skin Feeding Assay, DFA).



Information from the National Library of Medicine

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Ages Eligible for Study:   18 Years to 35 Years   (Adult)
Sexes Eligible for Study:   All
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   Yes
Criteria

Inclusion Criteria:

In order to be eligible to participate in this study, a subject must meet all of the following criteria:

  1. Subject is aged ≥ 18 and ≤ 35 years and in good health.
  2. Subject has adequate understanding of the procedures of the study and is able and willing (in the investigator's opinion) to comply with all study requirements.
  3. Subject is willing to complete an informed consent questionnaire and is able to answer all questions correctly.
  4. Subject is able to communicate well with the investigator and is available to attend all study visits, lives in proximity to the trial centre (<10 km) or (if >10km) is willing to stay in a hotel close to the trial centre during part of the study (from day 4 (blood stage challenge) 5 (sporozoite challenge) post-infection until T1+4 provided that the subject has had 2 consecutive negative 18S qPCR tests (at least 24 hours apart) following T1 treatment; or until day T3+3).
  5. The subject will remain within the Netherlands during the challenge period, will not travel to a malaria-endemic area during the study period, and is reachable (24/7) by mobile telephone throughout the entire study period.
  6. Subject agrees to their general practitioner being informed and contacted about their participation in the study and agrees to sign a form to request the release by their General Practitioner (GP), and medical specialist when necessary, to the investigator(s), of any relevant medical information concerning possible contra-indications for participation in the study.
  7. The subject agrees to refrain from blood donation to Sanquin or for other purposes throughout the study period and for a defined period thereafter according to current Sanquin guidelines.
  8. For female subjects: subject agrees to use continuous adequate contraception** and not to breastfeed for the duration of study.
  9. Subject agrees to refrain from intensive physical exercise (disproportionate to the subject's usual daily activity or exercise routine) during the malaria challenge period until day 38 after infection.
  10. Subject agrees to avoid additional triggers that may cause elevations in liver enzymes including alcohol from baseline up to 1 week post treatment (T3).
  11. Subject has signed written informed consent to participate in the trial. (*Acceptable forms of contraception include: established use of oral, injected or implanted hormonal contraceptives; intrauterine device or intrauterine system; barrier methods (condoms or diaphragm with additional spermicide); male partner's sterilisation (with appropriate post-vasectomy documentation of absence of sperm in the ejaculate); true abstinence when this is in line with the preferred and usual lifestyle of the subject; Periodic abstinence (e.g., calendar, ovulation, symptothermal, post-ovulation methods) and withdrawal are not acceptable methods of contraception.)

Exclusion Criteria:

A potential subject who meets any of the following criteria will be excluded from participation in this study:

  1. Any history, or evidence at screening, of clinically significant symptoms, physical signs or abnormal laboratory values suggestive of systemic conditions, such as cardiovascular, pulmonary, renal, hepatic, neurological, dermatological, endocrine, malignant, haematological, infectious, immunodeficient, psychiatric and other disorders, which could compromise the health of the volunteer during the study or interfere with the interpretation of the study results. These include, but are not limited to, any of the following.

    1.1. Body weight <50 kg or Body Mass Index (BMI) <18 or >30 kg/m2 at screening. 1.2. A heightened risk of cardiovascular disease, as determined by: an estimated ten year risk of fatal cardiovascular disease of ≥5% at screening, as determined by the Systematic Coronary Risk Evaluation (SCORE); history, or evidence at screening, of clinically significant arrhythmia's, prolonged QT-interval or other clinically relevant ECG abnormalities; or a positive family history of cardiac events in 1st or 2nd degree relatives <50 years old.

    1.3. A medical history of functional asplenia, sickle cell trait/disease, thalassaemia trait/disease or G6PD-deficiency.

    1.4. History of epilepsy in the period of five years prior to study onset, even if no longer on medication.

    1.5. Screening tests positive for Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), active Hepatitis B Virus (HBV), Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) 1.6. Chronic use of i) immunosuppressive drugs, ii) antibiotics, iii) or other immune modifying drugs within three months prior to study onset (inhaled and topical corticosteroids and oral anti-histamines exempted) or expected use of such during the study period.

    1.7. Any recent or current systemic therapy with an antibiotic or drug with potential anti-malarial activity (chloroquine, doxycycline, tetracycline, piperaquine, benzodiazepine, flunarizine, fluoxetine, tetracycline, azithromycin, clindamycin, erythromycin, hydroxychloroquine, etc.) (allowable timeframe for use at the Investigator's discretion).

    1.8. History of malignancy of any organ system (other than localized basal cell carcinoma of the skin), treated or untreated, within the past 5 years.

    1.9. Any history of treatment for severe psychiatric disease by a psychiatrist in the past year.

    1.10. History of drug or alcohol abuse interfering with normal social function in the period of one year prior to study onset, positive urine toxicology test for cocaine or amphetamines at screening or at inclusion, or positive urine toxicology test for cannabis at inclusion.

  2. For female subjects: positive urine pregnancy test at screening and/or at the baseline visit.
  3. Abnormal ALT/AST values on baseline
  4. Any history of malaria, positive serology for P. falciparum, or previous participation in any malaria (vaccine) study.
  5. Known hypersensitivity to or contra-indications (including co-medication) for use of sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine, piperaquine, chloroquine, Malarone®, artemether-lumefantrine, primaquine or history of severe (allergic) reactions to mosquito bites.
  6. Participation in any other clinical study in the 30 days prior to the start of the study or during the study period.
  7. Being an employee or student of the department of Medical Microbiology of the Radboudumc or the department of Internal Medicine.
  8. Any other condition or situation that would, in the opinion of the investigator, place the subject at an unacceptable risk of injury or render the subject unable to meet the requirements of the protocol.
  9. For cohort B (blood stage challenge): Received a blood transfusion in the past.
  10. For cohort B (blood stage challenge): Women of childbearing potential with a screening test positive for erythrocyte anti-Rh(c) and/or anti-Rh(e) antibodies.

Information from the National Library of Medicine

To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contact information provided by the sponsor.

Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier (NCT number): NCT03454048


Locations
Netherlands
Radboud university medical center Recruiting
Nijmegen, Gelderland, Netherlands, 6525 GA
Contact: Isaie Reuling    024 361 9515 ext +31    isaie.reuling@radboudumc.nl   
Sponsors and Collaborators
Radboud University
The PATH Malaria Vaccine Initiative (MVI)
QIMR Berghofer Medical Research Institute

Responsible Party: Robert Sauerwein, Prof. dr., Radboud University
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03454048     History of Changes
Other Study ID Numbers: CHMI-trans2
First Posted: March 5, 2018    Key Record Dates
Last Update Posted: March 29, 2018
Last Verified: March 2018

Studies a U.S. FDA-regulated Drug Product: No
Studies a U.S. FDA-regulated Device Product: No

Additional relevant MeSH terms:
Infection
Communicable Diseases
Malaria
Malaria, Falciparum
Protozoan Infections
Parasitic Diseases
Pyrimethamine
Piperaquine
Sulfadoxine
Fanasil, pyrimethamine drug combination
Atovaquone
Proguanil
Atovaquone, proguanil drug combination
Antimalarials
Antiprotozoal Agents
Antiparasitic Agents
Anti-Infective Agents
Folic Acid Antagonists
Enzyme Inhibitors
Molecular Mechanisms of Pharmacological Action
Anti-Infective Agents, Urinary
Renal Agents
Antimetabolites