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Early Administration of Edoxaban After Acute Ischemic Stroke in Patients With Non-valvular Atrial Fibrillation

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ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03433235
Recruitment Status : Recruiting
First Posted : February 14, 2018
Last Update Posted : June 20, 2018
Sponsor:
Collaborators:
Kyung Hee University Hospital
Soon Chun Hyang University
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
Jong Sung Kim, Asan Medical Center

Brief Summary:
The investigators hypothesize that earlier initiation of edoxaban in AF-related stroke patients may significantly reduce the early recurrence of ischemic stroke, compared with conventional strategy of anticoagulation following 1-3-6-12 rule. To expedite the verification of the hypothesis, the investigators are planning to use diffusion weighted imaging (DWI), which has been reported to be a surrogate to predict both short-term and long-term prognosis after stroke, to detect the recurrent ischemic events. Because data on the early anticoagulation in patients with AF-related stroke are limited, the investigators decided to perform a pilot study before establishing an appropriate clinical trial protocol. This study will help estimate the efficacy and safety of early administration of edoxaban, and determine the sample size of a following clinical trial. To ensure the safety in this pilot exploration, the investigators will not include patients with severe ischemic strokes, who are often prone to experience hemorrhagic transformation in the acute post-stroke period.

Condition or disease Intervention/treatment Phase
Acute Ischemic Stroke Drug: Edoxaban Phase 2

Detailed Description:

In patients with ischemic stroke and atrial fibrillation (AF), the risk of stroke recurrence is high, especially shortly after the event. Because AF-related strokes are usually larger in their size and more fatal than other types of ischemic stroke, it is important to prevent recurrent cardioembolic strokes with adequate secondary prevention. However, as damaged brain tissues and vessels are prone to bleed, early anticoagulation may be harmful.

For this reason, urgent anticoagulation has not been recommended in stroke patients with AF, and the appropriate time point to start anticoagulation remains controversial. Guideline recommends 1-3-6-12 rule* in initiating anticoagulation. However, this rule is not derived from a scientifically proven study results. Furthermore, although the risk of intracranial hemorrhage may be reduced to some extent with this strategy, the risk of early recurrence of embolic stroke may outweigh the potential benefit of delayed anticoagulation.

Edoxaban, which selectively blocks factor Xa, has a lower risk of hemorrhage, but with a similar efficacy in preventing ischemic events in patients with AF compared with warfarin. Even compared with the other factor Xa inhibitors, it is considered to have a lower risk of bleeding. Therefore, edoxaban may be safely given in the early phase in patients with stroke associated with AF, while not significantly increasing the risk of hemorrhages.


Study Type : Interventional  (Clinical Trial)
Estimated Enrollment : 68 participants
Allocation: Randomized
Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
Masking: None (Open Label)
Primary Purpose: Prevention
Official Title: Early Administration of Edoxaban After Acute Ischemic Stroke in Patients With Non-valvular Atrial Fibrillation: a Randomized, Multi-center, Parallel-group Trial (PILOT)
Actual Study Start Date : June 19, 2018
Estimated Primary Completion Date : May 31, 2019
Estimated Study Completion Date : May 31, 2019

Resource links provided by the National Library of Medicine

Drug Information available for: Edoxaban

Arm Intervention/treatment
Experimental: Early edoxaban initiation group
Low dose of edoxaban (15 or 30 mg) once daily from Day 2, then standard dose of edoxaban (30 or 60 mg) according to '3-6' rule.
Drug: Edoxaban

1-3-6-12 rule*

Anticoagulation in patients with acute ischemic stroke and atrial fibrillation can be initiated from the following days after stroke event.

After 1 day: transient ischemic attacks

After 3 days: mild ischemic strokes (NIHSS <8)

After 6 days: moderate ischemic strokes (NIHSS 8−16)

After 12 days: severe ischemic strokes (NIHSS >16)

- NIHSS: National Institute of Health Stroke Scales

Other Name: Lixiana

Active Comparator: Conventional edoxaban initiation group
No antithrombotic treatment† -- then standard dose of edoxaban (30 or 60 mg) according to '3-6' rule.
Drug: Edoxaban

1-3-6-12 rule*

Anticoagulation in patients with acute ischemic stroke and atrial fibrillation can be initiated from the following days after stroke event.

After 1 day: transient ischemic attacks

After 3 days: mild ischemic strokes (NIHSS <8)

After 6 days: moderate ischemic strokes (NIHSS 8−16)

After 12 days: severe ischemic strokes (NIHSS >16)

- NIHSS: National Institute of Health Stroke Scales

Other Name: Lixiana




Primary Outcome Measures :
  1. recurrent ischemic strokes [ Time Frame: at Day 10−14 ]
    The incidence rate of symptomatic or asymptomatic recurrent ischemic strokes on DWI


Secondary Outcome Measures :
  1. Recurrent ischemic lesions [ Time Frame: until Day 10−14 ]

    The incidence rate of recurrent ischemic lesions with significant clinical worsening (≥NIHSS 4)

    The National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale, or NIH Stroke Scale (NIHSS) is a tool used by healthcare providers to objectively quantify the impairment caused by a stroke. The NIHSS is composed of 11 items, each of which scores a specific ability between a 0 and 4. For each item, a score of 0 typically indicates normal function in that specific ability, while a higher score is indicative of some level of impairment. The individual scores from each item are summed in order to calculate a patient's total NIHSS score. The maximum possible score is 42, with the minimum score being a 0.


  2. Clinical neurological deterioration [ Time Frame: until Day 10−14 ]

    The rate of clinical neurological deterioration, rapid worsening of an existing focal neurological deficit (≥ 24 hours) that is clinically judged by the investigator not to be attributable to non-ischemic etiology (≥NIHSS 2)

    The National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale, or NIH Stroke Scale (NIHSS) is a tool used by healthcare providers to objectively quantify the impairment caused by a stroke. The NIHSS is composed of 11 items, each of which scores a specific ability between a 0 and 4. For each item, a score of 0 typically indicates normal function in that specific ability, while a higher score is indicative of some level of impairment. The individual scores from each item are summed in order to calculate a patient's total NIHSS score. The maximum possible score is 42, with the minimum score being a 0.


  3. recanalization (full or partial) of occluded vessels [ Time Frame: at Day 10−14 ]
    The rate of recanalization (full or partial) of occluded vessels on follow-up intracranial TOF

  4. intracranial hemorrhages [ Time Frame: at Day 10−14 ]
    The incidence rate of intracranial hemorrhages on follow-up gradient echo (GRE)

  5. Functional status [ Time Frame: at 3 months ]

    Functional status (modified Rankin Scale [mRS])

    The modified Rankin Scale (mRS) is a commonly used scale for measuring the degree of disability or dependence in the daily activities of people who have suffered a stroke or other causes of neurological disability.

    The scale runs from 0-6, running from perfect health without symptoms to death. 0 - No symptoms.

    1. - No significant disability. Able to carry out all usual activities, despite some symptoms.
    2. - Slight disability. Able to look after own affairs without assistance, but unable to carry out all previous activities.
    3. - Moderate disability. Requires some help, but able to walk unassisted.
    4. - Moderately severe disability. Unable to attend to own bodily needs without assistance, and unable to walk unassisted.
    5. - Severe disability. Requires constant nursing care and attention, bedridden, incontinent.
    6. - Dead.



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Ages Eligible for Study:   20 Years and older   (Adult, Older Adult)
Sexes Eligible for Study:   All
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   No
Criteria

Inclusion Criteria:

  1. Acute ischemic strokes (< 48 h from symptom onset) showing ischemic lesions confirmed by DWI, which are attributable to atrial fibrillation
  2. Evidence of persistent or paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (already known or newly detected)
  3. Age ≥20 y
  4. Patients who provided informed consent

Exclusion Criteria:

  1. Transient ischemic attack with no DWI lesions or severe ischemic strokes (NIHSS >16)
  2. Significant hemorrhagic transformation (parenchymal hematoma type I or type II by the ECASS definition or those accompanying with worsening of an existing focal neurological deficit [NIHSS ≥4])10 on baseline MRI
  3. Mechanical heart valve, rheumatic heart valve disease, or any other conditions requiring strong anticoagulation such as vitamin K antagonist or heparin treatment
  4. Concomitant significant atherosclerotic stenosis (>50%) in the proximal arteries, which are possibly responsible for stroke lesions
  5. Recent (<3 months) history of cerebral bleeding
  6. Active internal bleeding or clinically significant bleeding
  7. Severe anemia (Hb <10 g/dL) or bleeding diathesis (platelet count <100,000/uL or PT-INR >1.7)
  8. Uncontrolled hypertension: persistent systolic pressure >180 mmHg or diastolic pressure >110 mmHg
  9. Active, advanced medical diseases (liver, kidney, pulmonary disease or cancer) with a life expectancy <6 months
  10. Renal impairment (CrCl <30 mL/min) or undergoing Hemodialysis (or Peritoneal Dialysis)
  11. Treatment with a strong inducer of p-glycoprotein (carbamazepine, dexamethasone, doxorubicin, nefazodone, pentobarbital, phenobarbital, prazocin, rifampin, St.John's wort, tenofovir, tipranavir, trazodone, vinblastine)
  12. Contraindication to MRI
  13. Pregnancy, breast-feeding or having a plan to be pregnant
  14. Participation in the other investigational drug trials simultaneously or within 3 months before the first administration of the study medication. Observational studies without an intervention (eg study medication) are allowed.
  15. Any clinical conditions (eg abnormal lab tests) unsuitable for undergoing clinical trials at the discretion of the clinical investigators
  16. Known hypersensitivity to the study drug (edoxaban), its ingredients, or formulation excipients

Information from the National Library of Medicine

To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contact information provided by the sponsor.

Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier (NCT number): NCT03433235


Contacts
Contact: Jong Sung Kim, M.D.,Ph D. 82-2-3010-3442 jongskim@amc.seoul.kr

Locations
Korea, Republic of
Asan Medical Center Recruiting
Seoul, Korea, Republic of
Contact: Jong Sung Kim, M.D.,Ph D.         
Sponsors and Collaborators
Jong Sung Kim
Kyung Hee University Hospital
Soon Chun Hyang University
Investigators
Principal Investigator: Jong Sung Kim, M.D.,Ph D. Asan Medical Center

Publications:

Responsible Party: Jong Sung Kim, Professor, Asan Medical Center
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03433235     History of Changes
Other Study ID Numbers: AMC 2018-0033
First Posted: February 14, 2018    Key Record Dates
Last Update Posted: June 20, 2018
Last Verified: June 2018
Individual Participant Data (IPD) Sharing Statement:
Plan to Share IPD: No

Studies a U.S. FDA-regulated Drug Product: No
Studies a U.S. FDA-regulated Device Product: No

Additional relevant MeSH terms:
Cerebrovascular Disorders
Brain Diseases
Central Nervous System Diseases
Nervous System Diseases
Vascular Diseases
Cardiovascular Diseases
Arrhythmias, Cardiac
Heart Diseases
Stroke
Atrial Fibrillation
Ischemia
Cerebral Infarction
Pathologic Processes
Brain Infarction
Brain Ischemia
Edoxaban
Factor Xa Inhibitors
Antithrombins
Serine Proteinase Inhibitors
Protease Inhibitors
Enzyme Inhibitors
Molecular Mechanisms of Pharmacological Action
Anticoagulants