The Effect of Hypnosis on Blood Concentrations of Endocannabinoids
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|ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03407937|
Recruitment Status : Completed
First Posted : January 23, 2018
Last Update Posted : October 31, 2018
|Condition or disease||Intervention/treatment||Phase|
|Hypnosis Endocannabinoids Analgesia||Behavioral: Hypnosis Behavioral: Meditation Other: Conditioned pain modulation Drug: Placebo Oral Tablet||Not Applicable|
|Study Type :||Interventional (Clinical Trial)|
|Actual Enrollment :||33 participants|
|Intervention Model:||Single Group Assignment|
|Intervention Model Description:||Repeated measures on a single group of participants|
|Masking:||None (Open Label)|
|Primary Purpose:||Basic Science|
|Official Title:||The Role of the Endocannabinoids During the Analgesia Caused by Hypnosis and Meditation|
|Actual Study Start Date :||November 14, 2017|
|Actual Primary Completion Date :||September 1, 2018|
|Actual Study Completion Date :||September 1, 2018|
Receiving the conditioned pain modulation intervention during the first session and receiving the placebo and the hypnosis or meditation interventions during the second session.
Hypnosis is a therapeutic method in which the experimenter or therapist make suggestions to individuals after they have undergone a hypnotic induction. This induction is a relaxation procedure designed to focus one's mind and to induce a hypnotic trance in individuals. The hypnotic trance consists in a state of deep absorption, concentration and altered sensations, cognitions and behaviors. Hypnosis can be used for pain control in experimental and clinical settings. In this study, standardized hypnosis including a relaxation technique for the hypnotic induction and a direct hypnotic analgesia technique for the hypnotic suggestions will be used.
Other Name: Hypnotic suggestions
Meditation is a relaxation method that can be used to reduce pain symptoms and pain perception in clinical and experimental situations. In this study, a standardized mindfulness meditation session of 20 minutes will be used to induce a relaxation and an analgesic effect in participants. Mindfulness meditation is a practice intended to increase mindfulness and awareness of the self and the environment by techniques of controlled breathing, focus on neutral elements, and observation of one's thoughts and emotions without judgment.
Other Name: Mindfulness meditation
Other: Conditioned pain modulation
Conditioned pain modulation (CPM) is a pain inhibition mechanism that is used to assess endogenous analgesia capacity. The method to evaluate CPM in healthy individuals and patients with pain includes both a conditioning stimulus (a noxious stimulus that induces CPM) and a test stimulus (a noxious stimulus used to evaluate the analgesic response to the conditioning stimulus). In this study, the conditioning stimulus will be a cold pressor test (two-minutes immersion of one hand in ice water) and the test stimulus will be a two-minutes thermal noxious stimulus delivered by a contact thermode.
Drug: Placebo Oral Tablet
A placebo is a substance (or treatment) with no active therapeutic effect. The placebo effect (analgesia) in this study will be induced by the oral administration of one inert tablet (sugar pill). The tablet is a round, hard, white, flat-faced tablet with no active ingredient. The participant is told that the tablet is an active drug, more specifically an analgesic or a painkiller, that is used to achieve analgesia, relief from pain. This placebo condition is used to induce a diffuse analgesic effect in participants.
- Change from baseline concentration of endocannabinoids at the end of the intervention [ Time Frame: Immediately before and after each intervention ]Concentrations (ng/ml) of endocannabinoids (anandamide, 2-arachidonylglycerol, N-palmitoyl-ethanolamine, N-oleoylethanolamide) will be measured in the plasma of participants
- Change from baseline concentrations of opioids at the end of the intervention [ Time Frame: Immediately before and after each intervention ]Concentrations (ng/ml) of opioids (beta-endorphins, met/leu-enkephalins, and dynorphins) will be measured in the plasma of participants
- Change from baseline concentrations of norepinephrine at the end of the intervention [ Time Frame: Immediately before and after each intervention ]Concentrations (ng/ml) of norepinephrine will be measured in the plasma of participants
- Quantitative aspect of pain [ Time Frame: Immediately before and after each intervention ]Quantitative aspect of pain, or pain intensity, will be measured and averaged for the entire duration (two minutes) of the pain tests on a Computerized Visual Analog Scale (CoVAS). This CoVAS scale ranges from 0% to 100%. Higher values on this scale represent more intense pain.
- Measure of the autonomic nervous system [ Time Frame: Immediately before, during and immediately after each intervention ]This outcome will be measured by heart rate variability
- DNA in salivary sample [ Time Frame: Immediately after all the interventions have been completed, which will be during the second session after the pill has been ingested ]DNA polymorphisms potentially associated with analgesia, endocannabinoids, opioids or norepinephrine
- Anxiety [ Time Frame: Immediately before each intervention ]This outcome will be measured on the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (form Y)
- Mood [ Time Frame: Immediately after the consent form has been signed, before any intervention is performed ]This outcome will be measured by the Beck Depression Inventory
- Pain catastrophizing [ Time Frame: Immediately after the consent form has been signed, before any intervention is performed ]This outcome will be measured by the Pain Catastrophizing Scale (PCS). The PCS inquire participants to reflect on past painful experiences, and to indicate the degree to which they experienced each of 13 thoughts or feelings when experiencing pain. Each item of the PCS is scored on a 5-point scale where 0 = not at all and 4 = all the time. PCS yields three subscale scores assessing rumination, magnification and helplessness. The PCS total score is computed by summing responses to all 13 items. The PCS yields a total score ranging from 0 to 52. Higher values on this scale represent a greater tendency of the subject to perceive pain negatively and to foresee the consequences of pain in a more catastrophic way.
- Hypnotic susceptibility [ Time Frame: Before the hypnosis intervention is performed, during the first session (immediately after the conditioned pain modulation intervention is completed) ]This outcome will be measured by the Stanford Hypnotic Susceptibility Scale: Form A (SHSS:A). This scale was developed to measure susceptibility to hypnosis with items increasing in difficulty. Following a standardized hypnotic induction, the hypnotized individual is given 12 suggestions. Each suggestion is scored on 1 (0 if failed and 1 if passed). SHSS:A yields a total score between 0 and 12. The higher the total score (on 12), the more responsive to hypnosis the subject is.
- Hypnotic depth [ Time Frame: Immediately after each hypnotic suggestions that will given during the Stanford Hypnotic Susceptibility Scale: Form A and during the hypnosis intervention ]This outcome will be measured by the Long Stanford Scale. Each item (i.e., hypnotic suggestion) is scored on 10 where 0 = wide awake, 1 = borderline, 2 = light, 5 = deep, 10 = very deep. Higher scores suggest greater hypnotic depth for the item (hypnotic suggestion).
To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contact information provided by the sponsor.
Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier (NCT number): NCT03407937
|CRCHUS: Centre de recherche du centre hospitalier universitaire de Sherbrooke|
|Sherbrooke, Quebec, Canada, J1H5N4|
|Principal Investigator:||Serge Marchand, Ph.D.||Université de Sherbrooke|
|Principal Investigator:||Guillaume Leonard, Ph.D.||Université de Sherbrooke|