We're building a better ClinicalTrials.gov. Check it out and tell us what you think!
ClinicalTrials.gov Menu

Celecoxib, Recombinant Interferon Alfa-2b, and Rintatolimod in Treating Patients With Colorectal Cancer Metastatic to the Liver

The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Read our disclaimer for details.
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03403634
Recruitment Status : Completed
First Posted : January 18, 2018
Results First Posted : March 2, 2022
Last Update Posted : March 2, 2022
National Cancer Institute (NCI)
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
Roswell Park Cancer Institute

Brief Summary:
This early phase IIA trial studies how well celecoxib, recombinant interferon alfa-2b, and rintatolimod work in treating patients with colorectal cancer that as spread to the liver. Celecoxib may stop the growth of tumor cells by blocking some of the enzymes needed for cell growth. Recombinant interferon alfa-2b is a substance that can improve the body's natural response and may interfere with the growth of tumor cells. Rintatolimod may stimulate the immune system. Giving celecoxib, recombinant interferon alfa-2b, and rintatolimod may work better at treating colorectal cancer that has spread to the liver.

Condition or disease Intervention/treatment Phase
Metastatic Carcinoma in the Liver Recurrent Colorectal Carcinoma Stage IV Colorectal Cancer AJCC v7 Stage IVA Colorectal Cancer AJCC v7 Stage IVB Colorectal Cancer AJCC v7 Drug: Celecoxib Other: Laboratory Biomarker Analysis Biological: Recombinant Interferon Alfa-2b Drug: Rintatolimod Phase 2

Detailed Description:


I. To determine the impact of a chemokine-modulatory regimen on the immune microenvironment of colorectal liver metastases, specifically the changes in the ratio between cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) marker (CD8a gene expression) to regulatory T cell (Treg) markers (FoxP3 gene expression).


I. Estimate the objective response rate of a chemokine-modulatory regimen in metastatic colorectal cancer (per Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors [RECIST] 1.1).

II. Examine the safety and tolerability profile of the combination of recombinant interferon alfa-2b (interferon alpha-2b), rintatolimod, and celecoxib when given as chemokine modulation to colorectal cancer patients prior to surgical resection using the Cancer Therapy Evaluation Program (CTEP) National Cancer Institute (NCI) Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE version 4.0).


  • Estimate the median progression free survival of a chemokine-modulatory regimen in metastatic colorectal cancer
  • Estimate overall survival in participants with recurrent and/or metastatic unresectable colorectal cancer who received the chemokine-modulatory regimen
  • Comparison (using RT-PCR, immunofluorescence [IF] and immunohistochemistry [IHC] on serial sections) of the metastatic tissue specimen with regard to total numbers of infiltrating T cells, their CD4/CD8 ratios, frequencies of FoxP3 cells, and the expression of chemokine receptors on CD4+ and CD8+ T cells (CXCR3, CCR5, CCR4, CCR6, and CXCR4)
  • Evaluate the local expression of effector T cells (Teff)-attracting chemokines (CCR5, CXCL9, CXCL10 and CXCL11) and Treg-favoring chemokines (CCL22 and CXCL12) using IF and RT-PCR.


Patients receive celecoxib orally (PO) twice daily (BID), recombinant interferon alfa-2b intravenously (IV) over 20 minutes, and rintatolimod IV QD on days 1, 2,3,8,9,10,15,16 and 17 in the absence of disease progression or unacceptable toxicity.

After completion of study treatment, patients are followed up every 3 months for up to 12 months.

Layout table for study information
Study Type : Interventional  (Clinical Trial)
Actual Enrollment : 19 participants
Allocation: N/A
Intervention Model: Single Group Assignment
Masking: None (Open Label)
Primary Purpose: Treatment
Official Title: Phase 2a Study Evaluating a Chemokine-Modulatory Regimen in Patients With Colorectal Cancer Metastatic to the Liver
Actual Study Start Date : April 19, 2018
Actual Primary Completion Date : December 23, 2020
Actual Study Completion Date : August 29, 2021

Resource links provided by the National Library of Medicine

Arm Intervention/treatment
Experimental: Treatment (celecoxib, interferon alfa-2b, rintatolimod)
Patients receive celecoxib orally PO BID, recombinant interferon alfa-2b IV QD over 20 minutes, and rintatolimod IV QD on days 1, 2, 3, 8, 9, 10, 15, 16 and 17 in the absence of disease progression or unacceptable toxicity.
Drug: Celecoxib
Given PO
Other Names:
  • Benzenesulfonamide, 4-[5-(4-methylphenyl)-3-(trifluoromethyl)-1H-pyrazol-1-yl]-
  • Celebrex
  • SC-58635
  • YM 177

Other: Laboratory Biomarker Analysis
Correlative studies

Biological: Recombinant Interferon Alfa-2b
Given IV
Other Names:
  • Alfatronol
  • Glucoferon
  • Heberon Alfa
  • IFN alpha-2B
  • Interferon alfa 2b
  • Interferon Alfa-2B
  • Interferon Alpha-2b
  • Intron A
  • Sch 30500
  • Urifron
  • Viraferon

Drug: Rintatolimod
Given IV
Other Names:
  • Ampligen
  • Atvogen

Primary Outcome Measures :
  1. Change in Tumor-infiltrating Lymphocytes (TILs) in the Colorectal Cancer Lesions [ Time Frame: Baseline up to 12 months ]

    The TILs will be summarized by time-point (pre-/post-treatment) using the mean, median, standard deviation; and graphically using dot-plots.

    The TIL of interest is CD8a expression, which is reported as the mean fold change from pre-treatment (i.e. post treatment / pre treatment).

Secondary Outcome Measures :
  1. Number of Participants With Indicated Grade Adverse Event [ Time Frame: Up to 12 months ]
    Safety profile will be characterized by type, frequency, severity, timing, seriousness and relationship to study treatment. The highest grade treatment related AE is provided (per Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 4.0).

  2. Objective Response Rate (ORR) Assessed by Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors Version (RECIST) 1.1 [ Time Frame: Up to 12 months ]
    Will be treated as binary data and summarized using frequencies and relative frequencies; with the ORR estimated using a 90% confidence interval obtained using Jeffrey's prior method.

Other Outcome Measures:
  1. Progression Free Survival [ Time Frame: From the start of treatment until disease progression (defined by RECIST 1.1) or last-follow-up, assessed up to 12 months ]
    Will be treated as bivariate time-to-event data and will be summarized using standard Kaplan-Meier methods.

  2. Overall Survival [ Time Frame: From the start of treatment until death due to any cause or last follow-up, assessed up to 12 months ]
    Will be treated as bivariate time-to-event data and will be summarized using standard Kaplan-Meier methods.

Information from the National Library of Medicine

Choosing to participate in a study is an important personal decision. Talk with your doctor and family members or friends about deciding to join a study. To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contacts provided below. For general information, Learn About Clinical Studies.

Layout table for eligibility information
Ages Eligible for Study:   18 Years and older   (Adult, Older Adult)
Sexes Eligible for Study:   All
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   No

Inclusion Criteria:

  • Recurrent and/or metastatic unresectable colorectal cancer with hepatic metastases
  • Hepatic metastases present which are amenable to biopsy
  • Prior treatment with, contra-indication to or refusal of a fluoropyrimidine, irinotecan, oxaliplatin and an anti-EGFR targeted therapy (if RAS wild-type [wt]) as well as a PD-1 or PD-L1 targeted drug if MSI-H/dMMR
  • No chemotherapy, radiotherapy, major surgery, or biologic therapy within 3 weeks of protocol treatment
  • An Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status of 0, 1, or 2
  • Have measurable disease per RECIST 1.1 criteria present
  • Ability to swallow and retain oral medication
  • Participants of child-bearing potential must agree to use adequate contraceptive methods (e.g., hormonal or barrier method of birth control; abstinence) prior to study entry; should a woman become pregnant or suspect she is pregnant while she or her partner is participating in this study, she should inform her treating physician immediately
  • Platelet >= 75,000/uL
  • Hemoglobin >= 9 g/dL
  • Hematocrit >= 27%
  • Absolute neutrophil count (ANC) >= 1500/uL
  • Creatinine < = institutional upper limit of normal (ULN) OR
  • Creatinine clearance >= 50 mL/min for patients with creatinine levels greater than ULN
  • Total bilirubin =< 1.5 X institutional ULN or for patients with known Gilbert's Syndrome total bilirubin <= 3 x ULN
  • Aspartate aminotransferase (AST) (serum glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase [SGOT]) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) (serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase [SGPT]) =< 2.5 X institutional ULN
  • Plasma amylase =< 1.5 X institutional ULN
  • Lipase =< 1.5 X institutional ULN
  • Participant or legal representative must understand the investigational nature of this study and sign an Independent Ethics Committee/Institutional Review Board approved written informed consent form prior to receiving any study related procedure

Exclusion Criteria:

  • Patients currently treated with systemic immunosuppressive agents, including steroids, are ineligible until 3 weeks after removal from immunosuppressive treatment
  • Patients with active autoimmune disease, requiring ongoing immunosuppressive therapy or history of transplantation
  • Patients who are pregnant or nursing; women of childbearing potential (WOCBP) will have to undergo a urine pregnancy test as part of screening
  • Untreated central nervous system (CNS) metastases
  • Cardiac risk factors including:

    • Patients experiencing cardiac event(s) (acute coronary syndrome, myocardial infarction, or ischemia) within 3 months of signing consent
    • Patients with a New York Heart Association classification of III or IV
  • History of upper gastrointestinal ulceration, upper gastrointestinal bleeding, or upper gastrointestinal perforation within the past 3 years; patients with ulceration, bleeding or perforation in the lower bowel are not excluded
  • Prior allergic reaction or hypersensitivity to celecoxib, or non-steroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) or any study agents which would prevent completion of protocol therapy
  • Patients are ineligible if they plan on regular use of NSAIDs at any dose more than 2 times per week (on average) or aspirin at more than 325 mg at least three times per week, on average; low-dose aspirin not exceeding 100 mg/day is permitted; patients who agree to stop regular NSAIDs or higher dose aspirin are eligible and no wash out period is required
  • Received an investigational agent within 30 days prior to enrollment
  • Unwilling or unable to follow protocol requirements
  • Patients with known serious mood disorders
  • Any additional condition which in the investigator?s opinion deems the participant an unsuitable candidate to receive the study drugs

Information from the National Library of Medicine

To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contact information provided by the sponsor.

Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier (NCT number): NCT03403634

Layout table for location information
United States, New York
Roswell Park Cancer Institute
Buffalo, New York, United States, 14263
Sponsors and Collaborators
Roswell Park Cancer Institute
National Cancer Institute (NCI)
Layout table for investigator information
Principal Investigator: Sarbajit Mukherjee, MD Roswell Park Cancer Institute
  Study Documents (Full-Text)

Documents provided by Roswell Park Cancer Institute:
Layout table for additonal information
Responsible Party: Roswell Park Cancer Institute
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03403634    
Other Study ID Numbers: I 52917
NCI-2017-02471 ( Registry Identifier: CTRP (Clinical Trial Reporting Program) )
I 52917 ( Other Identifier: Roswell Park Cancer Institute )
P01CA234212 ( U.S. NIH Grant/Contract )
First Posted: January 18, 2018    Key Record Dates
Results First Posted: March 2, 2022
Last Update Posted: March 2, 2022
Last Verified: February 2022

Layout table for additional information
Studies a U.S. FDA-regulated Drug Product: Yes
Studies a U.S. FDA-regulated Device Product: No
Product Manufactured in and Exported from the U.S.: Yes
Additional relevant MeSH terms:
Layout table for MeSH terms
Colorectal Neoplasms
Neoplasms, Glandular and Epithelial
Neoplasms by Histologic Type
Intestinal Neoplasms
Gastrointestinal Neoplasms
Digestive System Neoplasms
Neoplasms by Site
Digestive System Diseases
Gastrointestinal Diseases
Colonic Diseases
Intestinal Diseases
Rectal Diseases
Interferon alpha-2
Antineoplastic Agents
Antiviral Agents
Anti-Infective Agents
Immunologic Factors
Physiological Effects of Drugs
Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal
Analgesics, Non-Narcotic
Sensory System Agents
Peripheral Nervous System Agents