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Fecal Microbiota Transplantation for Eradication of Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae Colonization

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ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03391674
Recruitment Status : Not yet recruiting
First Posted : January 5, 2018
Last Update Posted : August 31, 2018
Sponsor:
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
Rambam Health Care Campus

Brief Summary:
Antibiotic resistance has emerged world wide and is of major concern. Multidrug resistant (MDR) bacteria is widely spread and is now a major factor in morbidity and mortality in health-care settings. Among MDRs, carbapenem resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) are of special concern, receiving the highest classification of "urgent threat level" in the US President Report. Consistent mortality rates of 40-50% are observed among inpatients with infections caused by CRE in hospitals worldwide, related mainly to unavailable, delayed or ineffective antibiotic treatment options. The extremely high mortality rates of patients with CRE infections have driven efforts to prevent the acquisition and spread of these bacteria in hospitals. These include screening for carriage, contact isolation of carriers, cohorting, dedicated healthcare staff and other infection control measures. These strategies have been proven as effective but are cumbersome and expensive. In most locations these strategies failed to completely eradicate CRE endemicity. CRE decolonization (eradication of colonization) might offer a double benefit - reducing the risk for the individual carrier to develop an infection due to the resistant strain (by that, potentially lowering the mortality risk) and preventing the bacteria from spreading to other patients, exposing them to the same hazard. Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT), in which fecal material enriched with commensal microorganisms is transferred from a healthy donor, have proven efficacy in the treatment of recurrent Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) in multiple trails. Major adverse events that has been reported so far are mostly related to the route of administration (aspiration during nasogastric tube administration/colonoscopy). Other adverse events include mostly GI related symptoms (diarrhea, nausea, belching) and are self limited and resolve in few hours. FMT seems to be safe and effective both in immunocompetent and immunocompromised patients. The high efficacy of FMT in the treatment of a multi-drug resistant pathogen such as Clostridium difficile, suggest that it might be an efficient tool for other MDR pathogens (e.g. CRE). This study aim to assess the effects of FMT on colonization and clinical infections with CRE. The potential of FMT to restore the gut microbiome and compete with residual resistant strains offer a novel way to fight the current MDR epidemic. FMT will be applied in a randomized open label fashion to CRE carriers in a single center in Israel and will be given by capsules for 2 consecutive days followed by rectal sampling at predefined timepoint in the following 6 months.

Condition or disease Intervention/treatment Phase
Antibiotic Resistant Strain Microbial Colonization Other: Fecal Microbiota Transplantation Not Applicable

Detailed Description:
Antibiotic resistance has emerged world wide and is of major concern. Multidrug resistant (MDR) bacteria is widely spread and is now a major factor in morbidity and mortality in health-care settings. Among MDRs, carbapenem resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) are of special concern, receiving the highest classification of "urgent threat level" in the US President Report. Consistent mortality rates of 40-50% are observed among inpatients with infections caused by CRE in hospitals worldwide, related mainly to unavailable, delayed or ineffective antibiotic treatment options. The extremely high mortality rates of patients with CRE infections have driven efforts to prevent the acquisition and spread of these bacteria in hospitals. These include screening for carriage, contact isolation of carriers, cohorting, dedicated healthcare staff and other infection control measures. These strategies have been proven as effective but are cumbersome and expensive. In most locations these strategies failed to completely eradicate CRE endemicity. CRE decolonization (eradication of colonization) might offer a double benefit - reducing the risk for the individual carrier to develop an infection due to the resistant strain (by that, potentially lowering the mortality risk) and preventing the bacteria from spreading to other patients, exposing them to the same hazard. Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT), in which fecal material enriched with commensal microorganisms is transferred from a healthy donor, have proven efficacy in the treatment of recurrent Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) in multiple trails. Major adverse events that has been reported so far are mostly related to the route of administration (aspiration during nasogastric tube administration/colonoscopy). Other adverse events include mostly GI related symptoms (diarrhea, nausea, belching) and are self limited and resolve in few hours. FMT seems to be safe and effective both in immunocompetent and immunocompromised patients. The high efficacy of FMT in the treatment of a multi-drug resistant pathogen such as Clostridium difficile, suggest that it might be an efficient tool for other MDR pathogens (e.g. CRE). We aim to assess the effects of FMT on colonization and clinical infections with CRE. The potential of FMT to restore the gut microbiome and compete with residual resistant strains offer a novel way to fight the current MDR epidemic. FMT will be applied in a randomized open label fashion to CRE carriers in a single center in Israel and will be given by capsules for 2 consecutive days followed by rectal sampling at predefined timepoint in the following 6 months.

Study Type : Interventional  (Clinical Trial)
Estimated Enrollment : 60 participants
Allocation: Randomized
Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
Masking: None (Open Label)
Primary Purpose: Prevention
Official Title: Fecal Microbiota Transplantation for Eradication of Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae Colonization: A Randomized Control Trial
Estimated Study Start Date : March 1, 2019
Estimated Primary Completion Date : February 28, 2020
Estimated Study Completion Date : October 30, 2020

Resource links provided by the National Library of Medicine

MedlinePlus related topics: Bowel Movement

Arm Intervention/treatment
Experimental: Fecal Microbiota Transplantation
Patients able to swallow will be given capsulized FMT using 15 capsules a day for two consecutive days. Patients will be treated concomitantly with omeprazole 20mg once in the evening before FMT and daily for the next 2 days.
Other: Fecal Microbiota Transplantation
Fecal Microbiota Transplantation through oral capsules after omeprazole pre-treatment

No Intervention: Observational
Observational



Primary Outcome Measures :
  1. CRE Decolonization defined as 3 consecutive negative rectal samples for CRE [ Time Frame: 3 months after intervention ]
    3 consecutive negative rectal samples for CRE, last of which include a negative Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test



Information from the National Library of Medicine

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Ages Eligible for Study:   18 Years and older   (Adult, Older Adult)
Sexes Eligible for Study:   All
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   No
Criteria

Inclusion Criteria:

  • Adult inpatients ≥18 years positive for CRE of any strain and resistance mechanism in rectal surveillance stool samples, with or without CRE clinical samples. Positive rectal swab within one week before randomization will be mandatory.

Exclusion Criteria:

  • Pregnant women
  • Patients with severe neutropenia (<100/μl)
  • Major abdominal surgery

Information from the National Library of Medicine

To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contact information provided by the sponsor.

Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier (NCT number): NCT03391674


Contacts
Contact: Haggai Bar-Yoseph, Dr. +972-4-7773725 h_bar-yoseph@rambam.gov.il

Sponsors and Collaborators
Rambam Health Care Campus

Responsible Party: Rambam Health Care Campus
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03391674     History of Changes
Other Study ID Numbers: 0595-17-RMB
First Posted: January 5, 2018    Key Record Dates
Last Update Posted: August 31, 2018
Last Verified: August 2018
Individual Participant Data (IPD) Sharing Statement:
Plan to Share IPD: No

Studies a U.S. FDA-regulated Drug Product: No
Studies a U.S. FDA-regulated Device Product: No

Additional relevant MeSH terms:
Communicable Diseases
Infection