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Rural China Electric Kettle Promotion Program

The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Read our disclaimer for details. Identifier: NCT03376152
Recruitment Status : Active, not recruiting
First Posted : December 18, 2017
Last Update Posted : November 3, 2020
National Center for Rural Water Supply Technical Guidance (NCRWSTG), China
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, China
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
Alasdair Cohen, University of California, Berkeley

Brief Summary:
This study will evaluate the impact of a pilot Rural Electric Kettle Promotion Program offered to low-income households in rural Anhui Province, China. The primary objective of this study is to determine whether this promotion program causes poverty households currently boiling their drinking water with solid-fuels (or drinking untreated water or bottled water) to switch to boiling their drinking water with electric kettles, and if so, how such a switch might improve safe drinking water access and/or reduce household air pollution.

Condition or disease Intervention/treatment Phase
Compliant Behavior Diarrheal Disease Pollution; Exposure Behavioral: Electric Kettle Promotion Not Applicable

Detailed Description:

Previous research suggests that increasing the use of electric kettles for boiling (i.e., treating) drinking water in low-income areas of rural China could help expand access to safer drinking water, reduce household air pollution, and improve environmental and health outcomes in rural Chinese households currently boiling drinking water with solid-fuels (or not treating their water, or drinking contaminated bottled water).

The study will use a parallel arm cohort cluster-randomized controlled trial design with a 1:1 ratio. The study will randomize 30 clusters (i.e., villages) to treatment or control using stratified randomization by geography (two levels: mountains and plains) and by cluster proportions of reported electric kettle use at baseline. Randomization sequence generation will be conducted by A. Cohen using a random number generator (with a reproducible seed) in Stata v.13.1 (StataCorp, College Station, Texas, USA).

The study will collect data from 30 randomly selected households in 15 villages, for a total of 900 households. This sample size was powered to measure a 15% (or larger) change in electric kettle adoption, because the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention (China CDC) will be unlikely to rollout a national program if adoption rates are less than 15%.

After baseline data collection and randomized allocation, in the intervention group village-level promotion events will take place in November-December of 2017, and will be organized by the provincial and county China CDC, in collaboration with the National Center for Rural Water Supply Technical Guidance (NCRWSTG). At these promotion events, households in the intervention group will be provided free, food-grade quality, electric kettles, as well as promotional materials (a calendar and poster) and information about the benefits of electric kettle use and improved hygiene and sanitation practices.

Because of known issues with decreasing adoption of drinking water treatment after behavior change promotion interventions such as this, and considering expected seasonal variation in boiling practices and frequencies, study data will be collected over a period of 12 months (with additional qualitative follow-up via focus groups: 2019-03, 2019-08).

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Study Type : Interventional  (Clinical Trial)
Estimated Enrollment : 6000 participants
Allocation: Randomized
Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
Masking: Single (Outcomes Assessor)
Primary Purpose: Prevention
Official Title: Rural China Electric Kettle Promotion Program: A Cluster-Randomized Controlled Trial of Pilot Program Impact on Electric Kettle Adoption, Drinking Water Quality, Indoor Air Pollution, and Reported Health Outcomes in Poverty Households in the People's Republic of China
Actual Study Start Date : November 4, 2017
Actual Primary Completion Date : December 31, 2018
Estimated Study Completion Date : December 2021

Resource links provided by the National Library of Medicine

Arm Intervention/treatment
Active Comparator: Treatment Arm
"Poverty households" invited to attend cluster-level electric kettle promotion events and offered free kettles, information, and promotional materials 450 households in 15 clusters (30 households per cluster)
Behavioral: Electric Kettle Promotion
Provision of free electric kettles and promotional materials/information

No Intervention: Control Arm
450 households in 15 clusters (30 households per cluster)

Primary Outcome Measures :
  1. Change in proportion of households using electric kettles for boiling drinking water [ Time Frame: 12 months. ]
    Primary measurement via electricity use meters (Tepsung model 10/16A) affixed to electric kettle power cables for all household who report using electric kettles at each of five visits (based on total KWh consumed per data collection intervals and estimated mean liters boiled per person, per day, per household, by electric kettle type/size). Additional measurement via self-report of electric kettle use (household surveys) and via enumerator direct observations (during visits to households).

Secondary Outcome Measures :
  1. Thermotolerant coliforms in household point-of-consumption drinking water [ Time Frame: 6 months. ]
    Point-of-consumption drinking water sample collection from subsample of households (150 in each arm, 300 total) and laboratory analysis via multiple tube fermentation (using China CDC national standards and protocol) for Thermotolerant coliforms, an indicator of fecal contamination.

  2. Diarrhea prevalence [ Time Frame: 6 months. ]
    Self-report (current, 7-day recall, 14-day recall)

  3. Particulate matter 2.5 mg/m3 (PM2.5) concentrations [ Time Frame: 1 month. ]
    Custom-built air pollution sensors (PM2.5 and other - developed by Prof. Tao Shu et al. at Peking University, Beijing, CHINA) installed to collect indoor air pollution data for 3-4 weeks in a subsample of households (40-50 in each arm, 80-100 total), with 3-5 external air pollution sensors installed in each cluster to control for ambient air pollution.

  4. Prevalence of hand washing with soap [ Time Frame: 6 months. ]
    Self-report during household surveys combined with enumerator direct observations

Other Outcome Measures:
  1. Cough prevalence [ Time Frame: 6 months. ]
    Self-report (current, 7-day recall)

Information from the National Library of Medicine

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Ages Eligible for Study:   Child, Adult, Older Adult
Sexes Eligible for Study:   All
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   Yes

Inclusion Criteria:

  • Persons aged 18 or older will be eligible to provide consent for their households.
  • Government classified "poverty households" (poverty classification based on 2016 data/records).

Exclusion Criteria:

  • Persons aged 17 or younger will not be eligible to provide consent for their households.
  • We will not have any exclusion criterion based on gender, race, ethnicity, language, or literacy.

Information from the National Library of Medicine

To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contact information provided by the sponsor.

Please refer to this study by its identifier (NCT number): NCT03376152

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National Center for Rural Water Supply Technical Guidance,Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention
Beijing, China
Sponsors and Collaborators
University of California, Berkeley
National Center for Rural Water Supply Technical Guidance (NCRWSTG), China
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, China
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Principal Investigator: Yong Tao, Director National Center for Rural Water Supply Technical Guidance
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Responsible Party: Alasdair Cohen, Postdoctoral Scholar, University of California, Berkeley Identifier: NCT03376152    
Other Study ID Numbers: 2016119356
First Posted: December 18, 2017    Key Record Dates
Last Update Posted: November 3, 2020
Last Verified: October 2020
Individual Participant Data (IPD) Sharing Statement:
Plan to Share IPD: No

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Studies a U.S. FDA-regulated Drug Product: No
Studies a U.S. FDA-regulated Device Product: No