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Nivolumab for the Reversal of Squamous Dysplasia in High Risk Current and Former Smokers

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ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03347838
Recruitment Status : Recruiting
First Posted : November 20, 2017
Last Update Posted : September 8, 2021
Sponsor:
Collaborator:
Bristol-Myers Squibb
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
University of Colorado, Denver

Brief Summary:
The goal of this clinical research study is to determine whether the PD-1 inhibitor (Programmed cell death protein 1) nivolumab improves premalignant bronchial dysplastic lesions in subjects that are at high risk for the development of lung cancer, including those with a prior smoking history, or history of lung cancer or head and neck cancer. The safety and tolerability of nivolumab will also be studied.

Condition or disease Intervention/treatment Phase
Bronchial Dysplasia Tobacco Smoking History of Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer History of Head and Neck Cancer Drug: Nivolumab Phase 2

Detailed Description:

This is a single-institution, open-label, single-arm, two-stage, phase II study of the PD-1 inhibitor nivolumab in patients at high risk for lung cancer. Simon's two-stage design will be used. In the first stage, 18 subjects will be enrolled. If at least 7 subjects respond to nivolumab, then an additional 24 subjects will be enrolled for a total of 42 subjects. The central hypothesis to be tested by this trial is that immune evasion contributes to malignant transformation of premalignant bronchial dysplastic lesions into invasive lung cancers, and that blocking PD-1 will allow the immune system to target and eradicate premalignant bronchial dysplastic lesions, thereby preventing the development of lung cancer.

Nivolumab 240 mg IV will be administered every two weeks for a total of four doses (8 weeks). Participants will undergo bronchoscopy with endobronchial biopsy at study entry, 2 months, and 6 months. The primary endpoint will be change in bronchial dysplasia between study entry and the 6 month timepoint. Secondary endpoints include safety and tolerability of nivolumab in patients with bronchial dysplastic lesions, and additional endobronchial histology endpoints. Exploratory endpoints will be used to identify predictive markers of response to nivolumab.

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Study Type : Interventional  (Clinical Trial)
Estimated Enrollment : 42 participants
Allocation: N/A
Intervention Model: Single Group Assignment
Intervention Model Description: The goal of this clinical research study is to determine whether the Programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) inhibitor nivolumab improves premalignant bronchial dysplastic lesions in subjects that are at high risk for the development of lung cancer, including those with a prior smoking history, or history of lung cancer or head and neck cancer. The safety and tolerability of nivolumab will also be studied.
Masking: None (Open Label)
Primary Purpose: Treatment
Official Title: PD-1 Immune Checkpoint Inhibition for the Reversal of Squamous Dysplasia in High Risk Current and Former Smokers With or Without a History of Lung Cancer
Actual Study Start Date : December 6, 2018
Estimated Primary Completion Date : December 2021
Estimated Study Completion Date : December 2021

Resource links provided by the National Library of Medicine

Drug Information available for: Nivolumab

Arm Intervention/treatment
Experimental: Nivolumab Injection [Opdivo]
240 mg IV every 2 weeks for 4 doses
Drug: Nivolumab
Nivolumab is a human monoclonal antibody that blocks the interaction between PD-1 and its ligands, PD-L1 and PD-L2.
Other Names:
  • Opdivo
  • BMS-936558
  • MDX1106
  • ONO-4538




Primary Outcome Measures :
  1. Improvement in endobronchial histology [ Time Frame: 6 months ]
    The primary endpoint is the dichotomous endpoint of whether a subject responds to PD-1 immune checkpoint inhibition using nivolumab. Response will be based on the 6-month change (difference between 6-month score and baseline score) in worst (i.e., maximum) histologic classification score, using the 2004 World Health Organization (WHO) classification scale for pre-invasive squamous lesions of the bronchus. The histologic classification consists of: normal (grade 1.0), reserve cell hyperplasia (grade 2.0), squamous metaplasia (grade 3.0), mild dysplasia (grade 4.0), moderate dysplasia (grade 5.0), severe dysplasia (grade 6.0), carcinoma in situ (grade 7.0) and invasive cancer (grade 8.0).


Secondary Outcome Measures :
  1. Incidence of immune-related adverse events (irAEs) [ Time Frame: Every 2 weeks through 3 months, then every 3 months through 1 year ]
    Patients will be evaluated every 2 weeks to determine whether they have any immune-related adverse events (irAEs) using the National Cancer Institute's Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE). In particular, patients will be monitored closely for evidence of dermatological, gastrointestinal, endocrine, renal, and pulmonary irAEs. Complete blood count, comprehensive metabolic profile, and thyroid function tests will be obtained at baseline and every 3 months for 1 year. A comprehensive metabolic profile will also be checked every 2 weeks. Subjects will be followed for a total of 1 year to monitor for development of irAEs after discontinuation of the study drug.

  2. Additional endobronchial histology endpoints using the 2004 WHO classification scale for pre-invasive squamous lesions of the bronchus [ Time Frame: 2 months and 6 months ]
    1. Two-month change (difference between 2-month score and baseline score) in worst (i.e., maximum) histologic classification score
    2. Using all dysplastic (i.e., histology score ≥ 4.0) baseline biopsy pairs, the change in average histology and dysplasia index
    3. Using all matched biopsies, the change in worst histology, average histology, and dysplasia index
    4. Using all matched biopsies from reference sites, the change in worst histology, average histology, and dysplasia index
    5. Response to treatment of completers, based on worst histology


Other Outcome Measures:
  1. Proportion of T lymphocytes in bronchial dysplastic lesions that express PD-1 [ Time Frame: Baseline, 2 months, and 6 months ]
    The proportion of T lymphocytes that express programmed death receptor 1 (PD-1) in pre- and post-treatment biopsies will be compared by immunofluorescence staining of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue sections

  2. Proportion of macrophages in bronchial dysplastic lesions that express PD-L1 [ Time Frame: Baseline, 2 months, and 6 months ]
    The proportion of macrophages that express programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) in pre- and post-treatment biopsies will be compared by immunofluorescence staining of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue sections

  3. Quantification of CD4+ T lymphocyte subsets in bronchial dysplastic lesions [ Time Frame: Baseline, 2 months, and 6 months ]
    Pre- and post-treatment biopsies will be stained by immunofluorescence for Th1, Th2, and Treg CD4+ T lymphocytes

  4. Ratio of M1:M2 macrophages in bronchial dysplastic lesions [ Time Frame: Baseline, 2 months, and 6 months ]
    Pre- and post-treatment biopsies will be stained by immunofluorescence for CD68, HLA-DRA, and CD206. The ratio of M1 (CD68/HLA-DRA) to M2 (CD68/CD206) macrophages will be determined.

  5. Number of non-synonymous mutations in bronchial dysplastic lesions [ Time Frame: Baseline ]
    The number of non-synonymous mutations in bronchial dysplastic lesions will be determined by whole exsome sequencing



Information from the National Library of Medicine

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Ages Eligible for Study:   18 Years to 80 Years   (Adult, Older Adult)
Sexes Eligible for Study:   All
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   No
Criteria

Inclusion Criteria:

In order to be eligible to participate in this study, an individual must meet all of the following criteria:

  1. Provision of signed and dated informed consent form
  2. Stated willingness to comply with all study procedures and availability for the duration of the study
  3. Male or female, aged > 18 years
  4. A current or ex-smoker with a > 30 pack-year history of smoking and mild or worse sputum cytologic atypia, (an ex-smoker is defined as no tobacco use in the prior 12 months) OR History of non-small cell lung cancer (stage I, II, or IIIA) with > 10 pack-year history of smoking and no evidence of active disease at least 1 year after definitive treatment, OR History of head and neck cancer (stage I, II, III, or IVA) with > 10 pack-year history of smoking and no evidence of active disease at least 1 year after definitive treatment.
  5. Endobronchial dysplasia (score > 4) on screening bronchoscopy
  6. Total granulocyte count > 1500
  7. Platelet count > 100,000
  8. Serum creatinine < 1.5 mg/dL
  9. Total bilirubin < 2.0 mg/dL
  10. Transaminases and alkaline phosphatase < 2.5x upper limit of normal (ULN)
  11. Albumin > 2.5 mg/dL
  12. ECOG performance status ≤ 1 (Appendix 1)
  13. Participants must be able and willing to undergo three bronchoscopies: before, after four doses of nivolumab (8 weeks), and after 6 months

Exclusion Criteria:

An individual who meets any of the following criteria will be excluded from participation in this study:

  1. Participants may not be currently receiving immune checkpoint inhibitor treatment or have been treated with immune checkpoint inhibitors in the past (including anti-programmed cell death receptor [PD]-1, anti-programmed death ligand 1 [PD-L1], and anti-cytotoxic T-lymphocyte associated protein 4 [CTLA4] monoclonal antibodies)
  2. Patients cannot receive any other investigational anti-cancer agents while participating in the study
  3. Participants cannot have used any other investigational agents within the previous six months
  4. History of allergic reactions attributed to compounds of similar chemical or biologic composition to nivolumab
  5. Clinically apparent bleeding diathesis (i.e., bleeding that is spontaneous, excessive, or delayed in onset following tissue injury results from a localized pathologic process or a disorder of the hemostatic process, involving a complex interplay among vascular integrity, platelet number and function, coagulation factors, and fibrinolysis)
  6. Cardiac dysrhythmia that is potentially life-threatening, such as ventricular tachycardia, multifocal premature ventricular contractions or supraventricular tachycardias with a rapid ventricular response. Well-controlled atrial fibrillation or rare (< 2 minute) premature ventricular contractions are not exclusionary
  7. History of coronary artery disease, including myocardial infarction, congestive heart failure (LV ejection fraction <50% or clinically significant diastolic dysfunction), or any serious medical condition which would preclude a patient from undergoing a bronchoscopy or would jeopardize the goals of the study
  8. Individuals who are HIV-positive will be considered on a case-by-case basis, but will be required to meet criteria related to patient safety and data integrity, as assessed by the study investigators
  9. History of hepatitis B or hepatitis C infection that is untreated and/or with a detectable viral load
  10. Hypoxemia (less than 90% saturation with supplemental oxygen)
  11. Severe obstructive lung disease (GOLD Stage III or IV, FEV1<30% predicted)
  12. Prior chemotherapy or thoracic radiation within the past 1 year
  13. Participants with findings on CT chest suspicious for lung cancer (Lung-RADS category 4) will not be allowed to enroll until they have undergone additional evaluation for malignancy and an alternative (i.e., non-malignant) diagnosis has been established
  14. Current malignancy, with the exception of non-melanoma (i.e., basal cell or squamous cell) skin cancer. Patients with lung carcinoma in situ found during the study biopsy are also excluded.
  15. History of a malignancy except for adequately treated non-melanoma (i.e., basal cell or squamous cell) skin cancer or in situ cervical cancer for which the subject has not been disease-free for 5 years. Patients with a history of non-small cell lung cancer (stage I, II, or IIIA) or head and neck cancer (stage I, II, III, or IVA) must have no evidence of active disease at least 1 year after definitive treatment.
  16. History of stage IIIA NSCLC for which the only treatment was chemoradiation without surgery
  17. Known or suspected autoimmune disease; subjects with type I diabetes mellitus, hypothyroidism requiring hormone replacement, or skin disorders not requiring systemic treatment are permitted to enroll
  18. Conditions requiring systemic corticosteroids equivalent to > 10 mg prednisone per day or other immunosuppressive medications within 2 weeks of enrollment
  19. Known interstitial lung disease that is symptomatic or may interfere with the detection or management of suspected drug-related pulmonary toxicity
  20. History of interstitial pneumonitis requiring treatment with systemic corticosteroids or other immunosuppressive agents (e.g., mycophenolate, azathioprine)
  21. Life expectancy of < 1 year
  22. Women of childbearing potential (WOCBP) must have a negative serum or urine pregnancy test (minimum sensitivity 25 IU/L or equivalent units of HCG) within 4 weeks prior to the start of nivolumab
  23. Women must not be breastfeeding
  24. Inability to give informed consent
  25. Pneumonia or acute bronchitis for at least 2 weeks prior to enrollment

Information from the National Library of Medicine

To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contact information provided by the sponsor.

Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier (NCT number): NCT03347838


Contacts
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Contact: Brandi Kubala 303-724-1657 brandi.kubala@cuanschutz.edu
Contact: Michele Balonque Siqueira 303-724-1662 michele.balonequesiqueira@cuanschutz.edu

Locations
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United States, Colorado
University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus Recruiting
Aurora, Colorado, United States, 80045
Contact: Brandi Kubala    303-724-1657    brandi.kubala@cuanschutz.edu   
Contact: Michele Baloneque Siqueira    303-724-1662    michele.balonequesiqueira@cuanschutz.edu   
Sub-Investigator: Robert Keith, M.D.         
Denver VA Hospital Recruiting
Denver, Colorado, United States, 80220
Contact: Brandi Kubala    303-724-1657    brandi.kubala@cuanschutz.edu   
Contact: Michele Michele Baloneque Siqueira    303-724-1662    michele.balonequesiqueira@cuanschutz.edu   
Principal Investigator: Robert Keith, MD         
Sponsors and Collaborators
University of Colorado, Denver
Bristol-Myers Squibb
Investigators
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Principal Investigator: Robert Keith, MD University of Colorado, Denver
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Responsible Party: University of Colorado, Denver
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03347838    
Other Study ID Numbers: 17-1492.cc
First Posted: November 20, 2017    Key Record Dates
Last Update Posted: September 8, 2021
Last Verified: September 2021

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Studies a U.S. FDA-regulated Drug Product: Yes
Studies a U.S. FDA-regulated Device Product: No
Keywords provided by University of Colorado, Denver:
PD-1
Precancerous Conditions
Nivolumab
Lung Cancer Immunoprevention
Additional relevant MeSH terms:
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Lung Neoplasms
Respiratory Tract Neoplasms
Thoracic Neoplasms
Neoplasms by Site
Neoplasms
Lung Diseases
Respiratory Tract Diseases
Nivolumab
Antineoplastic Agents, Immunological
Antineoplastic Agents