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Placebo-Controlled Trial of Antibiotic Therapy in Adults With Suspect Lower Respiratory Tract Infection (LRTI) and a Procalcitonin Level

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ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03341273
Recruitment Status : Terminated (Due to covid)
First Posted : November 14, 2017
Results First Posted : August 24, 2021
Last Update Posted : August 24, 2021
Sponsor:
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID)

Brief Summary:
This is a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, non-inferiority multicenter clinical trial of azithromycin vs. placebo in adults presenting as outpatients with suspect Lower Respiratory Tract Infection (LRTI) and a Procalcitonin (PCT) level of < / = 0.25 ng/mL, as a strategy for reducing antibiotic prescriptions. The study is designed to compare the efficacy of azithromycin versus placebo on Day 5 (i.e., after 4 days of treatment) in subjects with suspect LRTI and PCT levels of < / = 0.25 ng/mL at enrollment using a non-inferiority approach. The study will recruit potential subjects 18 years of age or older who are suspected to have LRTI. The enrollment cap will be 840 participants, for the goal of approximately 674 randomized participants who will be randomized 1:1 to receive oral azithromycin or placebo for five days. Randomized subjects will have efficacy measured from the time of the first dose of study drug (Day 1) through approximately Day 28. The Primary Objective is to compare the efficacy of azithromycin versus placebo on Day 5 (i.e., after 4 days of treatment) in subjects with suspect LRTI and PCT levels of < / = 0.25 ng/mL at enrollment using a non-inferiority approach.

Condition or disease Intervention/treatment Phase
Lower Respiratory Tract Infection Drug: Azithromycin Other: Placebo Device: VIDAS B.R.A.H.M.S Procalcitonin Test (PCT) Not Applicable

Detailed Description:
This is a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, non-inferiority multicenter clinical trial of azithromycin vs. placebo in adults presenting as outpatients with suspect Lower Respiratory Tract Infection (LRTI) and a Procalcitonin (PCT) level of < / = 0.25 ng/mL, as a strategy for reducing antibiotic prescriptions. The study is designed to compare the efficacy of azithromycin versus placebo on Day 5 (i.e., after 4 days of treatment) in subjects with suspect LRTI and PCT levels of < / = 0.25 ng/mL at enrollment using a non-inferiority approach. The study will recruit potential subjects 18 years of age or older who are suspected to have LRTI. The enrollment cap will be 840 participants, for the goal of approximately 674 randomized participants who will be randomized 1:1 to receive oral azithromycin or placebo for five days. Randomized subjects will have efficacy measured from the time of the first dose of study drug (Day 1) through approximately Day 28. The primary objective is to compare the efficacy of azithromycin versus placebo on Day 5 (i.e., after 4 days of treatment) in subjects with suspect LRTI and PCT levels of < / = 0.25 ng/mL at enrollment using a non-inferiority approach. The secondary objectives are to compare:1) groups receiving azithromycin versus placebo with regard to all antibiotic use by Days 11 and 28; 2) groups receiving azithromycin versus placebo with regard to return visits to a physician's office or urgent care by Days 11 and 28; 3) groups receiving azithromycin versus placebo with regard to emergency department visits by Days 11 and 28; 4) groups receiving azithromycin versus placebo with regard to hospitalization by Days 11 and 28 if not hospitalized at the enrollment and randomization visit; 5) groups receiving azithromycin versus placebo with regard to improvement in presenting symptoms by Days 11 and 28; 6) the efficacy of azithromycin versus placebo on Day 11 in subjects with suspect LRTI and PCT levels of < / = 0.25 ng/mL at enrollment using a non-inferiority approach; 7) the efficacy of azithromycin versus placebo on Day 28 in subjects with suspect LRTI and PCT levels of < / = 0.25 ng/mL at enrollment using a non-inferiority approach; 8) the efficacy of azithromycin versus placebo in subjects with suspected LRTI and PCT levels of < / = 0.25 ng/mL at Day 5 using a superiority approach, employing the "Response Adjusted for Days of Antibiotic Risk (RADAR)" methodology; 9) groups receiving azithromycin versus placebo in regard to solicited events by Day 5; 10) groups receiving azithromycin versus placebo in regard to hospitalization or visits to an Emergency Department (ED), outpatient clinic, or urgent care center for worsening or persistent LRTI after randomization by Day 5; 11) groups receiving azithromycin versus placebo in regard to improvement in vital sign abnormalities or symptoms present at enrollment, on Day 5; 12) groups receiving azithromycin versus placebo in regard to new vital sign abnormalities or symptoms on Day 5, or deterioration in symptoms relative to the enrollment visit on Day 5.

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Study Type : Interventional  (Clinical Trial)
Actual Enrollment : 514 participants
Allocation: Randomized
Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
Masking: Double (Participant, Investigator)
Primary Purpose: Diagnostic
Official Title: Targeted Reduction of Antibiotics Using Procalcitonin in a Multi-center, Randomized, Double-Blinded, Placebo-Controlled Non-Inferiority Study of Azithromycin Treatment in Outpatient Adults With Suspect Lower Respiratory Tract Infection (LRTI) and a Procalcitonin (PCT) Level of < / = 0.25 ng/mL (TRAP-LRTI)
Actual Study Start Date : December 8, 2017
Actual Primary Completion Date : March 30, 2020
Actual Study Completion Date : March 30, 2020

Resource links provided by the National Library of Medicine

MedlinePlus related topics: Antibiotics

Arm Intervention/treatment
Experimental: Azithromycin
500 mg of Azithromycin (2 capsules of 250 mg) administered orally as a single dose on Day 1, followed by 250 mg capsule of Azithromycin administered orally once daily for 4 days (Day 2 through Day 5). N=337
Drug: Azithromycin
Azithromycin is an azalide antibiotic and is derived from erythromycin used to treat many different types of infections caused by bacteria, such as respiratory infections.

Device: VIDAS B.R.A.H.M.S Procalcitonin Test (PCT)
The VIDAS B.R.A.H.M.S PCT is an automated test for use on the VIDAS instruments for the determination of human procalcitonin in human serum or plasma using the Enzyme-Linked Fluorescent Assay (ELFA) technique.

Placebo Comparator: Placebo
2 capsules of Azithromycin placebo administered orally as a single dose on Day 1, followed by 1 capsule of Azithromycin placebo administered orally once daily for 4 days (Day 2 through Day 5). N=337
Other: Placebo
Placebo will be a matching capsule the same size, weight, and color as the capsules containing Azithromycin tablets.

Device: VIDAS B.R.A.H.M.S Procalcitonin Test (PCT)
The VIDAS B.R.A.H.M.S PCT is an automated test for use on the VIDAS instruments for the determination of human procalcitonin in human serum or plasma using the Enzyme-Linked Fluorescent Assay (ELFA) technique.




Primary Outcome Measures :
  1. Clinical Improvement at Day 5 Visit (D5V) [ Time Frame: Day 5 Visit ]

    Clinical improvement at Day 5 Visit is defined as fulfilling all of the following criteria:

    1. Improvement in at least two symptoms present at enrollment or one symptom and at least one vital sign abnormality present at enrollment
    2. Absence of deterioration in any qualifying symptom or new vital sign abnormality not present at enrollment
    3. Absence of fever in the day preceding or at the D5V
    4. No medically attended visit to an ambulatory medical facility or hospitalization for persistent or worsening Lower Respiratory Tract Infection (LRTI) at any time after randomization


Secondary Outcome Measures :
  1. Clinical Improvement at Day 11 Visit (D11V) [ Time Frame: Day 11 Visit ]

    Clinical improvement at Day 11 Visit is defined as fulfilling all of the following criteria:

    1. Improvement in at least two symptoms present at enrollment or one symptom and at least one vital sign abnormality present at enrollment
    2. Absence of deterioration in any qualifying symptom or new vital sign abnormality not present at enrollment
    3. Absence of fever in the day preceding or at the D11V
    4. No medically attended visit to an ambulatory medical facility or hospitalization for persistent or worsening LRTI at any time after randomization The ITT population includes all participants with PCT = 0.25 ng/mL who were randomized to receive study product.

  2. Clinical Improvement at Day 28 Visit (D28V) [ Time Frame: Day 28 Visit ]

    Clinical improvement at Day 28 Visit is defined as fulfilling all of the following criteria:

    1. Improvement in at least two symptoms present at enrollment or one symptom and at least one vital sign abnormality present at enrollment
    2. Absence of deterioration in any qualifying symptom or new vital sign abnormality not present at enrollment
    3. Absence of fever in the day preceding or at the D11V
    4. No medically attended visit to an ambulatory medical facility or hospitalization for persistent or worsening LRTI at any time after randomization

  3. Composite Overall Desirability of Outcome Ranking (DOOR) Assessed Employing a Superiority Analysis Using the "Response Adjusted for Days of Antibiotic Risk (RADAR)" Approach at Day 5 Visit [ Time Frame: Day 5 Visit ]

    DOOR is a composite endpoint created using clinical outcomes from Day 1 through Day 5 Visit. It is based on adequate clinical improvement at Day 5 Visit and solicited events from Day 1 through Day 5 Visit.

    When comparing two participants with different ordinal clinical outcomes (OCOs), the participant with a better OCO receives a higher DOOR rank. When comparing two participants with the same OCOs, the participant with fewer days of antibiotic use receives a higher DOOR rank.


  4. Number of Participants Exhibiting Improvement in One or More LRTI Symptoms or Fever at Day 11 Visit [ Time Frame: Day 11 Visit ]
    Improvement in LRTI symptoms was defined as presence of at least one-step improvement in the symptom present at baseline. For fever, improvement was defined as changing from presence of fever at baseline to absence of fever at Day 11 Visit.

  5. Number of Participants Exhibiting Improvement in One or More LRTI Symptoms or Fever at Day 28 Visit [ Time Frame: Day 28 Visit ]
    Improvement in LRTI symptoms was defined as presence of at least one-step improvement in the symptom present at baseline. For fever, improvement was defined as changing from presence of fever at baseline to absence of fever at Day 28 Visit.

  6. Number of Participants Exhibiting Improvement in at Least Two Presenting Signs or Symptoms at Day 5 Visit [ Time Frame: Day 5 Visit ]
    Improvement in LRTI symptoms was defined as presence of at least one-step improvement in at least two symptoms present at baseline for participants who qualified based on two symptoms or improvement in one LRTI symptom present at baseline and normalization of one abnormal vital sign at Day 5 Visit for participants who qualified based on one symptom and one vital sign abnormality.

  7. Number of Participants Exhibiting Worsening or Deterioration in One or More Symptoms at Day 5 Visit [ Time Frame: Day 5 Visit ]
    Clinical deterioration at D5V is defined as at least one-step deterioration (worsening from mild to moderate for example) in any qualifying symptoms or presence of a new vital abnormality at D5V not present at enrollment.

  8. Number of Participants Reporting One or More Hospitalization or Visits to an Emergency Department (ED), Outpatient Clinic, or Urgent Care Center (After Randomization) for Worsening or Persistent Lower Respiratory Tract Infection [ Time Frame: Day 1 through Day 5 Visit ]
    This table summarizes the number and percentage of participants reporting any medically attended visits any time after randomization. Note that receipt of a non-study antibiotic after study Day 5 Visit will was not regarded as satisfying this definition if it is related to a new non-respiratory process that is unrelated to the prior diagnosis of LRTI.

  9. Number of Participants Reporting Solicited Adverse Events From Day 1 Through Day 5 Visit [ Time Frame: Day 1 through Day 5 Visit ]
    This table summarizes the number and percentage of participants experiencing any solicited events of mild, moderate or severe severity from Day 1 to Day 5 Visit.

  10. Number of Participants With One or More Emergency Department Visits for Persistent or Worsening Lower Respiratory Tract Infection (LRTI) by Day 11 Visit [ Time Frame: Day 1 through Day 11 ]
    This table summarizes the number of participants with one or more Emergency Department Visits for Persistent or Worsening Lower Respiratory Tract Infection (LRTI) from Day 1 through Day 11 Visit.

  11. Number of Participants With One or More Emergency Department Visits for Persistent or Worsening Lower Respiratory Tract Infection (LRTI) by Day 28 Visit [ Time Frame: Day 1 through Day 28 Visit ]
    This table summarizes the number of participants with one or more Emergency Department Visits for Persistent or Worsening Lower Respiratory Tract Infection (LRTI) in Azithromycin Group from Day 1 through Day 28 Visit.

  12. Number of Participants With One or More Hospitalizations (if Not Hospitalized at Enrollment) for Persistent or Worsening Lower Respiratory Tract Infection (LRTI) by Day 11 Visit [ Time Frame: Day 1 through Day 11 Visit ]
    This table summarizes the number of participants with one or more hospitalizations for Persistent or Worsening Lower Respiratory Tract Infection (LRTI) from Day 1 through Day 11 Visit.

  13. Number of Participants With One or More Hospitalizations (if Not Hospitalized at Enrollment) for Persistent or Worsening Lower Respiratory Tract Infection (LRTI) by Day 28 Visit [ Time Frame: Day 1 through Day 28 Visit ]
    This table summarizes the number of participants with one or more hospitalizations for Persistent or Worsening Lower Respiratory Tract Infection (LRTI) from Day 1 through Day 28 Visit.

  14. Number of Participants With One or More Unplanned Return to a Physician's Office or Urgent Care for Persistent or Worsening Lower Respiratory Tract Infection (LRTI) by Day 11 Visit [ Time Frame: Day 1 through Day 11 Visit ]
    This table summarizes the number of participants with one or more unplanned Return to a Physician's Office or Urgent Care for Persistent or Worsening Lower Respiratory Tract Infection (LRTI) from Day 1 through Day 11 Visit.

  15. Number of Participants With One or More Unplanned Return to a Physician's Office or Urgent Care for Persistent or Worsening Lower Respiratory Tract Infection (LRTI) by Day 28 Visit [ Time Frame: Day 1 through Day 28 Visit ]
    This table summarizes the number of participants with one or more unplanned Return to a Physician's Office or Urgent Care for Persistent or Worsening Lower Respiratory Tract Infection (LRTI) from Day 1 through Day 28 Visit.

  16. Number of Participants With a New Occurrence of a Vital Sign Abnormality at Day 5 Visit [ Time Frame: Day 5 Visit ]
    This table summarizes the number and percentage of participants experiencing new vital signs abnormalities at Day 5 Visit that were not present at baseline.

  17. Quantification of All Antibiotic Use From Day 1 Through Day 11 Visit [ Time Frame: Day 1 through Day 11 Visit ]
    The table summarizes the mean number of days of antibiotic use including study and non-study antibiotics for participants from Day 1 through Day 11 Visit.

  18. Quantification of All Antibiotic Use From Day 1 Through Day 28 Visit [ Time Frame: Day 1 through Day 28 Visit ]
    The table summarizes the mean number of days of antibiotic use including study and non-study antibiotics for participants from Day 1 through Day 28 Visit.



Information from the National Library of Medicine

Choosing to participate in a study is an important personal decision. Talk with your doctor and family members or friends about deciding to join a study. To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contacts provided below. For general information, Learn About Clinical Studies.


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Ages Eligible for Study:   18 Years to 99 Years   (Adult, Older Adult)
Sexes Eligible for Study:   All
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   No
Criteria

Inclusion Criteria:

  1. Clinician suspected Lower Respiratory Tract Infection (LRTI)* based on the presence of at least two qualifying symptoms** OR one qualifying symptom and at least one qualifying vital sign***.

    *LRTI will include acute bronchitis, tracheitis, tracheobronchitis, asthma exacerbation, and acute exacerbation of Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) but does not include known pneumonia.

    **New cough, worsening of chronic cough, new sputum production, increased volume or purulence of chronic sputum production, chest pain, and difficulty breathing.

    ***Fever (Provider or patient-measured temperature > / = 37.8 degrees Celsius (100.0 degrees Fahrenheit) or patient-reported feverishness), tachycardia of > / = 90 beats/minute, tachypnea of > 20 breaths/minute.

  2. Males and females age > / = 18 years old.
  3. Presentation > / = 24 hours and < / = 28 days after the onset of at least one qualifying symptom related to the acute episode of illness.
  4. Ability to understand study procedures and willing and able to comply with all required procedures and visits for the entire length of study.
  5. Provide written informed consent before initiation of any study procedures.

Exclusion Criteria:

  1. Hospitalized prior to screening and enrollment. Subjects enrolled in clinic or Emergency Department (ED) setting and then hospitalized during the same clinical encounter may be included.
  2. Chronic pulmonary conditions at the investigator's discretion*.

    *Such as:

    • Noninvasive ventilation use for any indication other than obstructive sleep apnea
    • Long-term invasive mechanical ventilation for any indication
    • Known diagnosis of cystic fibrosis or chronic bronchiectasis.
  3. Receipt of an investigational product within 30 days prior to Day 1 or plans to potentially start any investigational product within 30 days after the subject's anticipated study completion.
  4. Current enrollment in another clinical trial of an investigational agent.
  5. Known or suspected infection at any other anatomic site requiring antibacterial therapy.
  6. Immunosuppression*

    *Includes:

    • Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection with CD4 < 200 based on last known measurement or patient-reported value
    • History of hematologic malignancies
    • Receipt of chemotherapy within the previous 6 months or anticipated receipt of chemotherapy during the study period (1 month)
    • Known to have an absolute neutrophil count of < 500 cells/mL or an expectation of an absolute neutrophil count of < 500 cells/mL during course of the study
    • Current systemic corticosteroid use (equivalent of 20mg prednisone per day for > / = 2 weeks within the last month)
    • Systemic non-steroid immunosuppressive or biologic therapy for transplant, rheumatologic conditions, or other conditions within the last month. Biologics used specifically for control of moderate to severe asthma, including anti-IgE monoclonal antibody therapy (Xolair) or IL-5 monoclonal antibodies (Mepolizumab and Reslizumab) are allowed
  7. Contraindication to the use of azithromycin including history of allergy or intolerance to azithromycin or known prolonged QTc interval (> 500 msec).
  8. Any condition that in the judgment of the referring provider or site investigator precludes participation because it could affect subject safety or ability of subject to participate in this trial.
  9. Prior use of azithromycin in the past two weeks.
  10. Use of any systemic antibiotic in the previous 24 hours.
  11. Previous randomization in this trial.

Information from the National Library of Medicine

To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contact information provided by the sponsor.

Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier (NCT number): NCT03341273


Locations
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United States, Georgia
Emory Vaccine Center - The Hope Clinic
Atlanta, Georgia, United States, 30332
Atlanta VA Medical Center - Infectious Diseases Clinic
Decatur, Georgia, United States, 30033
United States, North Carolina
Durham VA Medical Center
Durham, North Carolina, United States, 27705-3875
Duke Human Vaccine Institute - Duke Vaccine and Trials Unit
Durham, North Carolina, United States, 27708
United States, Texas
Texas Medical Center - Michael E. DeBakey Veterans Affairs
Houston, Texas, United States, 77030-4211
Sponsors and Collaborators
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID)
  Study Documents (Full-Text)

Documents provided by National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID):
Study Protocol  [PDF] February 28, 2020
Statistical Analysis Plan  [PDF] January 28, 2021

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Responsible Party: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID)
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03341273    
Other Study ID Numbers: 15-0020
HHSN272201300015I
First Posted: November 14, 2017    Key Record Dates
Results First Posted: August 24, 2021
Last Update Posted: August 24, 2021
Last Verified: March 12, 2020

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Studies a U.S. FDA-regulated Drug Product: No
Studies a U.S. FDA-regulated Device Product: Yes
Product Manufactured in and Exported from the U.S.: No
Keywords provided by National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID):
Antibiotic Reduction
Antibiotic Therapy
Azyithromycin
Lower Respiratory Tract Infection
Procalcitonin
Additional relevant MeSH terms:
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Infections
Communicable Diseases
Respiratory Tract Infections
Disease Attributes
Pathologic Processes
Respiratory Tract Diseases
Azithromycin
Anti-Bacterial Agents
Anti-Infective Agents