Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation in Gambling Disorder
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|ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03336879|
Recruitment Status : Recruiting
First Posted : November 8, 2017
Last Update Posted : November 8, 2017
Background: An imbalance between prefrontal cortex (PFC) and the mesolimbic reward system has been suggested to contribute to GD. GD patients showed increased functional connectivity between regions of the PFC and mesolimbic reward system, as well as reduced connectivity in the area of the PFC. The altered interaction between prefrontal structures and the mesolimbic reward system in GD shares similarity with functional organization reported in Substances Use Disorders (SUDs), suggesting a more general pathophysiology for addictive disorders
Objectives: To test if rTMS can reduce craving and playing in Gambling Disorder, and also affect several mood, behavioral and cognitive alterations associated with prolonged Gambling Disorder.
Eligibility: Healthy, right-handed adults ages 18-65 who do have Gambling Disorder.
Design: This is a non-randomized, open label study. The study includes three phases: 1) a rTMS continued treatment phase; 2) a rTMS follow-up; and 3) a no rTMS follow-up.
Prior to participating, participants will be screened with:
- Cognitive tests
- Medical history
- Physical exam
After being enrolled, baseline behavioral and imaging data will be collected. In particular, participants will undergo:
- Cognitive tests
During the continued rTMS phase, participants with Gambling Disorder will receive real rTMS. Repetitive TMS will be delivered during 10 outpatient treatment days, over 2 weeks (5 days/week). Following this phase, subjects will have 12 follow-up visits (once/weekly), during which they will receive rTMS, and behavioral assessments will be performed. At the end of the rTMS follow up period, participants will further receive 3 follow up visits (once a month), during which rTMS will not be performed, but behavioral data will be collected.
- rTMS: A coil is placed on the head. Brief electrical current passes through the coil. At each visit, participants will receive two rTMS sessions, with a 1hr interval between sessions. At the beginning of each rTMS session, they view gambling-related images for few minutes.
- Repeat of screening tests and questionnaires
|Condition or disease||Intervention/treatment||Phase|
|Gambling Disorder||Device: Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation||Not Applicable|
Gambling Disorder (GD) is a complex addictive disorder involving fronto-striatal connectivity and prefrontal top-down control modulation of reward-related brain areas. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) seems to reduce cravings and improve cognitive function in substance dependent individuals. Moreover, rTMS has been shown to modulate dopaminergic and glutamatergic transmission, both involved in GD pathophysiology. However, the efficacy of rTMS in treating GD has not been evaluated and also, we lack a full characterization of rTMS effects on other important aspects, including effects on mood, cognition and changes in brain function. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) at 15 Hz frequency on the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in patients affected by GD and to examine possible changes in mood, cognition, and brain activity and functional connectivity associated with this intervention. For this purpose, the investigators will recruit GD patients. After screening and informed consent, participants will undergo active rTMS for two consecutive weeks (twice a day) during the continued treatment phase, and a maintenance intervention (twice a week for 3 months), during the rTMS follow-up phase. Following this phase, participants will be followed for further 3 months, during which no rTMS will be delivered but clinical data will be collected.
Procedure: The project consists of: Screening Visit (baseline), Phase 1 (continued treatment phase), Phase 2 (3 months- rTMS follow-up), Phase 3 (3 months follow-up without rTMS). First, there will be a screening visit, where a clinical interview will be conducted and questionnaires and tests will be administered to identify study participants who meet the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Baseline clinical and cognitive data will be acquired. In Phase 1, participants will receive 2 sessions of rTMS (active), twice per day for 10 consecutive days, for a total of 20 rTMS sessions. Following this, the investigators will evaluate the acute effect of treatment on relapse rate, gambling severity and craving, mood and cognition. In Phase 2 of the study, all participants will continue the treatment arm with rTMS (15Hz) for three months. Participants will receive 2 sessions of rTMS (active) once per week; clinical and cognitive data will be acquired once per month. The investigators will evaluate the acute effect of treatment on relapse rate, gambling severity and craving, mood and cognition. In Phase 3 of the study, participants will not receive any rTMS session. Clinical and cognitive data will be acquired once per month for three months. The investigators will evaluate the long-term effect of treatment on relapse rate, gambling severity and craving, mood and cognition.
|Study Type :||Interventional (Clinical Trial)|
|Estimated Enrollment :||10 participants|
|Intervention Model:||Single Group Assignment|
|Intervention Model Description:||non-randomized, open label study|
|Masking:||None (Open Label)|
|Official Title:||Exploring the Potential of High-frequency Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) to Treat Gambling Disorder (GD)|
|Actual Study Start Date :||November 1, 2017|
|Estimated Primary Completion Date :||December 30, 2018|
|Estimated Study Completion Date :||December 30, 2020|
Experimental: Active rTMS (15 Hz)
The intervention will be Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation. Each patient will receive active stimulation targeting the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (lDLPFC) with a frequency of 15 Hz and 100% of the individual resting motor threshold, for a total of 40 trains (60 stimuli per train, inter-train interval of 15 second, total duration 13 minutes). Each session will be repeated twice/daily for 10 consecutive days for 2 weeks, during the continued treatment phase. Following this, the participants will receive the maintenance intervention of 2 sessions per week for 3 months (rTMS follow-up), at the same parameters described above. Device: MagPro R30 with the Cool-B80 figure-of-eight coil (MagVenture, Falun, Denmark).
Device: Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation
Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) is a non-invasive brain stimulation technique. The investigators will use a MagPro R30 with the Cool-B80 figure-of-eight coil (MagVenture, Falun, Denmark).
Other Name: rTMS
- Changes in the Visual Analogue Scale for Craving (VAS-craving) [ Time Frame: Baseline, after rTMS treatment: 2 weeks, 3 months, 6 months ]A Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) is an instrument to measure a characteristic or attitude that is believed to range across a continuum of values. The VAS is a horizontal line, 100 mm in length, anchored by word descriptors at each end (0 = lower scores; 10 = higher scores). The patient marks on the line the point that they feel represents their perception of their current state. The VAS score is determined by measuring in millimeters from the left-hand end of the line to the point that the patient marks.
- Changes in the Pathological Gambling Adaptation of the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (PG-YBOCS) [ Time Frame: Baseline, after rTMS treatment: 2 weeks, 3 months, 6 months ]The Pathological Gambling Adaptation of the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (PG-YBOCS) is a 10-item clinician-administered questionnaire that measures the severity of PG over the past one week. Scores from 0 (min) to 4 (max) are assigned according to the severity. The first set of questions (questions 1-5) assess urges and thoughts associated with pathological gambling, whereas the last five questions assess the behavioral component of the disorder. Both single set scores and total score will be calculated.
- Changes in Gambling Disorder Severity as assessed by Timeline Follow Back (TLFB) [ Time Frame: Baseline, after rTMS treatment: 2 weeks, 3 months, 6 months, 12 months ]Gambling behavior will be assessed using the TimeLine Follow Back (TLFB). TLFB is an interview-based assessment. Using a calendar, participants are guided through the process of recalling and reporting daily gambling behavior. TLFB provides measures of gambling episodes per week, gambling days per week, heavy gambling days per week.
- Changes in Gambling Behavior as assessed by Gambling Symptom Assessment Scale (G-SAS) Total Score [ Time Frame: Baseline, after rTMS treatment: 2 weeks, 3 months, 6 months, 12 months ]Gambling Symptom Assessment Scale (G-SAS) is a 12-item self-rated scale designed to assess gambling symptom severity and change during treatment. Each 12-item scale has a score ranging from 0 - 4 (adjective anchors for 0 and 4 vary for each item). All items ask for an average symptom based on the past 7 days. Total score ranges from 0 (min) to 48 (max), higher scores indicate higher severity levels.
- Changes in the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) Performance [ Time Frame: Baseline, after rTMS treatment: 2 weeks, 3 months, 6 months ]The Iowa Gambling Task is a computerized card game commonly used to measure risky decision-making tendencies and sensitivity to reward and loss. Performance is calculated on the total net score results from the subtraction of the disadvantageous deck choices from the advantageous deck choices during the entire test ([C'+D']-[A'+B']).
- Changes in Snaith Hamilton Pleasure Scale (SHAPS) Total Score [ Time Frame: Baseline, after rTMS treatment: 2 weeks, 3 months, 6 months ]The Snaith Hamilton Pleasure Scale (SHAPS) is a 14-item self-report scale designed to measure hedonic-tone/anhedonia. Each item is scored on a 4-point scale, ranging from 0 (not at all) to 3 (extremely). Sum the scores from all 14 parameters gives the SHAPS Total Score which may range from 0 (min) to 42 (max).
- Changes in Temporal experience of Pleasure Scale (TEPS) Total [ Time Frame: Baseline, after rTMS treatment: 2 weeks, 3 months, 6 months ]The Temporal experience of Pleasure Scale (TEPS) is a 18-item self-report scale designed to evaluate individual trait dispositions in anticipatory and consummatory pleasure experiences. Each item is scored on a 6-point scale, ranging from 1 (extremely false) to 6 (extremely true). Sum the scores from all 20 parameters gives the TEPS Total Score which may range from 20 (min) to 108 (max).
- Changes in Montgomery-Asberg Depression Scale (MADRS) Total [ Time Frame: Baseline, after rTMS treatment: 2 weeks, 3 months, 6 months] ]The MADRS is a 10-item scale that evaluates the core symptoms and cognitive features of clinical depression. Each MADRS item is rated on a 0 to 6 scale. The MADRS Total score ranges from 0 (min) to 60 (max). Higher MADRS scores indicate higher levels of depressive symptoms.
- Changes in Hamilton Rating Scale for Anxiety (HAM-A) Total [ Time Frame: Baseline, after rTMS treatment: 2 weeks, 3 months, 6 months ]The HAM-A is a 14-item scale that assesses anxiety symptoms of anxiety such as "anxious mood", "tension" or "fears". Each item is scored on a 5-point scale, ranging from 0 (not present) to 4 (severe). Sum the scores from all 14 parameters gives the HAM-A Total Score which may range from 0 (min) to 56 (max).
- Changes in Profile of Mood States (POMS), Total Mood Disturbance Score [ Time Frame: Baseline, after rTMS treatment: 2 weeks, 3 months, 6 months ]The profile of mood state (POMS) is a questionnaire designed to measure present mood state by a list of adjectives on a 5-point Likert scale (0 = not at all; 4 = Extremely) and measures six dimensions of affect, including tension-anxiety, depression-dejection, anger-hostility, vigor-activity, fatigue-inertia, and confusion-bewilderment. The measure has been shown to produce reliable and valid profiles of mood state. A Total Mood Disturbance Score may be calculated by adding the scores for Tension, Depression, Anger, Fatigue and Confusion and then subtracting the score for Vigor.
To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contact information provided by the sponsor.
Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier (NCT number): NCT03336879
|Contact: Giovanni Martinotti, MD, PhD||0039 0871 firstname.lastname@example.org|
|Contact: Mauro Pettorruso, MD||0039 email@example.com|
|Department of Neuroscience, Imaging and Clinical Sciences||Recruiting|
|Chieti, Italy, 66100|
|Contact: Givoanni Martinotti, MD, PhD 0039 335 5627362 firstname.lastname@example.org|
|Contact: Chiara Montemitro, MD 0039 3281264713 email@example.com|
|Principal Investigator: Massimo di Giannantonio, MD|
|Sub-Investigator: Giovanni Martinotti, MD, PhD|
|Sub-Investigator: Chiara Montemitro, MD|
|La Promessa ONLUS||Not yet recruiting|
|Roma, Italy, 00192|
|Contact: Mauro Pettorruso, MD 039 339 1979487 firstname.lastname@example.org|
|Principal Investigator: Mauro Pettorruso, MD|
|Sub-Investigator: Fabrizio Fanella, MD|
|Principal Investigator:||Massimo di Giannantonio, MD||Department of Neuroscience, Imaging and Clinical Sciences (ITAB) - University G. d'Annunzio - Chieti (Italy)|