ECT With Ketamine Anesthesia vs High Intensity Ketamine With ECT Rescue for Treatment-Resistant Depression
|The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Know the risks and potential benefits of clinical studies and talk to your health care provider before participating. Read our disclaimer for details.|
|ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03272698|
Recruitment Status : Recruiting
First Posted : September 5, 2017
Last Update Posted : April 19, 2019
|Condition or disease||Intervention/treatment||Phase|
|Treatment Resistant Depression Ketamine||Drug: Ketamine Procedure: ECT||Phase 4|
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a common psychiatric illness that will affect at least 15% of the population. The burden of MDD is staggering, considered by the World Health Organization to be the leading cause of disability in developed countries for people aged 15-44.
Oral antidepressant therapy for MDD is notoriously ineffective. At least 3 weeks of treatment is usually required to achieve response rates that rarely exceed 40% (only 10% better than placebo); furthermore, treatment can be complicated by serious side effects serious (e.g. falls, weight gain) including increased suicidality. Up to 15% of patients will eventually be diagnosed as having treatment-resistant depressions (TRD), defined as the failure to respond to at least two antidepressants from different pharmacologic classes after adequate treatment duration at therapeutic dosages. The gold standard therapy for TRD is electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) with general anaesthesia (GA), which produces rapid antidepressant effects after only a few sessions. Propofol is the traditional anaesthetic agent used in GA for ECT, although recently this research group showed that ECT with ketamine as the primary anaesthetic produced faster depression remission compared to ECT with propofol.
Despite its efficacy, ECT is associated with considerable problems. More than 10% of patients will experience amnesia and confusion, which can persist for weeks. These cognitive side effects limit the frequency of ECT treatments to two or three times per week. There is also a risk of rare but devastating cardiorespiratory adverse events, at least part of which can be attributed to the need to induce chemical paralysis (for safety) and administer opioids (for pain control) during ECT with GA. Lastly, ECT requires specialized psychiatric expertise, dedicated resources, specially trained nurses, and an anaesthesiologist - requirements that are both costly and not readily available in many settings.
In contrast to ECT, daily short-acting anaesthesia, including ketamine, is well tolerated. A recent study found that only three treatments of intravenous ketamine produced a greater early improvement in depression scores compared to ECT under non-ketamine-based GA. This suggests a possibility of achieving early disease remission in TRD with ketamine-only infusions while avoiding the safety risks and treatment delays associated with ECT under GA.
The efficacy, feasibility, and improved side-effect profile of frequent successive ketamine treatments suggest it may be the preferred treatment for TRD compared to ECT with ketamine-based GA. There may, however, be a small subgroup of TRD patients who do not respond to ketamine alone and require ECT, although with a daily treatment regimen, ketamine non-responders could be quickly identified and given a standard course of ECT. The researchers propose that a treatment protocol of daily High Intensity Ketamine with ECT Rescue (HIKER) will be superior to ECT Therapy with ketamine anesthesia standard therapy (EAST) in facilitating early disease remission, while at the same time yielding similar overall remission rates by allowing ketamine non-responders to be quickly identified and given ECT.
|Study Type :||Interventional (Clinical Trial)|
|Estimated Enrollment :||62 participants|
|Intervention Model:||Parallel Assignment|
|Intervention Model Description:||Patients in the EAST arm will receive eight ECT sessions (on a bi/triweekly schedule, weekdays only) with ketamine-based general anesthetic (ketamine 0.75 mg/kg, remifentanil 1 mcg/kg, and succinylcholine 0.75 mg/kg for safety. Patients in the HIKER arm will receive a single dose of ketamine 0.50 mg/kg, on 8 successive weekdays. Since ketamine without ECT is not the standard of care for TRD, patients in the HIKER arm who do not achieve a 25% reduction in the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) after the third treatment will be deemed non-responsive to ketamine and switched to a standard 8 treatment course of ECT with ketamine-based GA as described in the EAST arm - this will be called rescue ECT. The attending psychiatrist may discontinue therapy for either arm if the patient achieves remission or treatment is ineffective based on clinical judgment.|
|Masking Description:||Patients will be randomized to either the HIKER or EAST arms, but due to the different frequencies of treatment, patient and physician blinding will not be possible. Outcome assessor will also not be blinded. As patients were not blinded, they could easily divulge their treatment allocation. The outcome assessor can also deduce treatment allocation from communications with nursing staff or study personnel. However, the follow up assessment at 30 days post-final treatment will be performed by a different study team member who will remain blinded.|
|Official Title:||A Prospective Randomized Controlled Trial of Electroconvulsive Therapy With Ketamine Anesthesia (Standard Therapy) and High Intensity Ketamine With Electroconvulsive Therapy Rescue for Treatment-Resistant Depression - EAST HIKER Trial|
|Actual Study Start Date :||September 1, 2017|
|Estimated Primary Completion Date :||June 30, 2019|
|Estimated Study Completion Date :||June 30, 2019|
Experimental: Ketamine (HIKER)
Patients in the HIKER arm will receive a single dose of ketamine 0.50 mg/kg, which is enough to achieve a full anaesthetic effect (i.e., unconsciousness mimicking the GA regimen above), on 8 successive weekdays.
IV Ketamine 0.50 mg/kg
Other Name: Ketalar
Active Comparator: Ketamine-ECT (EAST)
Patients in the EAST arm will initially receive intravenous ketamine 0.75 mg/kg, remifentanil 1 mcg/kg (to reduce discomfort), and succinylcholine 0.75 mg/kg (for safety). Based on patients' anaesthetic response, the attending anaesthesiologist is given the freedom to vary the dose of remifentanil and succinylcholine as well as administer propofol to achieve safe and acceptable anaesthetic conditions. As per the Saskatoon Health Region's care standard, patients in the EAST arm will receive eight ECT sessions (on a bi/triweekly schedule) delivered by the attending psychiatrist with either unilateral or bilateral electrode placement and monitoring of seizure threshold by the half-age method.
IV Ketamine 0.50 mg/kg
Other Name: Ketalar
ECT with unilateral or bilateral electrode placement and monitoring of seizure threshold by the half-age method
- Number of treatments required to reach disease remission [ Time Frame: From date of randomization until the date of disease remission or after 8 treatments, assessed up to 4 weeks ]The primary outcome is number of treatments required to reach disease remission, as defined by a reduction of MADRS score to under 10
- Rate of rescue ECT in the HIKER arm [ Time Frame: From date of randomization up to 6 days ]Percent of patients in the HIKER arm who do not achieve a 25% reduction in the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) after the third treatment.
- Suicidal ideation [ Time Frame: From date of randomization until the date of disease remission or after 8 treatments and at 30 days following last treatment, assessed up to 8 weeks ]Suicidal ideation as measured by the Columbia Suicide Severity Rating Scale
- Cognitive Impairment [ Time Frame: MMSE will be assessed at baseline, final treatment, and 30 day post-treatment follow-up ]Cognitive Impairment as measured by Mini-Mental State Exam (MMSE)
- Self- and clinician rated improvement [ Time Frame: From date of randomization until the date of disease remission or after 8 treatments and at 30 days following last treatment, assessed up to 8 weeks ]Patients will rate their condition on the patient-rated clinical global impression - improvement scale (PGI-I)
- Patient satisfaction with treatment [ Time Frame: From date of randomization until the date of disease remission or after 8 treatments and at 30 days following last treatment, assessed up to 8 weeks ]Satisfaction with treatment will be assessed by the 2-item treatment satisfaction questionnaire for medication-version II (TSQM-GS-II).
To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contact information provided by the sponsor.
Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier (NCT number): NCT03272698
|Contact: Stephen Lee, MDfirstname.lastname@example.org|
|Contact: Edmond Li, MDemail@example.com|
|Royal University Hospital||Recruiting|
|Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada, S7N 0W8|
|Contact: Stephen Lee, MD 3065010928 firstname.lastname@example.org|
|Principal Investigator:||Jonathan Gamble, MD||University of Saskatchewan|