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Ketogenic Diet (KD) in Alcoholism

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ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03255031
Recruitment Status : Recruiting
First Posted : August 21, 2017
Last Update Posted : October 2, 2018
Sponsor:
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
National Institutes of Health Clinical Center (CC) ( National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) )

Brief Summary:

Background:

A ketogenic diet (KD) is high in fat and low in carbohydrates. Research has shown that a KD can lessen tremor in animals withdrawing from alcohol. KD can also help people who have difficulties with thinking, sleep, and mood. Researchers want to see if KD can lessen symptoms of alcohol withdrawal in people with alcohol use disorder.

Objective:<TAB>

To test the effects of a ketogenic diet on alcohol withdrawal symptoms.

Eligibility:

Adults 18 years or older who are moderate or severe alcohol drinkers and are seeking treatment for alcohol use. They must be in the NIAAA inpatient alcohol treatment program.

Design:

Participants will be screened under another protocol. They will have a medical and psychiatric history, physical exam, and blood and urine tests. Participants will have a breath test for alcohol.

The study will be done in a 3-week stay in the clinic.

Participants will get either a KD or Standard American diet.

Participants will have breathalyzer, blood, and urine tests.

Participants will have magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans. The scanner is a cylinder in a magnetic field. They will lie on a table that slides in and out of the cylinder. They will do tasks on a computer during the scan.

Participants will have tests of thinking, memory, and attention.

Participants will have their sleeping and waking measured. They will wear a device like a headband held in place with elastic straps. Several electrodes will be placed on the body.

Participants will have heart tests.

Participants will wear an activity monitor on the wrist.

After the clinic stay, participants will be called by phone about 5 times over 3 months.


Condition or disease Intervention/treatment Phase
Alcoholism Dietary Supplement: Ketogenic Diet (KD) Dietary Supplement: Standard American (SA) Meals and Shakes Early Phase 1

Detailed Description:

Alcohol intoxication leads to marked reductions in brain glucose metabolism that reflect in part the use of ketones (including acetate) as alternative energy sources by the brain during intoxication. With repeated alcohol exposure both clinical and preclinical studies have shown a shift of brain substrate preference towards ketones. This has led us to question the potential value of a ketogenic diet in alcohol detoxification in order to prevent the ketone deprivation that would follow alcohol detoxification in alcoholics.

Objectives: Here we propose a blinded randomized design to assess the effects of a ketogenic diet on symptoms of alcohol withdrawal and on brain function in alcoholics undergoing inpatient treatment of alcohol detoxification. We hypothesize that a ketogenic diet will increase acetate levels in brain resulting in improved brain function in alcoholics as well as a reduction of alcohol withdrawal symptoms during detoxification.

Study population: Participants diagnosed with alcohol use disorder (AUD) as per DSM IV or DSM 5. Males and females ages 18 years and older will be included.

Design: This will include an inpatient component and outpatient follow-up. Patients are admitted to the Clinical Center (CC) for detoxification, where they undergo treatment as usual (TAU) and will be randomized into a regular versus a ketogenic diet. Patients will be given benzodiazepines only if withdrawal symptoms emerge while receiving either the ketogenic or the regular diet. Within 2-6 days after admission, all patients will undergo an MRI (brain structure and function, functional connectivity and spectroscopy, i.e. MRS) and a battery of neuropsychological tests (NP). MRI scans will also be obtained in week 2. After 3 weeks of inpatient care the MRI scans and NP studies will be repeated. We will complete all study procedures in n=25 patients with AUD with the ketogenic diet and n=25 with the regular diet.

Outcome parameters: Main outcome: To assess the effects of a ketogenic diet in patients hospitalized for the treatment of alcohol detoxification, on: (1) withdrawal symptoms including the need of medications to control them (benzodiazepines); (2) brain function as assessed by fMRI (at rest and during task conditions), (3) MRS, and (4) structural MRI. Secondary Outcomes: To assess the effects of a ketogenic diet on performance of cognitive tests, sleep, mood and craving.


Study Type : Interventional  (Clinical Trial)
Estimated Enrollment : 100 participants
Allocation: Randomized
Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
Masking: Single (Participant)
Primary Purpose: Basic Science
Official Title: Ketogenic Diet (KD) in Alcoholism
Actual Study Start Date : October 24, 2017
Estimated Primary Completion Date : December 31, 2025
Estimated Study Completion Date : December 31, 2025

Resource links provided by the National Library of Medicine


Arm Intervention/treatment
Experimental: KD Diet meals and shakes
3 week KD diet
Dietary Supplement: Ketogenic Diet (KD)
Ketogenic Diet (KD) Meals and Shakes: Participants will be randomized to a meal plan of a ketogenic diet (KD) at the time they sign the consent (day 1 or 2 of admission). For each meal at breakfast, lunch and dinner, the diets will consist of a KD meal depending on treatment randomization. Compliance tests are done daily with a urine test measuring ketone levels. To ensure that the diet is double blind in both the outpatient and inpatient phases, solid snacks are always ketogenic and shakes are KD.

Experimental: SA Diet meals and shakes
3 week SA diet
Dietary Supplement: Standard American (SA) Meals and Shakes
Standard American (SA) Meals and Shakes: Participants will be randomized to a meal plan of standard American (SA) diet at the time they sign the consent (day 1 or 2 of admission). For each meal at breakfast, lunch and dinner, the diet will consist of a SA meal (carbohydrate rich) depending on treatment randomization. Compliance tests are done daily with a urine test test measuring ketone levels. To ensure that the diet is double blind in both the outpatient and inpatient phases, solid snacks are always ketogenic and shakes are SA.




Primary Outcome Measures :
  1. To assess ketogenic diet on withdrawal ratings (CIWA) and Benzodiazepine use during withdrawal in the first week of detoxification. [ Time Frame: 3 years ]
  2. To assess ketogenic diet on brain function (during rest and activation assessed with fMRI), neurochemistry (assessed with MRS) and structure (assessed with MRI). [ Time Frame: 3 years ]
  3. To assess ketogenic diet on NP performance. [ Time Frame: 3 years ]

Secondary Outcome Measures :
  1. To determine if ketogenic diet improves: 1. sleep. 2. mood. 3. alcohol craving. [ Time Frame: 3 years ]


Information from the National Library of Medicine

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Ages Eligible for Study:   18 Years to 75 Years   (Adult, Older Adult)
Sexes Eligible for Study:   All
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   No
Criteria
  • INCLUSION CRITERIA:

Patients with AUD

  1. Age 18 years and older.
  2. Ability to provide written informed consent as determined by clinical examination and verbal communication. Capacity to consent will be determined by those giving the informed consent.
  3. DSM-IV diagnosis of alcohol dependence or alcohol abuse or DSM 5 diagnosis of moderate or severe AUD (established through history and clinical exam).
  4. Participants seeking treatment for their AUD (self-report)
  5. Minimum 5-year history of heavy drinking (self-report).
  6. Alcohol specified as the preferred drug (self-report).
  7. NIH employees with an AUD may participate in this study.

EXCLUSION CRITERIA:

  1. Unwilling or unable to refrain from use, within 24 hours of MRI and NPT procedures, psychoactive medications or medication that may affect study results (e.g., analgesics containing narcotics, antibiotics [must finish course at least 24 hours prior to a scheduled procedure], antidiarrheal preparations, anti-inflammatory drugs [systemic corticosteroids are exclusionary], antinauseants, cough/cold preparations) (self-report, medical history). The following medications are allowable for entry on this study: analgesics (non-narcotic); antacids; antiasthma agents that are not systemic corticosteroids; antifungal agents for topical use; antihistamines (non-sedating); H2-Blockers/PPI (proton pump inhibitors); laxatives. The use of antihyperlipidemics and/or diuretics are permitted as long as they have been taken for at least 1 month before procedure visits and dose has been stabilized.
  2. Current DSM-IV or DSM 5 diagnosis of a major psychiatric disorder (other than alcohol and nicotine use disorders, or substance use disorders that are mild/moderate) that required hospitalization, or that required daily medications for over 4 weeks in the past year (i.e., antidepressants; anticholinergics; antipsychotics; anxiolytics; lithium; psychotropic drugs not otherwise specified (nos) including herbal products (no drugs with psychomotor effects or with anxiolytics, stimulant, antipsychotic, or sedative properties); sedatives/hypnotics). Chronic benzodiazepine use prior to alcohol detox will also be excluded. Note that nicotine and/or caffeine use will not exclude participation.
  3. Chronic use of the following medications: analgesics containing narcotics; anorexics (sibuteramine); antianginal agents; antiarrhythmics; antiasthma agents that are systemic corticosteroids; antibiotics; anticoagulants; anticonvulsants; antidiarrheal preparations; antifungal agents (systemic); antihistamines (sedating); antihypertensives (except angiotensinconverting

    enzymeace (ACE) inhibitors such as Lisinopril, or Angiotensin receptor blockers (ARB) such as Losartan); anti-inflammatory drugs (systemic); antineoplastics; antiobesity; antivirals (except for treatment of HSV with agents without CNS activity, e.g. acyclovir, ganciclovir, famciclovir, valacyclovir); cough/cold preparations (dextromethorphan preparations, pseudoephedrine); hormones (exceptions: thyroid hormone replacement, oral contraceptives, and estrogen replacement therapy); insulin; and muscle relaxants.

  4. Major medical problems that can impact brain function or the use of a ketogenic diet (e.g., epilepsy, diabetes, liver disease, kidney disease, kidney stones (current and/or in the past), chronic metabolic acidosis or a cardiomyopathy) as determined by EKG, history and clinical exam.
  5. Clinically significant laboratory findings that could affect brain function (HIV+).
  6. Head trauma with loss of consciousness for more than 30 minutes (selfreport, medical history).
  7. Pregnant or breast-feeding: Females of childbearing potential, or with tubal ligation, or are post-menopausal and are age 60 or less will undergo a urine pregnancy test and it must be negative to continue participation. Urine pregnancy tests will be repeated on subsequent days of study. Females must not be currently breastfeeding.
  8. Presence of ferromagnetic objects in the body that are contraindicated for MRI of the head, fear of enclosed spaces, or other standard contraindication to MRI (self-report checklist).
  9. Cannot lie comfortably flat on his/her back for up to 2 hours in the MRI scanner (self-report).
  10. Body weight > 550 lbs. The MR scanner bed is tested to a weight limit of 550 lbs.
  11. Milk or soy allergy (self-report).

Note that subjects will not be excluded on initial screening from enrollment onto this study if their breath alcohol test is positive; or if their urine test is positive for drugs. The following guideline will be followed for positive alcohol/drug screens on study procedure days:

-If an AUD subject s breath alcohol and/or urine drug screen test is/are positive on study days (except for benzodiazepines during detox, including oxazepam, the procedures will be postponed and rescheduled to another day. If the urine drug screen is positive for THCCOOH, a saliva drug screen will be performed and subject may proceed with MRI/NPT procedures if saliva results for THC are negative. We will not place a limit on rescheduling study days.


Information from the National Library of Medicine

To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contact information provided by the sponsor.

Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier (NCT number): NCT03255031


Contacts
Contact: Megan S Carraco (301) 496-5055 megan.carraco@nih.gov

Locations
United States, Maryland
National Institutes of Health Clinical Center Recruiting
Bethesda, Maryland, United States, 20892
Contact: For more information at the NIH Clinical Center contact Office of Patient Recruitment (OPR)    800-411-1222 ext TTY8664111010    prpl@cc.nih.gov   
Sponsors and Collaborators
National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA)
Investigators
Principal Investigator: Corinde E Wiers National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA)

Additional Information:
Publications:
Responsible Party: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA)
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03255031     History of Changes
Other Study ID Numbers: 170152
17-AA-0152
First Posted: August 21, 2017    Key Record Dates
Last Update Posted: October 2, 2018
Last Verified: September 28, 2018

Studies a U.S. FDA-regulated Drug Product: No
Studies a U.S. FDA-regulated Device Product: No

Keywords provided by National Institutes of Health Clinical Center (CC) ( National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) ):
Ketogenic Diet
Detoxification
Functional MRI
MRI/MRS
Alcoholism

Additional relevant MeSH terms:
Alcoholism
Alcohol-Related Disorders
Substance-Related Disorders
Chemically-Induced Disorders
Mental Disorders