Benzoates - an Obesogenic Endocrine Disrupting Chemical
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|ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03190785|
Recruitment Status : Unknown
Verified June 2017 by David Nash Collier, East Carolina University.
Recruitment status was: Recruiting
First Posted : June 19, 2017
Last Update Posted : February 1, 2018
The benzoic acid derivatives sodium and potassium benzoate are preservatives that are commonly added to food and beverages to inhibit microbial growth and prevent spoilage. In the US the major source of benzoate intake is beverages. Studies have shown that piglets or chicks fed low levels of benzoic acid have greater feed efficiency and gain more weight than control fed animals. It has also been shown that benzoic acid inhibits the release of a key metabolic hormone, leptin, from isolated adipocytes (fat cells). Inadequate leptin levels result in increased appetite, decreased metabolic rate, weight gain, insulin resistance and increased diabetes risk.
The primary aim of the proposed research is to directly determine if benzoate consumption in human volunteers results in lower levels of leptin, decreased metabolic rate and increased insulin resistance. If so this would implicate benzoic acid as an obesogen and would help inform more effective approaches to obesity prevention and treatment. A secondary aim of the study is to establish a connection between benzoate exposure and biomarkers in urine that can be used to help treat obese patients.
|Condition or disease||Intervention/treatment||Phase|
|Obesity Metabolic Syndrome||Other: Benzoic acid washout and exposure||Not Applicable|
Our hypothesis is that benzoic acid is an obesogenic xenobiotic that attenuates the leptin signaling pathway resulting in lower metabolic rate and hence a propensity to weight loss non-responsiveness.
This hypothesis will be addressed in this pilot project via the following Specific Aims:
Aim 1. Determine if dietary benzoate attenuates leptin levels and metabolic rate in human subjects. Twenty heathy adolescents and young adults (age 18-25 yrs.) who are either overweight (BMI 25-29.9) or obese (BMI ≥ 30) will be studied. Following a 14 day period of avoiding benzoate containing beverages (washout period) subjects will then consume 36 oz./day of benzoate containing beverages (~ 3.9 - 4.5 mg benzoate/kg body weight per day exposure) for 7 days (exposure period). Fasting plasma samples will be collected pre and post-exposure and leptin, adiponectin, insulin and glucose levels will be compared. Indirect calorimetry will be used to compare resting energy expenditure pre-and post-exposure.
Aim 2. Validate the use of urinary hippurate and glycine to assess benzoate exposure. An early morning void urine samples will be collected pre-and post-exposure. Non-targeted NMR-based metabolomics analysis will be used to compare changes in individual subject's urinary metabolome using pre- and post-exposure as the "phenotypic" anchors.
|Study Type :||Interventional (Clinical Trial)|
|Estimated Enrollment :||20 participants|
|Intervention Model:||Single Group Assignment|
|Intervention Model Description:||Pre/post exposure comparison|
|Masking:||None (Open Label)|
|Official Title:||Benzoic Acid in Beverages: Establishing a Link Between Urinary Metabolites, Metabolic Dysregulation and Weight Loss Failure|
|Actual Study Start Date :||July 1, 2017|
|Estimated Primary Completion Date :||June 2018|
|Estimated Study Completion Date :||July 2019|
Experimental: Benzoic acid washout and exposure
All subjects will be in this arm which employs a pre-post exposure design. Subjects will undergo a 2 week washout period where they avoid consumption of benzoate containing beverages. Then there is a 1 week exposure period comprising daily consumption of benzoate containing beverages to result in up to 5 mg/kg per day benzoic acid intake.
Other: Benzoic acid washout and exposure
- Metabolic rate [ Time Frame: measured following 1 week dietary exposure to benzoic acid. ]Metabolic rate as measured by indirect calorimetry
- Leptin levels [ Time Frame: measured following 1 week dietary exposure to benzoic acid ]Circulating levels of the adipokine leptin will be measured using ELISA
To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contact information provided by the sponsor.
Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier (NCT number): NCT03190785
|Contact: David N Collier, MD, PhD||252 744 email@example.com|
|Contact: Patricia Brophy, MS||252 737 firstname.lastname@example.org|
|United States, North Carolina|
|Brody School of Medicine at East Carolina University||Recruiting|
|Greenville, North Carolina, United States, 27834|
|Contact: David N Collier, MD, PhD 252-744-4994 email@example.com|
|Contact: Patricia Brophy, MS 252 737 1600 firstname.lastname@example.org|