A Trial Comparing Noninvasive Ventilation Strategies in Preterm Infants Following Extubation
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|ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03181958|
Recruitment Status : Recruiting
First Posted : June 9, 2017
Last Update Posted : July 22, 2019
Respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) is the main cause of respiratory failure in preterm neonates, its incidence varying from 80% to 25% depending on gestational age.When optimal prenatal care is provided, the best approach to treat RDS, according to several recent trials,consists in providing continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) from the first minutes of life using short binasal prongs or masks, followed by early selective surfactant administration for babies with worsening oxygenation and/or increasing work of breathing. Any effort should be done to minimize the time under invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV).Nonetheless, clinical trials have shown that a relevant proportion of preterm neonates fails this approach and eventually need IMV.The duration of IMV is a well known risk factor for the development of broncho-pulmonary dysplasia (BPD) - a condition associated with significant morbidity and mortality.
To minimize the duration of IMV, various non invasive respiratory support modalities are available in neonatal intensive care units (NICU). CPAP is presently the most common technique used in this regard. However, a systematic review has shown that non-invasive positive pressure ventilation (NIPPV) reduces the need for IMV (within one week from extubation) more effectively than NCPAP, although it is not clear if NIPPV may reduce need for intubation longterm and it seems to have no effect on BPD and mortality. NIPPV main drawback is the lack of synchronization, which is difficult to be accurately achieved and is usually unavailable. A more recent alternative technique is non-invasive high frequency oscillatory ventilation (NHFOV) which consists on the application of a bias flow generating a continuous distending positive pressure with oscillations superimposed on spontaneous tidal breathing with no need for synchronization. The physiological, biological and clinical details about NHFOV have been described elsewhere.
To date, there is only one small observational uncontrolled study about the use of NHFOV after extubation in preterm infants. Other relatively small case series or retrospective cohort studies suggested safety, feasibility and possible usefulness of NHFOV and have been reviewed elsewhere.The only randomized trial published so far compared NHFOV to biphasic CPAP,in babies failing CPAP and it has been criticized for methodological flaws and for not taking into account respiratory physiology.An European survey showed that, despite the absence of large randomized clinical trials, NHFOV is quite widely used, at least in some Countries and no major side effects are reported, although large data about NHFOV safety are lacking. This may be due to the relative NHFOV easiness of use but evidence-based and physiology-driven data are warranted about this technique.
|Condition or disease||Intervention/treatment||Phase|
|Intubated Infants Were Intend to Extubation Using Noninvasive Ventilation Strategies||Device: NHFOV Device: NCPAP Device: NIPPV||Not Applicable|
NHFOV should theoretically provide the advantages of invasive high frequency oscillatory ventilation (no need for synchronization, high efficiency in CO2 removal, less volume/barotrauma) and nasal CPAP (non-invasive interface, oxygenation improvement by the increase in functional residual capacity through alveolar recruitment). NHFOV should allow to increase mean airway pressure (Paw) avoiding gas trapping and hypercarbia, thanks to the superimposed high frequency oscillations. Therefore, NHFOV is more likely to be beneficial for those neonates requiring high distending pressure to open up their lungs, such as babies at high risk of extubation failure due to severity of their lung disease. This may also be the case of extremely preterm, BPD-developing neonates who have increased airway resistances, while they are subjected to a deranged alveolarization and lung growth. Neonates presenting with respiratory acidosis may also benefit from NHFOV. Several animal and bench studies investigated the physiology and peculiarities of NHFOV and these data should be used to conduct a physiology-guided trial in order to avoid errors done in the early trials about invasive high frequency ventilation.
This study will be the first large trial aiming to compare CPAP vs NIPPV vs NHFOV in preterm neonates after surfactant replacement and during their entire NICU stay, to reduce the total need of invasive ventilation. Since there is a lack of formal data regarding NHFOV safety, some safety outcomes will also be considered.Specific subgroup analysis will be conducted for pre-specified groups of patients who may most likely benefit from NHFOV, according to the above-described physiological characteristics.
|Study Type :||Interventional (Clinical Trial)|
|Estimated Enrollment :||1440 participants|
|Intervention Model:||Parallel Assignment|
|Intervention Model Description:||
When the neonate had fulfilled the extubation criteria, extubation will took place with a gentle intratracheal suction. Upper airways will then be suctioned and intervention will be started immediately as follows:
Importantly, the randomization should be done within one hour from the extubation to avoid bias.
|Masking:||Double (Investigator, Outcomes Assessor)|
|Masking Description:||Blinding towards the caregivers is impossible and blinding towards the patients makes no sense. However, outcomes' assessors will be blinded, as endpoints will be recorded by investigators not involved in patients' care. An assessor per each participating NICU will be nominated. Moreover, investigators performing the final statistical analyses will be blinded to the treatment allocation, as data collected by assessors will be inserted in the dedicated website and the arms' allocation will be re-coded.|
|Official Title:||Nasal High Frequency Oscillation Ventilation(NHFOV) vs. Nasal Continuous Positive Airway Pressure(NCPAP) vs Nasal Intermittent Positive Pressure Ventilation（NIPPV） as Post-extubation Respiratory Support in Preterm Infants With Respiratory Distress Syndrome:a Multicenter Randomized Controlled Trial|
|Actual Study Start Date :||January 1, 2018|
|Estimated Primary Completion Date :||December 31, 2020|
|Estimated Study Completion Date :||December 31, 2020|
neonates assigned to NHFOV will be started with the following boundaries:
a) Paw of 10 cmH2O (can be changed in steps of 1 cmH2O within the range range 5- 16cmH2O); Paw will be titrated (within the range) according to open lung strategy, performing alveolar recruitment, similar to what is done in endotracheal high frequency oscillatory ventilation targeting a FiO2≤25-30%. Maximal allowed FiO2 will be 0.40 and SpO2 targets will be 90%-95%. b) frequency of 10Hz(can be changed in steps of 1Hz within the range 8-12Hz). c)Inspiratory time 50% (1:1).d)amplitude 25 cmH2O(can be changed in steps of 5 cmH2O within the range 25-50 cmH2o; amplitude will be titrated according to PaCO2.
Nasal high frequency oscillation ventilation (NHFOV) is used as the noninvasive supporting mode after extubation.
Active Comparator: NCPAP
Neonates assigned to the CPAP group were initiated on a pressure of 5 cmH2O. CPAP can be raised in steps of 1 cmH2O up to 8 cmH2O. If this is not enough to maintain SpO2 between 90% and 95%, FiO2 will be added up to 0.40.
Nasal continuous positive airway pressure(NCPAP) is used as the noninvasive supporting mode after extubation.
neonates assigned to the NIPPV group will be started with the following parameters: a) positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) of 4 cmH2O (can be raised in steps of 1 cmH2O to max 8 cmH2O, according to the oxygenation).b)Peak Inspiratory Pressure (PIP) of 15 cmH2O (can be raised in steps of 1 cmH2O to max 25 cmH2O, according to oxygenation,PaCO2 levels and the chest expansion); maximal allowed FiO2 will be 0.40 and SpO2 targets will be 90-95%. c) inspiratory time (IT) will be 0.45 - 0.5 sec(according to clinicians' evaluation of leaks and the appearance of the pressure curve: a small pressure plateau is required and flow may be set accordingly) and rate will be started at 30 bpm (can be raised in steps of 5 bpm to max 50 bpm, according to PaCO2 levels).
Nasal intermittent positive pressure ventilation(NIPPV) is used as the noninvasive supporting mode after extubation.
- duration of invasive mechanical ventilation [ Time Frame: during hospitalization ]the total days of the baby supported with the ventilator
- ventilator-free days [ Time Frame: during non-invasive ventilation ]non-invasive ventilation was need after extubation
- the number of reintubation [ Time Frame: during hospitalization ]the total numbers of the baby supported with ventilator
- airleaks [ Time Frame: during hospitalization ]airleaks was diagnosed after extubation
- bronchopulmonary dysplasia(BPD) [ Time Frame: at 36 weeks'gestational age of 36 weeks or at discharge ]bronchopulmonary dysplasia was diagnosed after extubation BPD was defined according to the National Institutes of Health consensus definition
- Retinopathy of prematurity> 2nd stage [ Time Frame: during hospitalization ]Retinopathy of prematurity> 2nd stage was diagnosed after extubation
- Neonatal necrotizing enterocolitis≥ 2nd stage [ Time Frame: during hospitalization ]Neonatal necrotizing enterocolitis≥ 2nd stage was diagnosed after extubation
- Intraventricular hemorrhage>2nd grade [ Time Frame: during hospitalization ]Intraventricular hemorrhage>2nd grade was diagnosed after extubation
- need for postnatal steroids [ Time Frame: during hospitalization ]steroids was used after birth
- in-hospital mortality [ Time Frame: during hospitalization ]the baby died in hospital
- composite mortality/BPD [ Time Frame: during hospitalization ]the baby was dead or diagnosed with BPD.
- Weekly weight gain [ Time Frame: during hospitalization ]Weekly weight gain (in grams/day) for the first 4 weeks of life or until NICU discharge, whichever comes first
- haemodynamically significant patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) [ Time Frame: during hospitalization ]haemodynamically significant patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) was diagnosed
To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contact information provided by the sponsor.
Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier (NCT number): NCT03181958
|Contact: Chen Long, PhD,MDfirstname.lastname@example.org|
|Daping Hospital and the Research Institute of Surgery of the Third Military Medical University||Recruiting|
|Chongqing, Chongqing, China, 400042|
|Contact: Chen Long, PhD,MD 13883559467 email@example.com|
|Contact: Shi Yuan, PhD,MD 13508300283 firstname.lastname@example.org|
|Principal Investigator:||Shi Yuan, PhD,MD||Daping Hospital and the Research Institute of Surgery of the Third Military Medical University|