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The Impact of Employee Wellness Programs

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ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03167658
Recruitment Status : Active, not recruiting
First Posted : May 30, 2017
Last Update Posted : January 7, 2021
Sponsor:
Collaborators:
Robert Wood Johnson Foundation
National Institute on Aging (NIA)
Abdul Latif Jameel Poverty Action Lab
University of Chicago
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
Zirui Song, Harvard Medical School

Brief Summary:
There is great public and private interest in the use of workplace wellness programs to reduce health care spending, improve health outcomes, and enhance productivity for employees. However, there is little rigorous evidence on the effects of wellness programs. This study partners with a large multi-state U.S. employer (BJ's Wholesale Club) and an experienced wellness vendor (Wellness Workdays) to evaluate a multi-prong workplace wellness program, including components such as nutrition counseling, fitness challenges, and stress management workshops. The wellness program will be delivered by a team of experts including Registered Dieticians, and will include financial rewards for participation. The program will be available to employees in initially 20 of BJ's 200 worksites, and later expanded to 25 worksites. These worksites have been randomly selected, allowing a randomized controlled trial evaluation of the effects of the wellness program. Data will be collected on a wide array of outcomes from multiple sources, including on-site biometric screenings and surveys, employment records, and health insurance claims for employees at both treatment and control worksites.

Condition or disease Intervention/treatment Phase
Health Behavior Disease, Chronic Behavioral: Workplace wellness program Not Applicable

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Study Type : Interventional  (Clinical Trial)
Actual Enrollment : 48664 participants
Allocation: Randomized
Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
Intervention Model Description: Each worksite (and all employees at that site) randomly assigned to Treatment or Control arm.
Masking: None (Open Label)
Primary Purpose: Other
Official Title: The Impact of Employee Wellness Programs
Actual Study Start Date : January 2015
Actual Primary Completion Date : October 2018
Estimated Study Completion Date : June 2021

Arm Intervention/treatment
Experimental: Treatment
Employees at treatment worksites will be given access to workplace wellness programming. Participation by employees will be voluntary, but all employees at treatment sites will be considered as part of the treatment group. Employees will also be invited to complete on-site biometric assessments and questionnaires. Data from secondary data sources (including employment records and health insurance claims) will be collected for employees at all BJ's worksites.
Behavioral: Workplace wellness program
Multi-prong workplace wellness program, with components such as nutrition counseling, fitness challenges, and stress management workshops, including supports and incentives.

No Intervention: Primary Control
Employees at primary control worksites will be invited to complete on-site biometric assessments and questionnaires, but will not have access to the workplace wellness programming. Data from secondary data sources (including employment records and health insurance claims) will be collected for employees at all BJ's worksites.
No Intervention: Secondary Control
Employees at secondary control worksites will not participate in in-person screenings or questionnaires, and will not have access to workplace wellness programming. Data from secondary data sources (including employment records and health insurance claims) will be collected for employees at all BJ's worksites.



Primary Outcome Measures :
  1. Physical activity [ Time Frame: Primary data collected at 18 months and 30 months after initiation of intervention ]
    Regular exercise, number of hours sitting per day, and actively managing weight, as indicated in responses to survey questions

  2. Obesity [ Time Frame: Primary data collected at 18 months and 30 months after initiation of intervention ]
    Body Mass Index>=30, calculated from measured height and weight

  3. Absenteeism [ Time Frame: Administrative records from 3 years spanning intervention ]
    Number of sick or personal days as a share of total days employed, from employment records

  4. Health care spending [ Time Frame: Administrative records from 3 years spanning intervention ]
    Dollars spent on health care for employees covered by employer-sponsored insurance, from claims records


Other Outcome Measures:
  1. Blood pressure [ Time Frame: Primary data collected at 18 months and 30 months after initiation of intervention ]
    Systolic blood pressure, measured

  2. Depression [ Time Frame: Primary data collected at 18 months and 30 months after initiation of intervention ]
    Unmanaged depression, as indicated in responses to survey questions

  3. Tenure [ Time Frame: Administrative records from 3 years spanning intervention ]
    Duration of employment in days, from employment records

  4. Job performance [ Time Frame: Administrative records from 3 years spanning intervention ]
    Numerical performance rating from annual review, from employment records

  5. Health care spending (i.e. dollars spent) [ Time Frame: Administrative records from 3 years spanning intervention ]
    Dollars spent on health care and prescription drugs for employees covered by employer-sponsored insurance, decomposed into spending on inpatient, outpatient, emergency department, and prescription drugs, from claims records

  6. Health care utilization (i.e. number of doctor visits, hospitalizations, or medications) [ Time Frame: Administrative records from 3 years spanning intervention ]
    Health care encounters and prescription drugs for employees covered by employer-sponsored insurance, decomposed into inpatient, outpatient, emergency department, and prescription drugs, from claims records

  7. Nutrition management [ Time Frame: Primary data collected at 18 months and 30 months after initiation of intervention ]
    Affirmative engagement in active efforts to improve nutrition, as indicated in responses to survey questions

  8. Stress management [ Time Frame: Primary data collected at 18 months and 30 months after initiation of intervention ]
    Unmanaged stress and stress at work, as indicated in responses to survey questions

  9. Screenings and exams [ Time Frame: Primary data collected at 18 months and 30 months after initiation of intervention ]
    Percent of recommended tests received, as indicated in responses to survey questions

  10. Tobacco use [ Time Frame: Primary data collected at 18 months and 30 months after initiation of intervention ]
    Smoking, as indicated in responses to survey questions

  11. Health and wellbeing [ Time Frame: Primary data collected at 18 months and 30 months after initiation of intervention ]
    Short form 8 (SF-8) physical and mental summary scores, as indicated in responses to survey questions. Each question of the SF-8 uses a 5- or 6-point Likert scale. Its standardized scoring system combines responses into a score that can be interpreted as a continuous variable (analogous to a 0-100 scale), with higher scores denoting better self-reported health.

  12. Blood glucose [ Time Frame: Primary data collected at 18 months and 30 months after initiation of intervention ]
    Blood glucose, measured

  13. Cholesterol [ Time Frame: Primary data collected at 18 months and 30 months after initiation of intervention ]
    Total cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein (HDL), measured



Information from the National Library of Medicine

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Ages Eligible for Study:   18 Years and older   (Adult, Older Adult)
Sexes Eligible for Study:   All
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   No
Criteria

Inclusion Criteria:

  • Employed in one of BJ's clubs during the period of the intervention

Exclusion Criteria:

  • Not employed in one of BJ's clubs during the period of the intervention

Information from the National Library of Medicine

To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contact information provided by the sponsor.

Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier (NCT number): NCT03167658


Sponsors and Collaborators
Harvard School of Public Health
Robert Wood Johnson Foundation
National Institute on Aging (NIA)
Abdul Latif Jameel Poverty Action Lab
University of Chicago
Investigators
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Principal Investigator: Zirui Song, MD, PhD Harvard Medical School
  Study Documents (Full-Text)

Documents provided by Zirui Song, Harvard Medical School:
Publications automatically indexed to this study by ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier (NCT Number):
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Responsible Party: Zirui Song, Assistant Professor of Health Care Policy and Medicine, Harvard Medical School
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03167658    
Other Study ID Numbers: Wellness 14-3141
R01AG050329 ( U.S. NIH Grant/Contract )
P30AG012810 ( U.S. NIH Grant/Contract )
72611 ( Other Grant/Funding Number: Robert Wood Johnson Foundation )
AEARCTR-0000586 ( Registry Identifier: American Economic Association Trial Registry )
First Posted: May 30, 2017    Key Record Dates
Last Update Posted: January 7, 2021
Last Verified: January 2021
Individual Participant Data (IPD) Sharing Statement:
Plan to Share IPD: No

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Studies a U.S. FDA-regulated Drug Product: No
Studies a U.S. FDA-regulated Device Product: No
Keywords provided by Zirui Song, Harvard Medical School:
Wellness
Prevention
Additional relevant MeSH terms:
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Chronic Disease
Disease Attributes
Pathologic Processes