Try the modernized beta website. Learn more about the modernization effort.
Working… Menu

Phase 1/2 Study of Tivozanib in Combination With Nivolumab in Subjects With RCC

The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Read our disclaimer for details. Identifier: NCT03136627
Recruitment Status : Completed
First Posted : May 2, 2017
Last Update Posted : December 6, 2021
Bristol-Myers Squibb
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
AVEO Pharmaceuticals, Inc.

Brief Summary:

This study will evaluate the safety, tolerability, dose-limiting toxicities, MTD, and preliminary anti-tumor activity of tivozanib in combination with nivolumab in subjects with metastatic renal cell cancer. This will use a standard '3+3' dose-escalation trial design. A cohort of 3 subjects will be enrolled at each dose level. If 1 of 3 subjects experiences a DLT during Cycle 1, that dose level will be expanded to 6 subjects. If 0 of 3 or ≤ 1 of 6 subjects experience a DLT during Cycle 1, escalation to the next dose will occur. If ≥ 2 of 6 subjects experience a DLT during Cycle 1, dose escalation will stop and the prior dose will be considered the MTD. This is a validated trial design for Phase 1 trials.

Following completion of the dose-escalation cohorts and determination of MTD, an expansion cohort of up to 20 subjects may be enrolled at MTD to further evaluate safety, tolerability, and preliminary anti-tumor activity of tivozanib in combination with nivolumab in the same target population.

Condition or disease Intervention/treatment Phase
Carcinoma, Renal Cell Drug: Tivozanib Drug: Nivolumab Phase 1 Phase 2

Detailed Description:

Tivozanib hydrochloride (tivozanib; previously known as AV-951 and as KRN951) has the chemical name (N-{2-Chloro-4-[(6,7-dimethoxy-4-quinolyl)oxy]phenyl}-N'-(5-methyl-3-isoxazolyl)urea hydrochloride monohydrate. Tivozanib is a novel and potent vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor (VEGFR TKI) that has demonstrated significant anti-tumor effects in pre clinical experiments [1]. Tivozanib inhibits phosphorylation of VEGF receptors (VEGFR) -1, -2 and -3 at picomolar concentrations (IC50 of 0.21, 0.16 and 0.24 nM respectively), and inhibits c-Kit and platelet derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR) at 10-times higher concentrations (IC50 of 1.63 and 1.72 nM respectively).

Based on its biochemical profile, tivozanib appears to be one of the most potent and selective VEGF tyrosine kinase inhibitor in clinical development. Other agents used for treatment of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) such as sunitinib and sorafenib inhibit multiple tyrosine kinases in addition to the VEGF receptor tyrosine kinase, leading to off-target toxicities such as fatigue, hand-foot syndrome, stomatitis, and neutropenia. The adverse event (AE) profile of tivozanib demonstrates that it is a selective VEGF tyrosine kinase inhibitor, with reduced off-target toxicities.

Nivolumab is a fully human IgG4 programmed death 1 (PD-1) immune checkpoint inhibitor antibody that selectively blocks the interaction between PD-1, which is expressed on activated T cells, and PD-1 ligand 1 (PD-L1) and 2 (PD-L2) which are expressed on immune cells and tumor cells. Interaction between PD-1 and PD-L1 or PD-L2 normally results in the inhibition of the cellular immune response. Nivolumab has shown activity in renal cell carcinoma. [2]

This study is designed to test the hypothesis that tivozanib can be combined with nivolumab for the treatment of patients with renal cell carcinoma. The purpose of the study is to determine the maximum dose of tivozanib that can be safely combined with nivolumab, and to evaluate the safety profile and tolerability of this combination. Given the different mechanisms of action and a lack of overlapping toxicities this combination may provide an alternative therapy to patients with renal cell carcinoma.

Layout table for study information
Study Type : Interventional  (Clinical Trial)
Actual Enrollment : 28 participants
Allocation: N/A
Intervention Model: Single Group Assignment
Intervention Model Description: Tivozanib in Combination with Nivolumab
Masking: None (Open Label)
Masking Description: Open Label
Primary Purpose: Treatment
Official Title: A Phase 1b/2, Open-Label, Multi-Center Study of Tivozanib in Combination With Nivolumab in Subjects With Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma
Actual Study Start Date : March 22, 2017
Actual Primary Completion Date : December 21, 2017
Actual Study Completion Date : June 18, 2021

Arm Intervention/treatment
Experimental: Tivozanib (AV-951) plus Nivolumab
Tivozanib plus Nivolumab:Tivozanib will be administered once daily for 3 weeks followed by 1 week off. Nivolumab will be administered every 2 weeks starting on Day 1.
Drug: Tivozanib
Tivozanib (AV-951): Phase 1b study and Phase 2a study: Subjects will receive 1 dose of tivozanib daily for 21 days followed by a 7 day rest period (1 cycle = 4 weeks).
Other Name: AV-951

Drug: Nivolumab
Nivolumab: Phase 1b study and Phase 2a study: All subjects will receive IV nivolumab 240 mg every 2 weeks administered over 1 hour.
Other Name: Opdivo (anti-PD-1 monoclonal antibody)

Primary Outcome Measures :
  1. Maximum Tolerated Dose (MTD) of tivozanib administered orally in combination with Nivolumab in subjects with advanced renal cell carcinoma. [ Time Frame: 28 days (1 Cycle) ]
    A traditional escalation rule, also known as "3 + 3" rule, will be used for this study. Subjects are treated in groups of 3 with each receiving the same dose. If none of the 3 subjects experience a DLT within Cycle 1, the next group of 3 subjects receives the next higher dose, otherwise, the group will expand to 6 subjects treated at the same dose level. If ≤ 1 of the 6 subjects treated at that dose level experience a DLT within Cycle 1, the trial will continue to the next higher dose level. If ≥ 2 of the 6 experience a DLT at the dose level within Cycle 1, then escalation stops at that level and the prior dose level will be considered the MTD. If MTD is not identified and both dose levels are tolerated, 1.5 mg will be considered the recommended Phase II dose (RP2D) for the expansion.

Secondary Outcome Measures :
  1. Disease status will be summarized by cycle and dose group, including changes from baseline. [ Time Frame: Every 3 months during the first year [beginning from the date of the last scan performed prior to treatment discontinuation], and every 6 months thereafter (up to 24 months) until disease progression or start of another anti-cancer therapy. ]
    Upon determination of MTD, up to 20 additional subjects with measurable disease will be enrolled in the MTD Expansion Cohort for an expanded assessment of safety and activity.

Information from the National Library of Medicine

Choosing to participate in a study is an important personal decision. Talk with your doctor and family members or friends about deciding to join a study. To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contacts provided below. For general information, Learn About Clinical Studies.

Layout table for eligibility information
Ages Eligible for Study:   18 Years and older   (Adult, Older Adult)
Sexes Eligible for Study:   All
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   No

Inclusion Criteria:

  1. ≥ 18-year-old
  2. Histologically or cytologically documented renal cell carcinoma with a clear cell component, except in Phase 1b, where any histology will be permitted
  3. Metastatic renal cell carcinoma. Measurable or evaluable disease by RECIST 1.1 criteria
  4. No prior exposure to tivozanib or nivolumab
  5. ECOG performance status ≤ 1 (see Appendix A) and life expectancy ≥ 3 months.
  6. Signed and dated written informed consent
  7. Sexually active pre-menopausal female subjects and female partners of male subjects must use adequate contraceptive measures, while on study and for at least 160 days after the last dose of study drug. Sexually active male subjects must use adequate contraceptive measures, while on study and for at least 160 days after the last dose of study drug. All fertile male and female subjects and their partners must agree to use a highly effective method of contraception. Effective birth control includes (a) intrauterine device (IUD) plus one barrier method; or (b) 2 barrier methods. Effective barrier methods are male or female condoms, diaphragms, and spermicides (creams or gels that contain a chemical to kill sperm). Note: Oral, implantable, or injectable contraceptives may be affected by cytochrome P450 interactions, and are not considered effective for this study.

Exclusion Criteria:

  1. Pregnant or lactating women.
  2. Subjects with symptomatic CNS metastases. Subjects with treated brain metastases that have remained stable for at least 3 months without steroids are allowed. Subjects with signs or symptoms or history of brain metastasis must have a CT or MRI scan of the brain within 1 month prior to the start of protocol therapy. Subjects with spinal cord or nerve root compression who have completed treatment at least 4 weeks before the start of protocol therapy and are stable without steroid treatment for at least one week before start of protocol therapy are allowed. Subjects with leptomeningeal metastases are not allowed.
  3. Any of the following hematologic abnormalities:

    • Hemoglobin < 9.0 g/dL
    • ANC < 1500 per mm3
    • Platelet count < 100,000 per mm3
  4. Any of the following serum chemistry abnormalities:

    • Total bilirubin > 1.5 × ULN (>2.5 mg/dL in patients with Gilbert's syndrome)
    • AST or ALT > 2.5 × ULN (or > 5 × ULN for subjects with liver metastasis)
    • Alkaline phosphatase > 2.5 × ULN (or > 5 × ULN for subjects with liver or bone metastasis)
    • Serum creatinine > 1.5 × ULN
    • Proteinuria > 2.5 g/24 hours or 3+ with urine dipstick
    • Any other ³ Grade 3 laboratory abnormality at baseline (other than those listed above)
  5. Significant cardiovascular disease, including:

    • Clinically symptomatic heart failure. Subjects with a history of heart failure must have an ECHO or MUGA scan to document left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) > 45% prior to start of protocol therapy
    • Uncontrolled hypertension: blood pressure >150/95 mmHg on more than 2 antihypertensive medications, on two consecutive measurements obtained at least 24 hours apart. Subjects with a history of hypertension must have been on stable doses of anti-hypertensive drugs for ≥ 2 weeks prior to start of protocol therapy.
    • Myocardial infarction within 3 months prior to start of protocol therapy
  6. Subjects with delayed healing of wounds, ulcers, and/or bone fractures
  7. Serious/active infection or infection requiring parenteral antibiotics
  8. Inadequate recovery from any prior surgical procedure; major surgical procedure within 4 weeks prior to start of protocol therapy.
  9. Inability to comply with protocol requirements
  10. Subjects with a "currently active" second primary malignancy other than non-melanoma skin cancers. Subjects are not considered to have a "currently active" malignancy if they have completed anti-cancer therapy and have been disease free for > 2 years.
  11. Known concomitant genetic or acquired immune suppression disease such as HIV
  12. Treatment with systemic hormonal therapy within 3 weeks prior to start of protocol therapy, with the exception of:

    • Hormonal therapy for appetite stimulation or contraception
    • Nasal, ophthalmic, inhaled and topical steroid preparations
    • Oral replacement therapy for adrenal insufficiency
    • Low-dose maintenance steroid therapy (equivalent of prednisone 10mg/day) for other conditions
    • Hormone replacement therapy
  13. Herbal preparations/supplements (except for a daily multivitamin/mineral supplement not containing herbal components) or CYP3A4 inhibitors or inducers (see Appendix B) within 2 weeks prior to start of or during protocol therapy.

Information from the National Library of Medicine

To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contact information provided by the sponsor.

Please refer to this study by its identifier (NCT number): NCT03136627

Layout table for location information
Bordeaux Hospital University Center (CHU)
Bordeaux, France
Center Léon Bérard
Lyon, France
Centre Paul Strauss
Strasbourg, France, 67065
Institut Gustave Roussy
Villejuif, France, 94805
Sponsors and Collaborators
AVEO Pharmaceuticals, Inc.
Bristol-Myers Squibb
Publications automatically indexed to this study by Identifier (NCT Number):
Layout table for additonal information
Responsible Party: AVEO Pharmaceuticals, Inc. Identifier: NCT03136627    
Other Study ID Numbers: AV-951-16-119
First Posted: May 2, 2017    Key Record Dates
Last Update Posted: December 6, 2021
Last Verified: December 2021
Individual Participant Data (IPD) Sharing Statement:
Plan to Share IPD: No

Layout table for additional information
Studies a U.S. FDA-regulated Drug Product: No
Studies a U.S. FDA-regulated Device Product: No
Keywords provided by AVEO Pharmaceuticals, Inc.:
RCC, Tivozanib, Nivolumab, Metastatic Renal Cell Cancer
Additional relevant MeSH terms:
Layout table for MeSH terms
Carcinoma, Renal Cell
Neoplasms, Glandular and Epithelial
Neoplasms by Histologic Type
Kidney Neoplasms
Urologic Neoplasms
Urogenital Neoplasms
Neoplasms by Site
Kidney Diseases
Urologic Diseases
Antineoplastic Agents, Immunological
Antineoplastic Agents
Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors
Molecular Mechanisms of Pharmacological Action