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Mitoxantrone, Etoposide, and Cytarabine (MEC) Plus Lenalidomide for Relapsed or Refractory Acute Myeloid Leukemia

The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Read our disclaimer for details. Identifier: NCT03118466
Recruitment Status : Active, not recruiting
First Posted : April 18, 2017
Results First Posted : February 3, 2021
Last Update Posted : February 3, 2021
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
Andrew Mark Brunner, MD, Massachusetts General Hospital

Brief Summary:
This research study is evaluating how a drug called lenalidomide, given in combination with the standard chemotherapy regimen of Mitoxantrone, Etoposide, and Cytarabine, commonly referred to as MEC, works in individuals with either relapsed or refractory AML

Condition or disease Intervention/treatment Phase
AML Drug: Etoposide Drug: Cytarabine Drug: Lenalidomide Drug: Mitoxantrone Phase 2

Detailed Description:

This research study is a Phase II clinical trial. Phase II clinical trials test the safety and effectiveness of an investigational intervention to learn whether the intervention works in treating a specific disease. "Investigational" means that the intervention is being studied.

The FDA (the U.S. Food and Drug Administration) has not approved lenalidomide for this specific disease, but it has been approved for other uses, including for patients with multiple myeloma and some patients with myelodysplastic syndrome. This treatment is investigational because it is not approved by the FDA for patients with AML. Lenalidomide is a chemotherapy that also modulates the immune system, and is in a category of drugs called immunomodulatory drugs or IMIDs. Some research studies suggest that lenalidomide may be effective in patients with AML. Since the investigators know that many patients who receive MEC chemotherapy alone have less than desired response rates and overall shorter periods of remission (time free from leukemia) after treatment, the investigators are studying whether the addition of lenalidomide to MEC improves upon typical responses.

The combination of MEC (mitoxantrone, etoposide, and cytarabine) is a standard treatment option, commonly used for relapsed or refractory acute myeloid leukemia.


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Study Type : Interventional  (Clinical Trial)
Actual Enrollment : 41 participants
Allocation: N/A
Intervention Model: Single Group Assignment
Masking: None (Open Label)
Primary Purpose: Treatment
Official Title: Phase 2 Study of Mitoxantrone, Etoposide, and Cytarabine (MEC) Plus Lenalidomide for the Treatment of Adult Patients With Relapsed or Refractory Acute Myeloid Leukemia
Actual Study Start Date : September 25, 2017
Actual Primary Completion Date : August 29, 2019
Estimated Study Completion Date : August 2021

Arm Intervention/treatment
Experimental: Lenalidomide and MEC chemotherapy
Lenalidomide is taken orally on a daily basis days 1-10. Mitoxantrone, Etoposide, and Cytarabine are administered intravenously on a daily basis for days 4 through 8 of the treatment. There is only one cycle of treatment in this study.
Drug: Etoposide
A Drug that interfere with the action of topoisomerase enzymes (topoisomerase I and II). Topoisomerase enzymes control the manipulation of the structure of DNA necessary for replication.
Other Name: Toposar

Drug: Cytarabine
Cytarabine is an antimetabolite antineoplastic agent that inhibits the synthesis of DNA.
Other Name: Depocyt

Drug: Lenalidomide
It may act by inhibiting the growth of new blood vessels (angiogenesis) in tumors, enhancing the status of the immune system, or decreasing cytokine and growth factor production
Other Name: REVLIMID

Drug: Mitoxantrone
It interfere with cell reproduction
Other Name: Novantrone

Primary Outcome Measures :
  1. Complete Response Rate [ Time Frame: up to 45 days ]

    Proportion of patients who have achieve CR or CRp after treatment.

    • Morphologic Complete Remission (CR): Defined as morphologic leukemia-free state, including <5% blasts in Bone Marrow aspirate with marrow spicules, no persistent extramedullary disease, ANC >1000/mm3 and platelet count >100,000/mm3.
    • Morphologic Complete Remission without platelet recovery (CRp): Defined as CR with the exception of platelet count < 100,000/mm3 (CRp).

Secondary Outcome Measures :
  1. Number of Patients That Achieved ANC Recovery [ Time Frame: up to 45 days ]
    The number of patients that achieved a neutrophil count of > 500/mm3 for 3 days within 45 of starting treatment

  2. Number of Patients That Achieved Platelet Recovery [ Time Frame: up to 45 days ]
    The number of patients that achieved a stable platelet count > 20,000/mm3 for 3 days within 45 days of starting treatment

  3. Treatment-related Mortality [ Time Frame: 50 days ]
    Cumulative number of deaths not related to persistent or relapsed leukemia during treatment within 50 days of the start of treatment.

  4. Transfusion Support: Number of Red Blood Cell and Platelet Transfusions [ Time Frame: 50 days ]
    Number of red blood cell and platelet transfusions received within the first 50 days of treatment

  5. Overall Survival [ Time Frame: Up to 3 years ]
    Overall survival is defined as time from diagnosis of disease until date of death or censored on the last known date alive if patients are still alive.

  6. Relapse-Free Survival [ Time Frame: Up to 3 years ]
    Relapse-Free Survival is defined as time from diagnosis of disease until date of relapse, death, or censored on the last known date alive if patients are still alive.Relapse is defined by morphological evidence of the original malignancy consistent with pre-treatment features.

Information from the National Library of Medicine

Choosing to participate in a study is an important personal decision. Talk with your doctor and family members or friends about deciding to join a study. To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contacts provided below. For general information, Learn About Clinical Studies.

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Ages Eligible for Study:   18 Years to 70 Years   (Adult, Older Adult)
Sexes Eligible for Study:   All
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   No

Inclusion Criteria:

  • Acute myelogenous leukemia diagnosed by WHO criteria with one of the following (patients with biphenotypic leukemia are eligible, provided that the treating physician determines an AML treatment regimen is appropriate)

    • Primary refractory disease following > 1cycle of chemotherapy, (such as hypomethylating agent or induction chemotherapy)
    • First relapse or higher. Patients with primary or secondary acute myelogenous leukemia are eligible.
  • Age 18-70 years old
  • LVEF > 50 %
  • ECOG Performance status 0-2
  • Able to adhere to study schedule and other protocol requirements.
  • Participants must have normal organ function as defined below, unless felt due to underlying disease and approved by the overall PI. Patients with Gilbert's disease may have total bilirubin up to < 3 x ULN.

    • Creatinine < 2.0mg/dl
    • Total bilirubin < 1.5 x ULN
    • AST (SGOT) and ALT (SGPT) < 3 x ULN.
  • Patients may receive hydroxyurea, steroids, or leukapheresis as necessary until Day 5 of treatment.
  • Patients must give voluntary written informed consent and HIPAA authorization before performance of any study-related procedure not part of normal medical care, with the understanding that consent may be withdrawn by the subject at any time without prejudice to future medical care.
  • Patients may have had prior treatment for MDS or AML, including prior lenalidomide for MDS or AML or another condition.
  • Patient may have had prior autologous or allogeneic transplant (family member, unrelated donor, or cord blood) if there is at least 90 days between transplant and study entry.
  • Patients may also have had donor lymphocyte infusion if there is at least 60 days between donor lymphocyte infusion and study entry.
  • Patients on immunosuppression are also eligible.
  • Females of childbearing potential (FCBP)† must have a negative serum or urine pregnancy test with a sensitivity of at least 50 mIU/mL prior to receiving treatment with lenalidomide, and must either commit to continued abstinence from heterosexual intercourse or begin TWO acceptable methods of birth control, one highly effective method and one additional effective method AT THE SAME TIME, at least 28 days before she starts taking lenalidomide. FCBP must also agree to ongoing pregnancy testing. Men must agree to use a latex condom during sexual contact with a FCBP even if they have had a successful vasectomy.
  • Ability to understand and the willingness to sign a written informed consent document.
  • All study participants must be registered into the mandatory Revlimid REMS ® program, and be willing and able to comply with the requirements of the REMs ® program. Females of reproductive potential must adhere to the scheduled pregnancy testing as required in the Revlimid REMS® program

Exclusion Criteria:

  • Known hypersensitivity to thalidomide or lenalidomide (if applicable).
  • The development of erythema nodosum if characterized by a desquamating rash while taking thalidomide or similar drugs.
  • Known seropositive for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). HIV testing is not required. Hepatitis testing is not required.
  • Patients who have had a myocardial infarction within 6 months of enrollment or has New York Heart Association (NYHA) Class III or IV heart failure, uncontrolled angina, uncontrolled ventricular arrhythmias, or electrocardiographic evidence of acute ischemia or active conduction system abnormalities.
  • Any serious medical condition laboratory abnormality or psychiatric illness that would prevent the subject from signing the consent form.
  • Any condition, including laboratory abnormalities, that in the opinion of the investigator places the subject at unacceptable risk if he/she were to participate in the study or confounds the ability to interpret data from the study.
  • Patients with major surgery within 28 days prior to treatment.
  • Patients with any serious medical or psychiatric illness that could, in the investigator's opinion, potentially interfere with the completion of treatment according to this protocol.
  • Patient has received an investigational agent or cytotoxic chemotherapy (excluding hydroxyurea) within 7 days of study entry.
  • Patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia.
  • Females who are pregnant

Information from the National Library of Medicine

To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contact information provided by the sponsor.

Please refer to this study by its identifier (NCT number): NCT03118466

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United States, Massachusetts
Dana Farber Cancer Institute
Boston, Massachusetts, United States, 02062
Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center
Boston, Massachusetts, United States, 02215
Massachusetts general Hospital
Boston, Massachusetts, United States, 02215
Sponsors and Collaborators
Massachusetts General Hospital
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Principal Investigator: Andrew Brunner, MD Massachusetts General Hospital
  Study Documents (Full-Text)

Documents provided by Andrew Mark Brunner, MD, Massachusetts General Hospital:
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Responsible Party: Andrew Mark Brunner, MD, Principal Investigator, Massachusetts General Hospital Identifier: NCT03118466    
Other Study ID Numbers: 16-574
First Posted: April 18, 2017    Key Record Dates
Results First Posted: February 3, 2021
Last Update Posted: February 3, 2021
Last Verified: January 2021
Individual Participant Data (IPD) Sharing Statement:
Plan to Share IPD: No

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Studies a U.S. FDA-regulated Drug Product: Yes
Studies a U.S. FDA-regulated Device Product: No
Keywords provided by Andrew Mark Brunner, MD, Massachusetts General Hospital:
Additional relevant MeSH terms:
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Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute
Neoplasms by Histologic Type
Leukemia, Myeloid
Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic
Antineoplastic Agents
Topoisomerase II Inhibitors
Topoisomerase Inhibitors
Enzyme Inhibitors
Molecular Mechanisms of Pharmacological Action
Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic
Antiviral Agents
Anti-Infective Agents
Immunosuppressive Agents
Immunologic Factors
Physiological Effects of Drugs
Angiogenesis Inhibitors
Angiogenesis Modulating Agents
Growth Substances
Growth Inhibitors
Sensory System Agents
Peripheral Nervous System Agents