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The Effect of Dexmedetomidine Infusion on Post-operative Cognitive Function and Oxidative Stress in Cardiac Surgery

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ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03054857
Recruitment Status : Completed
First Posted : February 16, 2017
Results First Posted : June 19, 2018
Last Update Posted : June 19, 2018
Sponsor:
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
Wirinda Chiravanich, MD, Chulalongkorn University

Brief Summary:

Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the effect of dexmedetomidine in reducing postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) in cardiac surgical patients which use cardiopulmonary bypass machine (CPB).

Materials and Methods: This study was double-blinded, randomized controlled trial. Patients scheduled for elective CPB facilitated cardiac surgery were randomly assigned in two groups, dexmedetomidine group (DEX) or control group. The cognitive tests (MoCA test and Short bless test) were done before the operation, 48 hours, and 7 days postoperatively. POCD was defined as a decline of 1SD of baseline score in any test. Arterial blood sample were analyzed for IL-6, IL-10, TNF-alpha and hs-CRP before induction (T0), after separation from CPB (T1), arrival at ICU (T2) and 24-hour after surgery (T3). Primary outcome was the incidence of POCD and the secondary outcomes were inflammatory response, other postoperative complications, ICU and hospital stay.


Condition or disease Intervention/treatment Phase
Oxidative Stress Cognition Disorders Drug: Dexmedetomidine Drug: Placebo Phase 4

Detailed Description:

After the patients were enrolled in the study, they were allocated into Dexmedetomidine group or control group by computer-based randomization. Patients, surgeons, anesthesiologists and researchers who performed the cognitive test were all blinded to the study groups.

General anesthesia was induced with intravenously midazolam 0.1-0.2 mg/kg and fentanyl 5-10 mcg/kg or Thiopental 3-5 mg/kg or Propofol 2 mg/kg. Patients were intubated with pancuronium 1 mg/kg or rocuronium 0.6-1 mg/kg. Anesthesia was maintained with nitrous oxide in oxygen, isoflurane, fentanyl, and pancuronium or rocuronium as required. Standard monitoring was provided including an indwelling radial artery catheter and central venous catheter. Bispectral index (BIS) monitoring was applied and maintained between 40-60 through the operation. Cerebral oximetry was monitored both sides of the brain by non-invasive oximeters at forehead area and the data were recorded.

After skin incision, the Dexmedetomidine group received a loading dose of 0.5 mcg/kg of Dexmedetomidine in 20 minutes followed by a continuous IV infusion at 0.4 mcg/kg/hr until the end of operation.The control group received a loading dose and continuous IV infusion of normal saline at the same rate.

During the cardiopulmonary bypass, mean arterial pressure was maintained at 60-80 mmHg or 20% from baseline. If hypertension was detected, Nicardipine 0.2 mg was given intravenously. Ephedrine 6 mg or norepinephrine 4 mcg were given within 5 minutes and repeated every 5 minutes if hypotension was presented. Atropine 0.6 mg was administered for bradycardia (heart rate less than 50 beats per minute). After the operation, patients were transferred to Cardio-thoracic intensive care unit and received standard postoperative cardiac surgery care.

2 neuropsychological tests were used to evaluate patients' cognitive function; Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) and Short blessed test (SBT). These tests were chosen by King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital's psychiatrist based on previous studies and the statement consensus on assessment of neurobehavioral outcomes after cardiac surgery published in 1995. All patients were evaluated their cognitive function for 3 points of time, 1st time was at preoperative period (T1), 2nd time was at 48 hours postoperatively (T2) and the last one was at 7 days postoperatively or the day at discharge from the hospital (T3). POCD was defined as a decline of 1 standard deviation (1SD) of baseline score in any test.

Blood samples were taken through the radial artery catheter, and sampling times were chosen as follows: before the induction of anaesthesia (T0); after separated from CPB (T1); arrival at intensive care unit (ICU) (T2); 24 hr after surgery (T3). Plasma Tissue Necrotic Factor-Alpha (TNF-α), Interleukin-6 (IL-6) and Interleukin-10 (IL-10) levels were measured by Magnetic Luminex Performance Assay. High sensitivity C-reactive protein (CRP) level were also measured by nephelometry.


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Study Type : Interventional  (Clinical Trial)
Actual Enrollment : 100 participants
Allocation: Randomized
Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
Masking: Triple (Participant, Care Provider, Investigator)
Primary Purpose: Prevention
Official Title: The Effect of Dexmedetomidine Infusion on Post-operative Cognitive Function and Oxidative Stress in Patients Undergo Cardiopulmonary Bypass Machine Facilitated Elective Cardiac Surgery
Study Start Date : June 2015
Actual Primary Completion Date : December 2016
Actual Study Completion Date : December 2016

Resource links provided by the National Library of Medicine

MedlinePlus related topics: Heart Surgery

Arm Intervention/treatment
Experimental: Dex group
After skin incision, the Dexmedetomidine group received a loading dose of 0.5 mcg/kg of Dexmedetomidine in 20 minutes followed by a continuous IV infusion at 0.4 mcg/kg/hr until the end of operation.
Drug: Dexmedetomidine
After skin incision, the dexmedetomidine group received a loading dose of 0.5 mcg/kg of Dexmedetomidine in 20 minutes followed by a continuous IV infusion at 0.4 mcg/kg/hr until the end of operation.
Other Name: Dex

Placebo Comparator: Placebo group
The control group received a loading dose and continuous IV infusion of normal saline at the same rate.
Drug: Placebo
The control group received a loading dose and continuous IV infusion of normal saline at the same volume and rate as in the dexmedetomidine group




Primary Outcome Measures :
  1. Numbers of Participants With Postoperative Cognitive Dysfunction (POCD) [ Time Frame: 48 hours ]
    POCD was defined as a decline of 1 standard-deviation (1SD) of baseline score in either MoCA test or short bless test.

  2. Number of Participants With Postoperative Cognitive Dysfunction (POCD) [ Time Frame: 7 days ]
    POCD was defined as a decline of 1SD of baseline score in either MoCA test or short bless test.


Secondary Outcome Measures :
  1. Number of Participants With Postoperative Complications [ Time Frame: 7 days ]
    Neurological complication, Delirium, dysrhythmia, death

  2. Hospital Stay in Days [ Time Frame: 30 days ]
  3. ICU Stay in Hours [ Time Frame: 7 days ]


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Ages Eligible for Study:   18 Years to 65 Years   (Adult, Older Adult)
Sexes Eligible for Study:   All
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   No
Criteria

Inclusion Criteria:

  • American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) physical status I-III.

Exclusion Criteria:

  • patients who were allergy to medication in the research regimen
  • preoperative left ventricular ejection fraction less than 30%
  • body mass index more than 35 kg/m2
  • preoperative mean arterial pressure less than 60 mmHg
  • preoperative heart rate less than 45/min
  • patients with impaired renal function (serum creatinine more than 1.5 mg/dl in female and 2 mg/dl in male)
  • active liver disease, and who had history of symptomatic cerebrovascular disease
  • psychiatric problem and other neurological diseases
  • patients who cannot read

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Responsible Party: Wirinda Chiravanich, MD, Dr., Chulalongkorn University
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03054857     History of Changes
Other Study ID Numbers: 2558-102
First Posted: February 16, 2017    Key Record Dates
Results First Posted: June 19, 2018
Last Update Posted: June 19, 2018
Last Verified: May 2018
Individual Participant Data (IPD) Sharing Statement:
Plan to Share IPD: Undecided
Additional relevant MeSH terms:
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Cognition Disorders
Neurocognitive Disorders
Mental Disorders
Dexmedetomidine
Hypnotics and Sedatives
Central Nervous System Depressants
Physiological Effects of Drugs
Analgesics, Non-Narcotic
Analgesics
Sensory System Agents
Peripheral Nervous System Agents
Adrenergic alpha-2 Receptor Agonists
Adrenergic alpha-Agonists
Adrenergic Agonists
Adrenergic Agents
Neurotransmitter Agents
Molecular Mechanisms of Pharmacological Action