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PET-detected Myocardial Inflammation is a Characteristic of Cardiac Sarcoid But Not of ARVC

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ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02989480
Recruitment Status : Recruiting
First Posted : December 12, 2016
Last Update Posted : October 11, 2018
Sponsor:
Collaborator:
NHS Grampian
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
University of Aberdeen

Brief Summary:
Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC) is a rare condition in which the heart muscle cells especially of the main pumping chamber (the 'ventricle') is replaced by fat and scar tissue. Sarcoidosis is a condition that can affect many organs but when it affects the heart patches of inflammation can result in scarring, especially of the ventricles. Both conditions can cause dangerous heart rhythms and sudden death. Sarcoidosis can be treated with inflammation suppressing treatment (steroids), as well as pacemakers and implantable defibrillators which shock the heart back to normal rhythm. ARVC is usually treated with implantable defibrillators. The diagnosis of either condition can be difficult and indeed distinguishing the two can be extremely challenging. Increasingly nuclear scans (PET) are used to identify inflammation in the heart in patients suspected of having cardiac sarcoid. It is not known whether patients with ARVC have abnormal PET scans.

Condition or disease Intervention/treatment
Sarcoidosis Arrhythmogenic Right Ventricular Cardiomyopathy Radiation: PET CT Other: Cardiac MRI

Detailed Description:

Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC) is a rare inherited condition characterised pathologically by fibro-fatty replacement of myocytes usually (but not exclusively) within the right ventricle. The clinical consequences of this process are usually re-entrant ventricular arrhythmias which may be fatal and ARVC consequently is the third most common cause of sudden cardiac death in the young. Diagnosis involves imaging, electrocardiography, myocardial biopsy and genetic testing. Task Force criteria for the diagnosis have been established. Nevertheless the condition can be difficult to diagnose (or exclude), especially in less advanced disease, a common scenario in individuals with a family member suffering from the condition. To complicate the situation further, we and others have published recent reports suggesting that other infiltrative conditions within the heart especially sarcoidosis, may fulfil Task Force criteria, leading to a false positive diagnosis. This is a particular concern since the natural history and treatment options for these conditions are very different.

Sarcoidosis is a granulomatous disorder of unknown cause, predominantly affecting the lungs, reticuloendothelial systems and skin. Cardiac involvement at autopsy is found in up to 25% of affected individuals although clinical manifestations are only present in approximately 5%. Isolated cardiac sarcoidosis, without manifestations in other systems is rare. The non-caseating granulomas frequently infiltrate left ventricular & septal myocardium although right ventricular involvement also occurs. Granulomas and resulting scar formation can cause conduction disturbances, cardiac failure and ventricular arrhythmias. Sudden death is not uncommon. Myocardial biopsy confirms the diagnosis but because of the patchy nature of the granulomatous process, the test is only positive in 50% of the affected individuals. Other investigations used to help make or support the diagnosis include echocardiography, MRI, electrocardiography, PET, and corroborating evidence from high resolution CT chest and skin biopsy. However, imaging findings may lack specificity for a precise aetiology. Cardiac MRI identifies areas of myocardial scar or fibrosis, which is the final step in the disease process. Although patterns of fibrosis have been well described in ARVC and cardiac sarcoidosis, significant overlap exists between these two diseases with regard to the exact location of fibrosis: for example ARVC can affect either or both ventricles. Typically, although affecting predominantly the RV, in advanced stages there is also a well described pattern of mid-wall patchy fibrosis in the basal infero-lateral wall of the left ventricle and sometimes in the inter-ventricular septum. Conversely, sarcoidosis typically affects the LV, and when fibrosis is found, the location is in the septal or infero-lateral territories. In sarcoid, RV enlargement can occur either due to granulomatous involvement within the RV myocardium, or secondary to the pulmonary hypertension associated with lung involvement. Cases of sarcoidosis where the RV is involved may be more difficult to diagnose: The RV enlargement and reduction in function overlap significantly with the Task Force Criteria for the CMR diagnosis of ARVC, furthermore, the pattern of late gadolinium enhancement is not sufficiently specific to guide the diagnosis to either ARVC or Cardiac Sarcoid with RV involvement.


Study Type : Observational
Estimated Enrollment : 20 participants
Observational Model: Other
Time Perspective: Prospective
Official Title: PET-detected Myocardial Inflammation is a Characteristic of Cardiac Sarcoid But Not of ARVC - a Feasibility Study
Study Start Date : August 2015
Estimated Primary Completion Date : July 2019
Estimated Study Completion Date : July 2019


Group/Cohort Intervention/treatment
Sarcoidosis
Patients with cardiac sarcoidosis diagnosed according to the Japanese Ministry of Health and Welfare criteria will be included. All patients will have histologically proven sarcoidosis (cardiac biopsy not mandatory) and no other potential cardiac disease. They will have no family history of cardiomyopathy.
Radiation: PET CT
PET CT scans

Other: Cardiac MRI
Cardiac MRI

Arrhythmogenic RV cardiomyopathy
Patients with ARVC diagnosed according to the Task Force criteria with in addition either a positive family history for the condition or harbour a known pathological mutation associated with it.
Radiation: PET CT
PET CT scans

Other: Cardiac MRI
Cardiac MRI




Primary Outcome Measures :
  1. Myocardial inflammation or fibrosis by cardiac MRI and PET CT [ Time Frame: Three hours ]
    Cardiac MRI and PET CT


Biospecimen Retention:   None Retained
ACE inhibitors and CRP will be measured.


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Ages Eligible for Study:   18 Years to 70 Years   (Adult, Older Adult)
Sexes Eligible for Study:   All
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   No
Sampling Method:   Probability Sample
Study Population
Twenty patients from the age of 18-70 will be studied. We will include 10 patients with cardiac sarcoidosis diagnosed according to the Japanese Ministry of Health and Welfare criteria. All patients will have histologically proven sarcoidosis (cardiac biopsy not mandatory) and no other potential cardiac disease. They will have no family history of cardiomyopathy. We will also study 10 patients with ARVC diagnosed according to the Task Force criteria with in addition either a positive family history for the condition or harbour a known pathological mutation associated with it.
Criteria

Inclusion Criteria:

  • Twenty patients from the age of 18-70 will be studied. We will include 10 patients with cardiac sarcoidosis diagnosed according to the Japanese Ministry of Health and Welfare criteria. All patients will have histologically proven sarcoidosis (cardiac biopsy not mandatory) and no other potential cardiac disease. They will have no family history of cardiomyopathy. We will also study 10 patients with ARVC diagnosed according to the Task Force criteria with in addition either a positive family history for the condition or harbour a known pathological mutation associated with it.

Exclusion Criteria:

  • patients outside the age limit defined above and those who do not fulfil our inclusion criteria for either cardiac sarcoidosis or ARVC will be excluded.
  • unwillingness to participate
  • patients with any contraindication to MR scanning
  • pregnant or breast feeding women
  • diabetes

Information from the National Library of Medicine

To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contact information provided by the sponsor.

Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier (NCT number): NCT02989480


Contacts
Contact: Paul Broadhurst, Consultant 01224559308 paul.broadhurst@nhs.net
Contact: Dana Dawson, Consultant 01224437969 dana.dawson@abdn.ac.uk

Locations
United Kingdom
Aberdeen Royal Infirmary Recruiting
Aberdeen, Aberdeenshire, United Kingdom, AB25 2ZD
Contact: Paul Broadhurst, Consultant    01224559308    paul.broadhurst@nhs.net   
Contact: Dana Dawson, Consultant    01224437969    dana.dawson@abdn.ac.uk   
Sponsors and Collaborators
University of Aberdeen
NHS Grampian
Investigators
Principal Investigator: Paul Broadhurst, Consultant NHS Grampian

Publications:

Responsible Party: University of Aberdeen
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02989480     History of Changes
Other Study ID Numbers: 3/072/14
First Posted: December 12, 2016    Key Record Dates
Last Update Posted: October 11, 2018
Last Verified: October 2018
Individual Participant Data (IPD) Sharing Statement:
Plan to Share IPD: No

Keywords provided by University of Aberdeen:
Cardiomyopathy

Additional relevant MeSH terms:
Heart Diseases
Heart Defects, Congenital
Inflammation
Cardiomyopathies
Sarcoidosis
Arrhythmogenic Right Ventricular Dysplasia
Myocarditis
Pathologic Processes
Cardiovascular Diseases
Lymphoproliferative Disorders
Lymphatic Diseases
Cardiovascular Abnormalities
Congenital Abnormalities