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Cerebral Anatomy, Hemodynamics and Metabolism

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ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02919956
Recruitment Status : Recruiting
First Posted : September 30, 2016
Last Update Posted : October 8, 2018
Sponsor:
Collaborator:
National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI)
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
Children's Hospital of Philadelphia

Brief Summary:
Single ventricle lesions are the leading cause of illness and death from congenital heart disease. The modified Fontan Operation is the corrective surgery for these lesions. The operation is done in stages over a few years and children who complete the operation are known to have greater neurodevelopmental (ND) deficits than the general population. The purpose of this study is to understand how blood flow to the brain (CBF) and brain lesions relate to ND outcome, as well as how CMRO2 relates to anatomic brain lesions. These relationships will be studied through Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and ND Testing.

Condition or disease Intervention/treatment
Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome Other: Magnetic Resonance Imaging Other: Neurodevelopmental Testing

Detailed Description:

Single ventricle (SV) lesions are the leading cause of morbidity and mortality from congenital heart disease (CHD) in the United States. The definitive palliative surgery is the modified Fontan operation where systemic venous return is routed directly to the pulmonary arteries. The surgical reconstruction is performed in stages over a few years which includes the "Stage I" and hemiFontan or bidirectional Glenn operations. These children are known to have greater neurodevelopmental (ND) deficits than the general population and other forms of CHD. For example, a study at Children's Hospital of Philadelphia revealed that at 9 years old, 1/3 were receiving some form of special education; the median intelligence quotient (IQ) was 86 with mental retardation in 18%. One component to ultimate ND outcome is cerebral blood flow (CBF). Preliminary data in SV in the literature across all age ranges and multiple disease states, suggests that CBF is related to ND; a recent review of 25 studies bears this out. Another component to ND outcome is anatomic brain lesions. Preliminary data from a current NIH study of CBF study suggests a link between CBF and brain lesions (decreased CBF is associated with more brain lesions), weaving a complex interaction leading to ultimate ND outcome. There is a pressing need to understand CBF and brain lesions as it relates to childhood ND; this rapid growth stage may be especially important to ultimate cognitive function having not only a humanistic/social impact but a large economic one as well.

Data from a previous NIH grant which ended November 2014 indicates that CBF in SV patients changes throughout the staged surgeries and in the first 2 stages, under stressed conditions such as hypercarbia; in addition, initial look at the data suggests a difference in brain abnormalities as well. These children are especially at risk for altered CBF and brain abnormalities with their changing physiology. At Stage I, a "runoff" physiology is present created by the aorto-pulmonary shunt potentially causing a "steal" from the cerebral circulation. In the 2nd stage (e.g. hemiFontan), cerebral and pulmonary circulations are connected directly and exclusively in series with each other; aortic blood flows to the brain and then directly to the lungs via the superior vena cava. After Fontan completion, downstream cerebral venous pressures are elevated. Finally, SV patients develop aorto-pulmonary collaterals (APC) at all stages and another ongoing research project found a strong inverse correlation between CBF and the degree of APC flow, further putting CBF of SV at risk.

In another study, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was utilized to measure blood flow and visualize cerebral anatomy by phase contrast MRI arterial spin labeling and anatomic imaging such as T1 weighted sequences and diffusion tensor imaging. MRI utilizing susceptometry (oximetry) recently developed by an investigator on this renewal, can also quantify the cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen consumption (CMRO2). This combination of MRI capabilities offers a unique opportunity to assess cerebral anatomy, hemodynamics and oxygen metabolism in the same study; by combining this with ND testing, this study is poised to link the two in the hopes of not only understanding cognitive function but to positively intervene in ND outcome. A comprehensive assessment of brain anatomy and function linked to ND outcomes has never been reported in any group of patients nor with utilizing measures at 2 time points.

This is a prospective, single center study of SV patients and seeks to relate cerebral anatomy, hemodynamics and CMRO2 with ND outcome using another patient cohort obtained under a previous study as a basis and utilizing data from 2 time points (original grant and renewal). This approach along with using cerebral carbon dioxide (CO2) reactivity and CMRO2 are major strengths of this study. Elucidating these factors may ultimately lead to modifications in management (e.g. timing of surgery) and identifying children at cognitive risk to implement early intervention and possibly improve ND outcome.


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Study Type : Observational
Estimated Enrollment : 155 participants
Observational Model: Cohort
Time Perspective: Cross-Sectional
Official Title: Cerebral Anatomy, Hemodynamics and Metabolism In Single Ventricles: Relationship to Neurodevelopment
Study Start Date : April 2016
Estimated Primary Completion Date : June 2019
Estimated Study Completion Date : June 2019


Group/Cohort Intervention/treatment
Group I: CBF-I Single Ventricles
The 1st group (cohort group) will be patients who were enrolled in the original NIH CBF grant. These patients will undergo a 60-90 minute Magnetic Resonance Imaging scan of the brain and heart. They will also have Neurodevelopmental Testing.
Other: Magnetic Resonance Imaging
An MRI scan takes pictures of the brain and heart using a magnet and radio waves. During scanning, measurements of oxygen delivery to the brain will be obtained (CMRO2) as well as evaluation of the heart as it relates to the brain. During the scan patients will be monitored for safety by ECG, blood pressure, television camera, pulse oximetry, and carbon dioxide measurements. Cardiac anesthesiologist and cardiologist will be present.
Other Name: MRI

Other: Neurodevelopmental Testing
Quantitative ND tests and standardized rating scales will be used in the areas of intellectual, adaptive, visual motor skills, academic achievement in math and reading, attention and executive functioning , motor skills, memory, language, social skills and behavior. Neurodevelopmental Testing will last approximately 3.5-4 hours. Testing will be done through the Neurobehavioral Core at CHOP. Breaks will be taken as needed and a one hour lunch break will be taken, if applicable. ND testing will be performed prior to MRI (if on the same day) or on a different day than the MRI to promote engagement and best performance.
Other Name: ND Testing

Group II: Prospective Single Ventricles
The 2nd group (cross sectional group) will be prospectively recruited from SV patients after Fontan operation but were not participants in the original study and will be age matched to Group I to enrich the patient population. These patients will undergo a 60-90 minute Magnetic Resonance Imaging scan of the brain and heart. They will also have Neurodevelopmental Testing.
Other: Magnetic Resonance Imaging
An MRI scan takes pictures of the brain and heart using a magnet and radio waves. During scanning, measurements of oxygen delivery to the brain will be obtained (CMRO2) as well as evaluation of the heart as it relates to the brain. During the scan patients will be monitored for safety by ECG, blood pressure, television camera, pulse oximetry, and carbon dioxide measurements. Cardiac anesthesiologist and cardiologist will be present.
Other Name: MRI

Other: Neurodevelopmental Testing
Quantitative ND tests and standardized rating scales will be used in the areas of intellectual, adaptive, visual motor skills, academic achievement in math and reading, attention and executive functioning , motor skills, memory, language, social skills and behavior. Neurodevelopmental Testing will last approximately 3.5-4 hours. Testing will be done through the Neurobehavioral Core at CHOP. Breaks will be taken as needed and a one hour lunch break will be taken, if applicable. ND testing will be performed prior to MRI (if on the same day) or on a different day than the MRI to promote engagement and best performance.
Other Name: ND Testing

Group III: CBF-I Normal Controls
The 3rd group (cohort group) will be normal controls who were enrolled in the original CBF grant. These patients will have Neurodevelopmental Testing. The data from these patients' MRI from CBF-I (original CBF grant) will be used.
Other: Neurodevelopmental Testing
Quantitative ND tests and standardized rating scales will be used in the areas of intellectual, adaptive, visual motor skills, academic achievement in math and reading, attention and executive functioning , motor skills, memory, language, social skills and behavior. Neurodevelopmental Testing will last approximately 3.5-4 hours. Testing will be done through the Neurobehavioral Core at CHOP. Breaks will be taken as needed and a one hour lunch break will be taken, if applicable. ND testing will be performed prior to MRI (if on the same day) or on a different day than the MRI to promote engagement and best performance.
Other Name: ND Testing

Group IV: Prospective Normal Controls
The 4th group (cross sectional group) will be prospectively recruited from patients who come to Children's Hospital of Philadelphia (CHOP) for clinically indicated MRIs and found to have structurally normal cardiac and brain anatomy. These patients will have an abbreviated research MRI, lasting 15-20 minutes, added onto their clinically-indicated MRI at CHOP. They will also have Neurodevelopmental Testing.
Other: Magnetic Resonance Imaging
An MRI scan takes pictures of the brain and heart using a magnet and radio waves. During scanning, measurements of oxygen delivery to the brain will be obtained (CMRO2) as well as evaluation of the heart as it relates to the brain. During the scan patients will be monitored for safety by ECG, blood pressure, television camera, pulse oximetry, and carbon dioxide measurements. Cardiac anesthesiologist and cardiologist will be present.
Other Name: MRI

Other: Neurodevelopmental Testing
Quantitative ND tests and standardized rating scales will be used in the areas of intellectual, adaptive, visual motor skills, academic achievement in math and reading, attention and executive functioning , motor skills, memory, language, social skills and behavior. Neurodevelopmental Testing will last approximately 3.5-4 hours. Testing will be done through the Neurobehavioral Core at CHOP. Breaks will be taken as needed and a one hour lunch break will be taken, if applicable. ND testing will be performed prior to MRI (if on the same day) or on a different day than the MRI to promote engagement and best performance.
Other Name: ND Testing

Volunteer Group
There will also be a volunteer group of one to five volunteers that will be enrolled prior to enrollment in the other four study groups. These volunteers will be prospectively recruited from patients who come to Children's Hospital of Philadelphia (CHOP) for a clinically-indicated MRI and consent to have an additional 15-20 minutes of research MRI scanning. The purpose will be to ensure that the brain MRI sequences run correctly and produce useful information before the patient and normal control enrollment begins. The volunteers will not undergo neurodevelopmental testing.
Other: Magnetic Resonance Imaging
An MRI scan takes pictures of the brain and heart using a magnet and radio waves. During scanning, measurements of oxygen delivery to the brain will be obtained (CMRO2) as well as evaluation of the heart as it relates to the brain. During the scan patients will be monitored for safety by ECG, blood pressure, television camera, pulse oximetry, and carbon dioxide measurements. Cardiac anesthesiologist and cardiologist will be present.
Other Name: MRI




Primary Outcome Measures :
  1. Relationship of CBF and Brain Abnormalities to ND Outcomes [ Time Frame: Up to 10 years ]
    This study proposes to recall SV patients from a cohort from a previous study to undergo an MRI (for anatomy, CBF and CMRO2) and ND testing. Normals from a previous grant will also be recalled to undergo ND testing. Correlations will be performed between ND, CBF and brain abnormalities from the a) original MRI, b) current study and c) change between the two. Response to hypercarbia will be assessed in a select group of patients. Additional SV patients and normals will be recruited to enrich the population. In addition, this study will determine how CBF and brain abnormalities in SV patients evolve over the course of time. Therefore, the timeframe for the comparisons will be a) from the original MRI to the current MRI and neurodevelopmental testing (up to 10 years) as well as b) the current MRI with neurodevelopmental testing.


Secondary Outcome Measures :
  1. Relationship of CMRO2 to ND outcome [ Time Frame: Up to 10 years ]
    This Aim will correlate CMRO2 as assessed in MRIs performed in the current study from Aim 1 to ND outcome. In addition, this proposal will relate CMRO2 to anatomic brain lesions by MRI. Therefore, the timeframe for the comparisons will be a) from the original MRI to the current MRI and neurodevelopmental testing (up to 10 years) as well as b) the current MRI with neurodevelopmental testing.



Information from the National Library of Medicine

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Ages Eligible for Study:   Child, Adult, Older Adult
Sexes Eligible for Study:   All
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   Yes
Sampling Method:   Non-Probability Sample
Study Population
Group I (cohort) will be patients enrolled in the original NIH CBF grant. Group II (cross-sectional) will be recruited from SV patients after Fontan operation but were not participants in the original study to enrich the patient population and to maximize Group I enrollment. Group III will be normal controls enrolled in the original CBF grant. Group IV will be patients at The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia (CHOP) for clinical MRIs and found to have structurally normal cardiac and brain anatomy. Parents/guardians of Group I-IV patients will be enrolled, as well. There will be a group of 1-5 volunteers enrolled to test the study MRI protocol. Volunteers will be patients who come to CHOP for clinical MRIs.
Criteria

Inclusion Criteria:

SV Patients

  • Subjects ages 3 to 15 years old who have completed their Fontan procedure and their parents/guardians.
  • Any complex congenital heart lesion that has SV physiology of either right ventricle (RV) or left ventricle (LV) morphology.
  • Ability to undergo a 60-90 minute MRI scan under general anesthesia or deep sedation if general anesthesia or sedation is needed.
  • Parents signing informed consent. Healthy Controls
  • Males and females ages 3 to 15 years old if in the original cohort and if not in the original cohort, age matched with Groups I and II, and their parents/guardians.
  • Normal cerebral and cardiac anatomy who are normocephalic and who are asymptomatic.
  • From normal controls being prospectively enrolled and not part of the original grant, the ability to extend the clinical MRI an extra 15-20 minutes.
  • Parents signing informed consent. Volunteers
  • Patients who come to CHOP for a clinically indicated MRI.
  • The ability to extend the clinical MRI an extra 15-20 minutes.
  • If 18 or over, patient signing informed consent.
  • If under 18, parents signing informed consent.

Exclusion Criteria:

SV Patients

  • A patient whose primary language is not English.
  • Any condition judged by the patient's physician that would cause this trial to be detrimental to the patient.
  • Any known significant neurological disease outside of the usual state of SV patients.
  • Any major anomalies which would confound neurological outcome.
  • A patient with a pacemaker or cardioverter/defibrillator in place.
  • A contraindicated ferromagnetic foreign body).
  • Pregnancy Healthy Controls
  • An individual whose primary language is not English.
  • Any condition judged by the patient's physician that would cause this trial to be detrimental to the patient.
  • Any known significant neurological disease.
  • Any contraindication to extending the MRI.
  • Pregnancy. Volunteers
  • A patient whose primary language is not English.
  • Any condition judged by the patient's physician that would cause this trial to be detrimental to the patient.
  • Any contraindication to extending the MRI.
  • Pregnancy.

Information from the National Library of Medicine

To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contact information provided by the sponsor.

Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier (NCT number): NCT02919956


Contacts
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Contact: Mark A Fogel, MD 215-590-7566 fogel@email.chop.edu
Contact: Brittany M Blumenthal, MPH 267-425-5788 blumenthab@email.chop.edu

Locations
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United States, Pennsylvania
Children's Hospital of Philadelphia Recruiting
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States, 19104
Contact: Mark A Fogel, MD    215-590-7566    fogel@email.chop.edu   
Contact: Brittany M Blumenthal, MPH    267-425-5788    blumenthab@email.chop.edu   
Sponsors and Collaborators
Children's Hospital of Philadelphia
National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI)
Investigators
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Principal Investigator: Mark A Fogel, MD Children's Hospital of Philadelphia

Publications:

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Responsible Party: Children's Hospital of Philadelphia
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02919956     History of Changes
Other Study ID Numbers: 15-012291
5R01HL090615-07 ( U.S. NIH Grant/Contract )
First Posted: September 30, 2016    Key Record Dates
Last Update Posted: October 8, 2018
Last Verified: October 2018
Individual Participant Data (IPD) Sharing Statement:
Plan to Share IPD: Yes
Plan Description:

Dr. Felix Werhil from the University of Penn will be analyzing the CMRO2 studies from the MRI images. Data will be transferred to him on a flash drive that has been encrypted and password-protected according to CHOP IT standards and hand delivered by the PI or a member of the study team.

Dr. Alexandra Hanlon from University of Penn School of Nursing will be performing the statistics for the study. Investigators will have a REDCap database, which Dr. Hanlon has been approved for and received CHOP identity to access.


Keywords provided by Children's Hospital of Philadelphia:
Single Ventricle
Fontan

Additional relevant MeSH terms:
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Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome
Heart Defects, Congenital
Cardiovascular Abnormalities
Cardiovascular Diseases
Heart Diseases
Congenital Abnormalities