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Early ART to Limit Infection and Establishment of Reservoir (EARLIER)

The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Read our disclaimer for details.
 
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02859558
Recruitment Status : Active, not recruiting
First Posted : August 9, 2016
Results First Posted : January 3, 2022
Last Update Posted : February 21, 2022
Sponsor:
Collaborator:
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID)
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
AIDS Clinical Trials Group

Brief Summary:

The study was done to:

  • Start antiretroviral therapy (ART) early in those recently or acutely infected with HIV-1
  • See how starting ART as soon as the infection is found affects the amount of HIV-1 in blood and how well the body fights the HIV-1 infection
  • Look at the amount of HIV-1 DNA (genetic material for HIV-1) seen in CD4+ T-cells (infection-fighting cells in blood) after 48 weeks of ART
  • See how early treatment for HIV affects the numbers of HIV-1 infection fighting cells (CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells) in blood

Condition or disease Intervention/treatment Phase
HIV-1 Infection Drug: elvitegravir/cobicistat/emtricitabine/tenofovir alafenamide or bictegravir/emtricitabine/tenofovir alafenamide or other medically-appropriate FDA-approved antiretroviral therapy Phase 2

Detailed Description:

This was a Phase II, prospective, open-label two-step study to measure the effects of early ART on the establishment of HIV-1 reservoir and HIV-1-specific immunity. Participants were enrolled if they fulfilled the inclusion criteria for acute HIV-1 infection (AHI) diagnosis within 7 days prior to entry and had an enrollment visit with the immediate initiation of ART. Plasma and serum samples for Fiebig staging were collected at the time of ART initiation.

Participants were followed for up to 216 weeks (72 weeks on Step 1 and 144 weeks on Step 2). Evaluations at weeks 2 and 8 on Step 1 were performed via telephone.

The Fiebig stage-classification system was used to characterize the progression from HIV-1 exposure to HIV-1 seroconversion at the time of ART initiation. In this study, the five Fiebig stages of interest were simplified into three study groups as described below (based on HIV-1 antibody diagnostic profile at time of ART initiation).

The primary analysis was based on Step 1. Step 2 was added to the study for long term follow-up. The rationale for the extended follow-up period was to expand the number of available participants for future therapeutic and cure studies without the burden of frequent visits and the cost of study-provided laboratory testing.

Group 1: Fiebig I/II (non-reactive HIV-1 antibody)

Group 2: Fiebig III/IV (reactive HIV-1 antibody and negative or indeterminate results on the Western Blot (WB) or Geenius HIV-1/HIV-2)

Group 3: Fiebig V (reactive HIV-1 antibody and positive WB or Geenius HIV-1/HIV-2 without p31 band)

Although participants in Fiebig VI (positive WB or Geenius HIV-1/HIV-2 with p31 band) were not specifically targeted for enrollment in this study, it was possible that a small number of participants would be determined to be in Fiebig VI (positive Western blot or Geenius HIV-1/HIV-2 with p31 band) based on analysis of the entry samples. Participants who were determined to be in Fiebig VI were followed on the study for no more than 24 weeks on Step 1, allowing ample time for them to pursue alternative sources for ART. Enrolled participants without HIV or in Fiebig VI were replaced.

The study-provided regimen was single tablet regimen elvitegravir/cobicistat/emtricitabine/tenofovir alafenamide (EVG/COBI/FTC/TAF) or bictegravir/emtricitabine/tenofovir alafenamide (BIC/FTC/TAF). Other non-study-provided antiretroviral (ARV) regimens were also allowed for participants who were pregnant, breastfeeding, or unable/unwilling to take EVG/COBI/FTC/TAF or BIC/FTC/TAF, or for participants whose local health care/primary care provider preferred starting a different initial ARV regimen.

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Study Type : Interventional  (Clinical Trial)
Actual Enrollment : 195 participants
Allocation: Non-Randomized
Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
Masking: None (Open Label)
Primary Purpose: Treatment
Official Title: Effect of Antiretroviral Treatment Initiated During Acute HIV-1 Infection on Measures of HIV-1 Persistence and on HIV-1-Specific Immune Responses
Actual Study Start Date : January 2017
Actual Primary Completion Date : December 2, 2020
Estimated Study Completion Date : September 8, 2023

Resource links provided by the National Library of Medicine

MedlinePlus related topics: HIV/AIDS

Arm Intervention/treatment
Experimental: Arm 1: Fiebig I/II
Participants enrolled during Fiebig stages I or II (non-reactive HIV-1 antibody).
Drug: elvitegravir/cobicistat/emtricitabine/tenofovir alafenamide or bictegravir/emtricitabine/tenofovir alafenamide or other medically-appropriate FDA-approved antiretroviral therapy
Participants received one tablet of elvitegravir 150mg/cobicistat 150mg/emtricitabine 200mg/tenofovir alafenamide 10mg by mouth daily with food or one tablet of bictegravir 50mg/emtricitabine 200mg/tenofovir alafenamide 25mg by mouth daily with or without food. Other non-study-provided ARV regimens were allowed for participants who were pregnant, breastfeeding, or unable/unwilling to take EVG/COBI/FTC/TAF or BIC/FTC/TAF, or for participants whose local health care/primary care provider preferred starting a different initial ARV regimen.
Other Names:
  • Single-tablet regimen EVG/COBI/FTC/TAF or Genvoya
  • Single-tablet regimen BIC/FTC/TAF or Biktarvy

Experimental: Arm 2: Fiebig III/IV
Participants enrolled during Fiebig stages III or IV (reactive HIV-1 antibody and negative or indeterminate results on the Western blot or Geenius HIV-1/HIV-2).
Drug: elvitegravir/cobicistat/emtricitabine/tenofovir alafenamide or bictegravir/emtricitabine/tenofovir alafenamide or other medically-appropriate FDA-approved antiretroviral therapy
Participants received one tablet of elvitegravir 150mg/cobicistat 150mg/emtricitabine 200mg/tenofovir alafenamide 10mg by mouth daily with food or one tablet of bictegravir 50mg/emtricitabine 200mg/tenofovir alafenamide 25mg by mouth daily with or without food. Other non-study-provided ARV regimens were allowed for participants who were pregnant, breastfeeding, or unable/unwilling to take EVG/COBI/FTC/TAF or BIC/FTC/TAF, or for participants whose local health care/primary care provider preferred starting a different initial ARV regimen.
Other Names:
  • Single-tablet regimen EVG/COBI/FTC/TAF or Genvoya
  • Single-tablet regimen BIC/FTC/TAF or Biktarvy

Experimental: Arm 3: Fiebig V
Participants enrolled during Fiebig stage V (reactive HIV-1 antibody and positive Western blot or Geenius HIV-1/HIV-2 without p31 band).
Drug: elvitegravir/cobicistat/emtricitabine/tenofovir alafenamide or bictegravir/emtricitabine/tenofovir alafenamide or other medically-appropriate FDA-approved antiretroviral therapy
Participants received one tablet of elvitegravir 150mg/cobicistat 150mg/emtricitabine 200mg/tenofovir alafenamide 10mg by mouth daily with food or one tablet of bictegravir 50mg/emtricitabine 200mg/tenofovir alafenamide 25mg by mouth daily with or without food. Other non-study-provided ARV regimens were allowed for participants who were pregnant, breastfeeding, or unable/unwilling to take EVG/COBI/FTC/TAF or BIC/FTC/TAF, or for participants whose local health care/primary care provider preferred starting a different initial ARV regimen.
Other Names:
  • Single-tablet regimen EVG/COBI/FTC/TAF or Genvoya
  • Single-tablet regimen BIC/FTC/TAF or Biktarvy




Primary Outcome Measures :
  1. Proportion of Participants With Undetectable Cell-associated HIV-1 DNA (CAHD) [ Time Frame: At week 48 ]
    Proportion of participants with 0 copies of CAHD per 5 million CD4+ blood-derived CD4+ T-cells (assayed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction [qPCR]), assessed separately and jointly by integrase and gag assays. In order for a participant to be considered as having 0 copies of CAHD for joint assays, the participant must be found to have an undetectable CAHD result from both integrase and gag assays. If all participants in both arms had undetectable CAHD then the statistical test was not performed.


Secondary Outcome Measures :
  1. HIV-1-specific CD4+ and T-cell Responses to Nef, Gag, Pol and Env by Flow Cytometry [ Time Frame: At week 48 ]

    Percent of HIV-1-specific CD4+ T-cells expressing any cytokine/marker (CD40L, CD107a, IFNg, MIP1B, TNFa) to each of the 4 protein stimulants (nef, gag, pol and env) by flow cytometry while HIV-1 RNA is suppressed on ART. The results for a specific participant are calculated by subtracting the corresponding background control value (media control). If the result would be less than zero after background subtraction, the result was set to zero.

    Cytokine/Marker Names: CD40 ligand (CD40L); Cluster of Differentiation 107a (CD107a); Interferon gamma (IFNg); Macrophage Inflammatory Protein beta (MIP1B); Tumor Necrosis Factor alpha (TNFa)


  2. HIV-1-specific CD8+ and T-cell Responses to Nef, Gag, Pol and Env by Flow Cytometry [ Time Frame: At 48 weeks ]

    Percent of HIV-1-specific CD8+ T-cells expressing any cytokine/marker (CD40L, CD107a, IFNg, MIP1B, TNFa) to each of the 4 protein stimulants (nef, gag, pol and env) by flow cytometry while HIV-1 RNA is suppressed on ART. The results for a specific participant are calculated by subtracting the corresponding background control value (media control). If the result would be less than zero after background subtraction, the result was set to zero.

    Cytokine/Marker Names: CD40 ligand (CD40L); Cluster of Differentiation 107a (CD107a); Interferon gamma (IFNg); Macrophage Inflammatory Protein beta (MIP1B); Tumor Necrosis Factor alpha (TNFa)


  3. Proportion of Participants With Undetectable Cell-associated HIV-1 DNA (CAHD) Prior to ART Initiation [ Time Frame: At week 0 ]
    Proportion of participants with 0 copies of CAHD per million CD4+ blood-derived CD4+ T-cells (assayed by quantitative PCR [qPCR]), assessed separately and jointly by integrase and gag assays. In order for a participant to be considered as having 0 copies of CAHD for joint assays, the participant must be found to have an undetectable CAHD result from both integrase and gag assays. If all participants in both arms had undetectable CAHD then the statistical test was not performed.



Information from the National Library of Medicine

Choosing to participate in a study is an important personal decision. Talk with your doctor and family members or friends about deciding to join a study. To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contacts provided below. For general information, Learn About Clinical Studies.


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Ages Eligible for Study:   18 Years and older   (Adult, Older Adult)
Sexes Eligible for Study:   All
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   No
Criteria

Inclusion Criteria:

Appropriate documentation from medical records of diagnosis of acute HIV-1 infection (AHI) within 7 days prior to enrollment, that includes one of the following:

  1. A detectable HIV-1 RNA within 28 days prior to study entry AND a non-reactive HIV-1 antibody within 7 days prior to entry OR
  2. A detectable HIV-1 RNA or a reactive HIV-1 antibody within 28 days prior to study entry AND a negative/indeterminate WB or negative/indeterminate Geenius HIV-1/HIV-2 Supplemental Assay within 7 days prior to entry OR
  3. A documented non-reactive HIV-1 antibody or negative HIV-1 RNA within 90 days prior to study entry AND a documented reactive HIV-1 antibody or positive WB that is negative for p31 band or a positive Geenius HIV-1/HIV-2 Supplemental Assay that is negative for p31 band within 7 days prior to entry OR
  4. ARCHITECT or GSCOMBO S/CO ≥10 within 7 days prior to entry AND a non-reactive HIV-1 antibody within 7 days prior to entry OR
  5. ARCHITECT or GSCOMBO S/CO ≥1 within 7 days prior to entry AND a non-reactive HIV-1 antibody within 7 days prior to entry AND a known prior S/CO <0.5 within 90 days prior to entry OR
  6. ARCHITECT or GSCOMBO S/CO >0.5 but <10 within 7 days prior to entry AND a non-reactive HIV-1 antibody within 7 days prior to entry AND detectable HIV-1 RNA within 7 days prior to entry

Note A: HIV-1 RNA result must be reported from an FDA-approved or CE-marked assay.

Note B: Since characterization of Fiebig stage using samples at the time of ART initiation was performed with results known within 12 weeks based on standardized, centralized testing, an estimated Fiebig group at enrollment based on inclusion criteria as shown in the table above will provide additional real-time monitoring for accruals into each study group.

  • Ability and willingness of candidate to provide written informed consent.
  • Ability and willingness to initiate ART at enrollment.
  • Ability and willingness to participate in scheduled study visits for up to 72 weeks.
  • Female candidates of reproductive potential who are not pregnant at the time of enrollment and who will receive the study-provided EVG/COBI/FTC/TAF and must agree not to participate in the conception process (ie, active attempt to become pregnant, in vitro fertilization), and if participating in sexual activity that could lead to pregnancy, the female candidate must agree to use at least one reliable form of contraceptive while receiving study-provided treatment.

Female candidates are considered to be of reproductive potential if any of the following conditions apply:

  • Candidate has experienced menarche.
  • Candidate has not undergone bilateral tubal ligation, bilateral oophorectomy, or hysterectomy.
  • Candidate has not experienced menopause, defined as lack of menstruation within the preceding 12 months.

Acceptable contraceptive methods include:

  • Condoms (male or female) with or without a spermicidal agent
  • Diaphragm or cervical cap with spermicide
  • Intrauterine device
  • Hormonal contraceptive

Female candidates who are not of reproductive potential or whose male partner(s) has documented azoospermia are not required to use contraceptives. Any statement of self-reported sterility or that of her partner must be entered in the source documents.

NOTE: Acceptable documentation of lack of reproductive potential is oral or written documentation from the individual.

Female candidates who are prescribed a non-study-provided ARV regimen should discuss the safety of that regimen during conception and pregnancy with the prescribing physician. Such individuals should follow medical guidance regarding any potential need for contraception while using the non-study-provided ARV regimen.

Note: Pregnant and breastfeeding women may enroll in the study provided that they meet the eligibility requirements and have access to non-study-provided ARV regimens.

Exclusion Criteria:

  • Positive HIV-1 antibody test ≥90 days prior to study entry.
  • Active drug or alcohol use or dependence that, in the opinion of the site investigator, would interfere with adherence to study requirements.
  • Any acute, chronic, or recent and clinically significant medical condition that, in the opinion of the site investigator, would interfere with adherence to study requirements or jeopardize the safety or rights of the participant.
  • Receipt of an investigational study agent within 28 days prior to enrollment
  • Chronic or recurrent use of medications that modify host immune response, eg, oral or parenteral steroids, cancer chemotherapy.
  • AHI diagnosis within 60 days after receiving any investigational ARV or HIV-1 vaccine or immune prophylaxis for HIV-1 infection.
  • Use of ARVs for pre- or post-exposure prophylaxis within 60 days prior to the diagnosis of AHI.

Information from the National Library of Medicine

To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contact information provided by the sponsor.

Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier (NCT number): NCT02859558


Locations
Show Show 30 study locations
Sponsors and Collaborators
AIDS Clinical Trials Group
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID)
  Study Documents (Full-Text)

Documents provided by AIDS Clinical Trials Group:
Study Protocol  [PDF] May 17, 2021
Statistical Analysis Plan  [PDF] September 14, 2021
Informed Consent Form  [PDF] June 9, 2016

Additional Information:
Publications automatically indexed to this study by ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier (NCT Number):
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Responsible Party: AIDS Clinical Trials Group
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02859558    
Other Study ID Numbers: ACTG A5354
2UM1AI068636 ( U.S. NIH Grant/Contract )
First Posted: August 9, 2016    Key Record Dates
Results First Posted: January 3, 2022
Last Update Posted: February 21, 2022
Last Verified: January 2022

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Studies a U.S. FDA-regulated Drug Product: Yes
Studies a U.S. FDA-regulated Device Product: No
Additional relevant MeSH terms:
Layout table for MeSH terms
Infections
Communicable Diseases
Disease Attributes
Pathologic Processes
Tenofovir
Emtricitabine
Emtricitabine, Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate Drug Combination
Cobicistat
Emtricitabine tenofovir alafenamide
Elvitegravir
Anti-Retroviral Agents
Antiviral Agents
Anti-Infective Agents
Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors
Nucleic Acid Synthesis Inhibitors
Enzyme Inhibitors
Molecular Mechanisms of Pharmacological Action
Anti-HIV Agents
Cytochrome P-450 CYP3A Inhibitors
Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme Inhibitors
Integrase Inhibitors