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An RCT to Evaluate the Effect of a New Skin Care Regimen on SBF in Those With Podoconiosis

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ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02839772
Recruitment Status : Completed
First Posted : July 21, 2016
Results First Posted : January 6, 2017
Last Update Posted : January 6, 2017
Sponsor:
Collaborator:
Procter and Gamble
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
Jill Brooks, University of Hull

Brief Summary:
An RCT (n=193) in two podoconiosis clinics in Ethiopia to evaluate the effectiveness of a research based skin management regimen compared to the current regimen. The experimental group added 2% glycerine to the current skin care regimen and used 1 litre of water in the water soak compared to the 6 litres used in the current regimen.

Condition or disease Intervention/treatment Phase
Non-filarial Elephantiasis Other: Current skin care regimen plus 2% glycerine added to soaking water Other: Current skin care regimen Phase 3

Detailed Description:

Background. Podoconiosis (non-filarial elephantiasis) affects some of the poorest people in 20 countries in the world. In Ethiopia least 3 million people are affected with 17 million at risk. Irritant minerals (smectite, mica and quartz) from volcanic soil and pathogens enter skin breaches in the feet causing inflammation, lymphoedema and hyperkeratosis. Podoconiosis is preventable and treatable but is not curable. Current treatment consists of educating those with disease on its causes, prevention and treatment. Treatment taught in the Action on Podoconiosis (APA) Clinics consists of a daily hygiene regimen of washing the feet/legs with soap, soaking the feet and legs in water with sodium hypochlorite (NaOCI) (0.0125%) added as a disinfectant, air drying and the application of a thin layer of petrolatum jelly. Whitfields ointment (benzoic acid and salicylic acid) is applied to any fungal infections. Wearing shoes is encouraged but this does not offer complete protection against the alkaline soil.

Although the current treatment skin care regimen is effective there is no robust evidence on optimal skin care regimens to improve skin barrier function in this disease.

Objective. To evaluate the effectiveness of a new, low-cost, evidence-based skin care intervention to improve SBF in the lower limbs of those with podoconiosis.

Method. A randomized control trial (RCT) was conducted over 3 months in two APA Clinics (n=193). Intervention was 2% glycerine (v/v) added to a reduced amount of soaking water (1 litre versus 6 litres). The control group received the current skin care regimen. The primary outcome measure was skin barrier function (SBF). This was determined by measures of trans-epidermal water loss (TEWL) and stratum corneum hydration (SCH) at four specific sites on the lower limbs.


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Study Type : Interventional  (Clinical Trial)
Actual Enrollment : 193 participants
Allocation: Randomized
Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
Masking: None (Open Label)
Primary Purpose: Treatment
Official Title: A Randomised Controlled Trial to Evaluate the Effect of a New Skin Care Regimen on Skin Barrier Function in Those With Podoconiosis in Ethiopia
Study Start Date : January 2014
Actual Primary Completion Date : August 2014
Actual Study Completion Date : August 2014

Resource links provided by the National Library of Medicine

Drug Information available for: Glycerin

Arm Intervention/treatment
Active Comparator: Current skin care regimen
Legs/feet washed daily for 3 months with soapy water, soak for 30 mins in 6 litres of water with added sodium hypochlorite (0.0125%), air dried, thin layer of petrolatum jelly applied and Whitfields ointment if required for any fungal infection.
Other: Current skin care regimen
Experimental: Current skin regimen plus 2% glycerine
Legs/feet washed daily for 3 months with soapy water, soak for 30 mins in 1 litre of water with added sodium hypochlorite (0.0125%) and 2% glycerine, air dried, thin layer of petrolatum jelly applied and Whitfields ointment if required for any fungal infection.
Other: Current skin care regimen plus 2% glycerine added to soaking water
Other Name: glycerine




Primary Outcome Measures :
  1. Change in TEWL at Top of Outer Lower Legs [ Time Frame: Change from baseline following 3 months of intervention ]
    Trans-epidermal water loss (TEWL) was measured with a Vapometer (non-invasive probe) on the outer lower leg 8 cms below the head of the fibula. TEWL is the water lost through the skin under non-sweating conditions. It is the major indicator of healthy skin. A reduction in TEWL indicates a positive effect on skin barrier function. It is generally recommended that differences or percentage changes are reported rather than absolute values.

  2. Change in TEWL at Mid-point Outer Lower Legs [ Time Frame: Change from baseline following 3 months of intervention ]
    Trans-epidermal water loss (TEWL) was measured with a Vapometer (non- invasive probe) at a specific point on the outer lower leg. This was mid-way between the measurement site at the top of the outer leg and the site at the base of the outer lower leg. TEWL is the water lost through the skin under non-sweating conditions. It is the major indicator of healthy skin. A reduction in TEWL indicates a positive effect on skin barrier function. It is generally recommended that differences or percentage changes are reported rather than absolute values.

  3. Change in TEWL at Base of Outer Lower Legs [ Time Frame: Change from baseline following 3 months of intervention ]

    Trans-epidermal water loss (TEWL) was measured with a Vapometer (non- invasive probe) at a specific point on the outer lower leg 8cms above the external malleolus. A reduction in TEWL indicates a positive effect on skin barrier function.It is generally recommended that differences or percentage changes are reported rather than absolute values.

    TEWL is the water lost through the skin under non-sweating conditions. It is the major indicator of healthy skin. A reduction in TEWL indicates a positive effect on skin barrier function. It is generally recommended that differences or percentage changes are reported rather than absolute values.


  4. Change in TEWL at Top of Feet [ Time Frame: Change from baseline following 3 months of intervention ]

    Trans-epidermal water loss (TEWL) was measured with a Vapometer (non- invasive probe) at a specific point on the top of the foot. A reduction in TEWL indicates a positive effect on skin barrier function.It is generally recommended that differences or percentage changes are reported rather than absolute values.

    TEWL is the water lost through the skin under non-sweating conditions. It is the major indicator of healthy skin. A reduction in TEWL indicates a positive effect on skin barrier function. It is generally recommended that differences or percentage changes are reported rather than absolute values.


  5. Change in Stratum Corneum Hydration (SCH) at the Top of Outer Lower Legs [ Time Frame: Change from baseline following 3 months of intervention ]
    Stratum corneum hydration was measured at a specific point at top of outer lower leg (8cms below the head of the fibula) with a MoistureMeter (non-invasive probe).This measures skin capacitance in arbitrary units. It is generally recommended that differences or percentage changes are reported rather than absolute values. Increases in stratum corneum hydration indicate a positive effect on skin barrier function.

  6. Change in Stratum Corneum Hydration (SCH) at Mid-point Outer Lower Leg. [ Time Frame: Change from baseline following 3 months of intervention ]
    SCH was measured mid-way between the measurement site at the top of the outer leg and the site at the base of the outer lower leg. It was measured with a MoistureMeter (non-invasive probe).This measures skin capacitance in arbitrary units. It is generally recommended that differences or percentage changes are reported rather than absolute values. Increases in stratum corneum hydration indicate a positive effect on skin barrier function.

  7. Change in Stratum Corneum Hydration at Base of Outer Lower Leg [ Time Frame: Change from baseline following 3 months of intervention ]
    Stratum corneum hydration was measured at the base of the outer lower leg 8 cms above the external malleolus. It was measured with a MoistureMeter (non-invasive probe).This measures skin capacitance in arbitrary units. It is generally recommended that differences or percentage changes are reported rather than absolute values. Increases in stratum corneum hydration indicate a positive effect on skin barrier function.

  8. Change in Stratum Corneum Hydration at Top of Feet [ Time Frame: Change from baseline following 3 months of intervention ]
    Stratum corneum hydration measured at a specific point on the middle top of the foot with a MoistureMeter (non-invasive probe).This measures skin capacitance in arbitrary units. It is generally recommended that differences or percentage changes are reported rather than absolute values. Increases in stratum corneum hydration indicate a positive effect on skin barrier function.


Secondary Outcome Measures :
  1. Stage of Podoconiosis in Each Leg of All Participants at Baseline and 4th Visit [ Time Frame: Change from baseline following 3 months of intervention ]
    Podoconiosis Staging System (1-5) used with 5 the most severe stage. This staging system was specifically designed for those with podoconiosis. Legs with stages 1, 2 or 3 were categorised with mild/moderate disease and those with stages 4,5 with severe disease.

  2. Total Number of Trophic Skin Changes (Mossy Changes) All Participants at Baseline and 4th Visit [ Time Frame: Change from baseline following 3 months of intervention ]
    Total number of observed trophic changes (mossy eruptions on the skin of the lower legs/feet characteristic of podoconiosis) in all participants by clinic nurse at baseline and at 4th visit. Trophic changes were either present or not present.

  3. Total Number of All Participants With the Presence of a Bad Odour Emanating From Their Lower Limbs. [ Time Frame: Change from baseline following 3 months of intervention ]
    Change in the presence of bad odour emanating from wounds on participant's lower legs/feet as determined by clinic nurse. Bad odour results in social stigma and impacts of quality of life.

  4. Number of Wounds on Lower Legs/Feet of Participants. [ Time Frame: Change from baseline following 3 months of intervention ]

    Observation and count of number of wounds (all breaches of the stratum corneum including areas of fungal infection) on lower legs/feet by clinic nurse.

    Breaches in the skin and areas of fungal infection are more likely to occur in those with an impaired skin barrier function.A reduction in the number of wounds indicates an improvement in SBF.


  5. Change in Number of Work Days Lost in Previous Month Due to Adenolymphangitis (ADL) [ Time Frame: Change from baseline following 3 months of intervention ]
    Verbal questioning of participants by clinic nurse or social worker as to number of work days lost due to severe leg pain (adenolymphangitis). Questioning was used as most participants were illiterate.

  6. Correlation Between Number of Work Days Lost Due to Adenolymphangitis and Number of Wounds [ Time Frame: From baseline monthly for 3 months ]
    Statistical calculation of the correlation between the number of work days lost in the previous month due to leg pain (adenolymphangitis) and the number of wounds present on the lower leg/foot. Wounds on the lower legs/feet may produce a bad odour.

  7. Change in Largest Lower Leg Circumference [ Time Frame: Change from baseline following 3 months of intervention ]
    Measured by clinic nurse in centimetres with a disposable tape measure at the point of largest circumference on the foot.

  8. Change in Largest Foot Circumference [ Time Frame: Change from baseline following 3 months of intervention ]
    Measured by clinic nurse in centimetres with a disposable tape measure at the point of largest circumference on the foot

  9. Amharic Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI) [ Time Frame: Change from baseline following 3 months of intervention ]
    The Amharic version of the DLQI has been validated for use in Ethiopia where Amharic is the official working language. The index is divided into 4 sections covering leisure, work and school, personal relationships and treatment. The maximum score of 30 indicates a high impact on quality of life. The lowest score zero. A reduction in the number indicates an improvement in quality of life. Participants were verbally questioned by the clinic nurse or social worker as most participants were illiterate.



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Ages Eligible for Study:   18 Years and older   (Adult, Older Adult)
Sexes Eligible for Study:   All
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   No
Criteria

Inclusion Criteria:

  • Patients in Ethiopia with a diagnosis of podoconiosis. That is those living above 1000 feet sea level with high rainfall, above 1,00mm annually with foot or lower leg oedema which had started in the feet, with sensation present in the feet and no hand involvement. The diagnosis was determined by the nurses at the outreach clinics.
  • Patients who were able to understand instructions and give informed consent as determined by the nurses at the outreach clinics.
  • Patients over 18 years of age.

Exclusion Criteria:

  • Patients not diagnosed with podoconiosis as determined by nurses at the outreach clinics.
  • Patients who were unable to understand instructions or give informed consent as determined by nurses at the outreach clinics.
  • Patients under 18 years of age.

Information from the National Library of Medicine

To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contact information provided by the sponsor.

Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier (NCT number): NCT02839772


Sponsors and Collaborators
University of Hull
Procter and Gamble
Investigators
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Principal Investigator: Jill Brooks, PhD student University of Hull, UK
Study Director: Steven J Ersser, PhD, University of Leeds, UK
Study Director: Fiona C Cowdell, DProf, University of Hull, UK
Study Director: Eric Gardiner, PhD, University of Hull, UK
Study Director: Paul J Matts, PhD Procter and Gamble

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Responsible Party: Jill Brooks, PhD student, University of Hull
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02839772     History of Changes
Other Study ID Numbers: UHull
First Posted: July 21, 2016    Key Record Dates
Results First Posted: January 6, 2017
Last Update Posted: January 6, 2017
Last Verified: August 2016
Individual Participant Data (IPD) Sharing Statement:
Plan to Share IPD: No
Keywords provided by Jill Brooks, University of Hull:
podoconiosis
glycerine
RCT
SBF
TEWL
SC hydration
Additional relevant MeSH terms:
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Elephantiasis
Lymphedema
Lymphatic Diseases
Glycerol
Cryoprotective Agents
Protective Agents
Physiological Effects of Drugs