Working...
ClinicalTrials.gov
ClinicalTrials.gov Menu

Neoadjuvant Pembrolizumab (TOP 1501)

The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Read our disclaimer for details.
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02818920
Recruitment Status : Active, not recruiting
First Posted : June 30, 2016
Last Update Posted : February 15, 2019
Sponsor:
Collaborator:
Merck Sharp & Dohme Corp.
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
Neal Ready, Duke University

Brief Summary:
This multi-institutional, phase 2 clinical trial is studying two doses of pembrolizumab administered prior to surgery (neoadjuvant therapy) and 4 doses administered after surgery (adjuvant therapy) for stage IB, II or IIIA non-small cell lung cancer. Pembrolizumab is a type of immunotherapy that may enhance the ability of the immune system to fight off cancer. The study will investigate the effects of pembrolizumab on the immune system and how certain immune cells, called TILs (tumor infiltrating lymphocytes), respond to pembrolizumab. Previous studies suggest that pembrolizumab could alter the immune cells in a way that the the immune cells identify cancer cells. Pembrolizumab has been approved for the treatment of advanced lung cancer, but is investigational in this setting.

Condition or disease Intervention/treatment Phase
Non-small Cell Lung Carcinoma Drug: Pembrolizumab Phase 2

Detailed Description:

The presumed mechanism of action for pembrolizumab is the removal of T lymphocyte inhibition by masking the PD-1 receptor. Our hypothesis is that the masking of the PD-1 receptor by pembrolizumab results in the activation and proliferation of T lymphocytes with specificities against tumor associated antigens (TILs). In untreated lung cancer tumors, we would expect few tumors to have TIL cells with specificities against tumor associated antigens. Based on the response rate to pembrolizumab in advanced lung cancer, we hypothesize that at least 20% of lung cancers would have TIL cells with specificities against tumor associated antigens after pembrolizumab therapy.

Studying neoadjuvant pembrolizumab therapy is an attractive strategy for studying the immunologic changes caused by PD-1 (programmed death receptor 1) checkpoint masking. Most of the immunologic activity associated with pembrolizumab occurs in the tumor and surrounding microenvironment. Evaluation of post-pembrolizumab tumor will be important to understanding factors associated with pembrolizumab activity, immune tolerance, and discovery of other targets for immune therapy. Pembrolizumab has known benefit in non-small cell lung cancer. The addition of pembrolizumab for two doses prior to surgery and four doses after surgery has the potential to confer clinical benefit. Large randomized phase 3 trials are now testing whether PD-1 checkpoint antibodies improve survival as adjuvant therapy after resection of early stage lung cancer.


Layout table for study information
Study Type : Interventional  (Clinical Trial)
Actual Enrollment : 32 participants
Intervention Model: Single Group Assignment
Masking: None (Open Label)
Primary Purpose: Treatment
Official Title: Pembrolizumab Prior to Surgery for Stage 1B, 2 or 3A Non-small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC): A Phase II Study
Actual Study Start Date : January 2017
Estimated Primary Completion Date : January 2020
Estimated Study Completion Date : January 2027

Resource links provided by the National Library of Medicine

MedlinePlus related topics: Lung Cancer

Arm Intervention/treatment
Experimental: Pembrolizumab prior to and after surgery Drug: Pembrolizumab

Pembrolizumab (prior to surgery) 200 mg IV over 30 min, days 1 & 22, two cycles; followed by surgery; followed by standard adjuvant chemotherapy (per med. oncologist) +/- radiation therapy per institutional standard of care; followed by adjuvant pembrolizumab 200 mg IV over 30 min every 21 days for 4 cycles

-Note: Standard radiation therapy in selected patients for standard clinical indications

Other Name: Keytruda




Primary Outcome Measures :
  1. Surgical feasibility rate as measured by the number of subjects who undergo surgery following neoadjuvant pembrozulimab [ Time Frame: At surgery (29-56 days after initiation of pembrolizumab and at least 2 days after the second dose of pembrolizumab) ]
    A patient who meets the eligibility criteria and has received at least 1 dose of pembrolizumab and undergone surgery is considered surgically feasible. All other situations are considered infeasible.


Secondary Outcome Measures :
  1. Objective response rate [ Time Frame: At the end of 2 cycles of neoadjuvant pembrolizumab (29-55 days after initiation) ]
    The percentage of patients having a complete response or a partial response to protocol treatment. Objective response will be measured by RECIST 1.1.

  2. Disease-free survival (DFS) [ Time Frame: Until disease recurrence or death (up to 5 years) ]
    DFS is defined as the time from surgical resection to disease recurrence (first disease recurrence or death, whichever comes first) after surgery.The Kaplan-Meier estimator will be used to estimate median DFS and its confidence interval.

  3. Change in blood-based biomarker values [ Time Frame: Baseline (day 0), before surgery (days 29-56), 3-6 weeks after surgery, and after completion of adjuvant pembrolizumab (estimated at 10.5 months from start depending on treatment components received by patient) ]
    Changes in levels of blood-based biomarkers before and after protocol treatment and correlated with clinical outcomes, such as objective response, overall survival, and disease-free survival.

  4. Detectability of tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) [ Time Frame: End of protocol treatment (Estimated at 10.5 months from start depending on treatment components received by patient) ]
    Percentage of patients with detectable TILs, defined as greater than or equal to 0.05% (with each value also being at least twice that of the background unstimulated control value TIL)

  5. Adverse events [ Time Frame: End of protocol treatment (estimated at 10.5 months from start depending on treatment components received by patient) ]
    Safety will be evaluated for all treated patients using CTCAE V 4.0.

  6. Detectability of circulating T cells specific against TAA [ Time Frame: End of protocol treatment (estimated at 10.5 months from start depending on treatment components received by patient) ]
    Proportion of patients with detectable circulating T cells specific against TAA after protocol treatment.

  7. Pathologic response rate [ Time Frame: At surgery (day 29-56) ]
    Pathologic response rate for neoadjuvant pembrolizumab

  8. Change in immunomodulatory effects [ Time Frame: Baseline (day 0), before surgery (days 29-56), 3-6 weeks after surgery, and after completion of adjuvant pembrolizumab (estimated at 10.5 months from start depending on treatment components received by patient) ]
    Determine if the immunomodulatory effects of neoadjuvant pembrolizumab have an impact on the suppressive mechanisms, restoring functional reactivity to important anti-tumor effects cell populations. Functional TAA-specific T cell reactivities will measured at 4 time points.

  9. Detectability of circulating T cells meeting new definition of detectability [ Time Frame: End of protocol treatment ((Estimated at 10.5 months from start depending on treatment components received by patient) ]
    Percentage of patients with circulating T cells meeting the new definition of detectable.

  10. Gene expression of the PD-1/PD-L1 axis [ Time Frame: End of protocol treatment ((Estimated at 10.5 months from start depending on treatment components received by patient) ]
    Elucidate genes associated with function and modulation of the PD-1/PD-L1 axis.

  11. Correlation of pathologic response to the presence of TILs [ Time Frame: At surgery (day 29-56) ]
    A Fisher exact test will be used to evaluate the association of the presence of TILs with pathologic tumor response to neoadjuvant therapy.

  12. Correlation of pathologic response to the quality of TILs [ Time Frame: At surgery (day 29-56) ]
    A Fisher exact test will be used to evaluate the association of the quality of TILs with pathologic tumor response to neoadjuvant therapy.

  13. Correlation of pathologic response to the quantity of TILs [ Time Frame: At surgery (days 29-56) ]
    A Wilcoxon rank sum test will be used to test the association of the quantity of TILs and pathologic response to neoadjuvant therapy.

  14. Patterns of metastases as measured by frequency at site. [ Time Frame: Until disease recurrence or death (up to 5 years)] ]
    The Kaplan-Meier estimator will be used to estimate median DFS and its confidence interval. The frequencies of metastases by site will be tabulated



Information from the National Library of Medicine

Choosing to participate in a study is an important personal decision. Talk with your doctor and family members or friends about deciding to join a study. To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contacts provided below. For general information, Learn About Clinical Studies.


Layout table for eligibility information
Ages Eligible for Study:   18 Years and older   (Adult, Older Adult)
Sexes Eligible for Study:   All
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   No
Criteria

Inclusion Criteria:

  • Histologically or cytologically confirmed NSCLC.
  • Clinical stage IB (>/= 3 cm per CT), Stage IIA/IIB, or Stage IIIA (N0-2) amenable to surgical resection.
  • Primary tumor >/= 3 cm (for all stages entered) to make it likely that excess tumor will be available after resection.
  • Patient must be deemed a surgical candidate.
  • ECOG performance status of 0 or 1 (Appendix C).
  • No prior chemotherapy, radiation therapy or biologic/targeted therapy for current diagnosis of lung cancer.
  • Adequate Organ Function
  • Age ≥18 years.
  • Non-pregnant. Females of child-bearing potential (not surgically sterilized or postmenopausal [a woman who is > 45 years of age and has not had menses for greater than 1 year]) must test negative for pregnancy within 48 hours prior to any initial study procedure based on a serum pregnancy test.
  • No active invasive malignancy in the past 2 years other than non-melanoma skin cancer. Cancers that are in-situ are not considered invasive.
  • Signed written informed consent including HIPAA according to institutional guidelines.
  • Patients must agree to research blood sampling to participate in study.
  • Have measurable disease based on RECIST 1.1.
  • Post-op predicted FEV1 and DLCO > 40% predicted (or per institutional standard).

Exclusion Criteria:

  • Treatment within the last 30 days with a drug that has not received regulatory approval for any indication at the time of study entry or used an investigational device within 4 weeks of the first dose of treatment.
  • Has a known history of active TB (Bacillus Tuberculosis).
  • Hypersensitivity to pembrolizumab or any of its excipients.
  • Concurrent administration of any other anti-tumor therapy.
  • Has received prior therapy with an anti-PD-1, anti-PD-L-1, or anti-PD-L2 agent.
  • Has known active Hepatitis B (e.g., HBsAg reactive) or Hepatitis C (e.g., HCV RNA [qualitative] is detected).
  • Inability to comply with protocol or study procedures.
  • Active infection requiring antibiotics, antifungal or antiviral agents, that in the opinion of the investigator would compromise the patient's ability to tolerate therapy.
  • Has known history of, or any evidence of active, non-infectious pneumonitis.
  • Has a known history of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) (HIV 1/2 antibodies).
  • Has active autoimmune disease that has required systemic treatment in the past 2 years (i.e. with use of disease modifying agents, corticosteroids or immunosuppressive drugs). Replacement therapy (e.g. thyroxine, insulin or physiologic corticosteroid replacement therapy for adrenal or pituitary insufficiency etc) is not considered a form of systemic treatment. Patients with a history of inflammatory bowel disease, including ulcerative colitis and Crohn's Disease, are excluded from this study, as are patients with a history of symptomatic disease (e.g., rheumatoid arthritis, systemic progressive sclerosis [scleroderma], systemic lupus erythematosus, autoimmune vasculitis [eg, Wegener's Granulomatosis]); motor neuropathy considered of autoimmune origin (e.g. Guillain-Barre Syndrome and Myasthenia Gravis).
  • Has a diagnosis of immunodeficiency or is receiving systemic steroid therapy or any other form of immunosuppressive therapy within 7 days prior to the first dose of trial treatment.
  • Has a known additional invasive malignancy that is progressing or requires active treatment. Exceptions include basal cell carcinoma of the skin or squamous cell carcinoma of the skin that has undergone potentially curative therapy or in situ cervical cancer.
  • Is pregnant or breastfeeding, or expecting to conceive or father children within the projected duration of the trial, starting with the pre-screening or screening visit through 120 days after the last dose of trial treatment.
  • Has had major surgery (other than definitive lung cancer surgery) within two weeks of study or other serious concomitant disorders that in the opinion of the investigator would compromise the safety of the patient or compromise the patient's ability to complete the study.
  • Has received any non-oncology vaccine therapy used for prevention of infectious diseases (for up to 30 days before or after any dose of pembrolizumab). Note: Seasonal influenza vaccines for injection are generally inactivated flu vaccines and are allowed; however, intranasal influenza vaccines (e.g., Flu-Mist®) are live attenuated vaccines and are not allowed.
  • Has history of myocardial infarction having occurred less than 6 months before inclusion, any known uncontrolled arrhythmia, symptomatic angina pectoris, active ischemia, or cardiac failure not controlled by medications. Patients with CAD recently treated with surgery and/or stent, if stable without symptomatic angina pectoris, active ischemia are eligible.
  • Has a history of interstitial lung disease
  • Has known psychiatric or substance abuse disorders that would interfere with cooperation with the requirements of the trial.
  • Prisoners or subjects who are compulsorily detained involuntarily incarcerated) for treatment of either psychiatric or physical (e.g., infectious) illness.

Information from the National Library of Medicine

To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contact information provided by the sponsor.

Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier (NCT number): NCT02818920


Locations
Layout table for location information
United States, Minnesota
Mayo Clinic
Rochester, Minnesota, United States, 55905
United States, New Hampshire
Dartmouth-Hitchcock Medical Center
Lebanon, New Hampshire, United States, 03756
United States, North Carolina
Duke University Medical Center
Durham, North Carolina, United States, 27710
Sponsors and Collaborators
Neal Ready
Merck Sharp & Dohme Corp.
Investigators
Layout table for investigator information
Principal Investigator: Neal Ready, MD Duke University

Layout table for additonal information
Responsible Party: Neal Ready, Associate Professor of Medicine, Duke University
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02818920     History of Changes
Other Study ID Numbers: Pro00071629
First Posted: June 30, 2016    Key Record Dates
Last Update Posted: February 15, 2019
Last Verified: February 2019

Layout table for additional information
Studies a U.S. FDA-regulated Drug Product: Yes
Studies a U.S. FDA-regulated Device Product: No

Keywords provided by Neal Ready, Duke University:
Pembrolizumab
Neoadjuvant
Tumor Infiltrating Lymphocytes (TILs)

Additional relevant MeSH terms:
Layout table for MeSH terms
Pembrolizumab
Lung Neoplasms
Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung
Respiratory Tract Neoplasms
Thoracic Neoplasms
Neoplasms by Site
Neoplasms
Lung Diseases
Respiratory Tract Diseases
Carcinoma, Bronchogenic
Bronchial Neoplasms
Antineoplastic Agents, Immunological
Antineoplastic Agents