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Bone Health in Aging HIV Infected Women (BEING)

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ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02815566
Recruitment Status : Active, not recruiting
First Posted : June 28, 2016
Last Update Posted : March 24, 2020
University of Modena and Reggio Emilia
San Raffaele University Hospital, Italy
Gilead Sciences
CIHR Canadian HIV Trials Network
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
Sharon Walmsley, MD, University Health Network, Toronto

Brief Summary:

Design: Open-label randomised multicenter international strategic trial of older women on combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) containing tenofovir-emtricitabine (TDF/FTC) with HIV RNA suppression for > 6 months to : 1. Immediate switch of TDF/FTC to tenofovir alafenamide-emtricitabine (TAF/FTC) while continuing the third antiretroviral agent.; 2. Delayed switch; with switch of TDF/FTC to TAF/FTC at 48 weeks while continuing the third agent. Follow up of all subjects to 96 weeks.

Subject Population: The anticipated sample size is 128 HIV infected women aged 45-55 years (peri or early post menopause). .

Primary endpoint: Percentage change from baseline bone mineral density (BMD) at the lumbar spine at weeks 48 and 96.

Secondary Endpoints: BMD change at hip, trabecular bone score, estimated bone strength by high resolution peripheral quantitative computerized tomography (HR-pQCT), muscle quality, geriatric assessment; biomarkers of bone, immune activation and inflammation; HIV viral suppression; safety, lipid and renal function, cardiovascular risk scores at weeks 48 and 96.

Expected Outcomes: To determine if a switch from TDF/FTC to TAF?FTC improves BMD to a degree correlating with a decreased risk of fragility fracture in aging HIV infected women. Secondary outcomes will assess bone strength using new imaging modalities, timing of switch, and renal health. This data will be used by health policy makers and providers to determine the proper use of TAF/FTC in the aging HIV population.

Condition or disease Intervention/treatment Phase
Osteoporosis HIV Menopause Drug: tenofovir-alafenamide-emtricitabine Drug: tenofovir-emtricitabine Phase 4

Detailed Description:

A Randomized controlled clinical trial (RCT) of immediate vs delayed switch from TDF/FTC to TAF/FTC to define the impact of switching ARV on BMD in different stages of the aging trajectory in HIV infected women. Included is a geriatric assessment based on the conceptualization of health transition across menopause.

Study Hypothesis: The primary hypothesis is that switching from TDF/FTC will improve BMD to a degree that correlates with a lower fracture risk in aging HIV+ women. We will further explore our theory that the impact is greater in those in the early stages of menopause and in those who also receive a protease inhibitor (PI) as the third antiretroviral agent (ARV).

Primary objectives: To determine if: 1. Switching HIV+ women on TDF/FTC to TAF/FTC increases BMD at the spine at 48 weeks relative to those who continue TDF/FTC 2. To determine if any observed improvements continue or stabilize in the year after switch.

Hypothesis generating objectives: To determine if the effect of switching from TDF/FTC to TAF/FTC on BMD varies by stage of menopause and by third ARV.

Study design: This study is double blind placebo controlled randomised, 1:1, multicentre strategic trial. Patients will be randomised to immediate vs delayed switch, with randomization allocation arranged to minimize differences between treatment group with respect to stage of menopause (peri- menopause vs early post menopause) and site. Study population: HIV positive women who are in the peri-menopausal period or those within 10 years post menopause to capture those with greatest risk of BMD loss. As menopause typically occurs earlier in HIV + women we include those aged 45-55 years. They must be on a cART regimen containing TDF/FTC with HIV RNA <50 c/ml for at least 6 months.


  1. Immediate switch of TDF/FTC to TAF/FTC while maintaining the third ARV agent.
  2. Delayed switch of TDF/FTC to TAF/FTC at 48 weeks while maintaining the third ARV agent.

Randomization: A computer-generated randomization list will be prepared prior to study onset by a statistician unassociated with the study. Randomization will be stratified by study centre.

Primary endpoint: Comparison of the immediate vs delayed group in the % change from baseline in BMD at the lumbar spine at week 48 and 96.

Secondary endpoints: Will compare changes between the immediate and delayed group from data collected at screening or baseline and weeks 48 and 96.

  • change from baseline in BMD at hip Changes in Bone architecture as determined by Trabecular bone scan (TBS) and HRpQCT (high resolution peripheral quantitative computerized tomography) (Toronto site) Changes in 10 year fracture risk determined by country specific FRAX® (fracture risk assessment) calculator
  • with HIV-1 RNA <50 c/ml Change from baseline in geriatric functional measures: frailty, performance and balance Change from baseline in muscle quality: Sarcopenia - grip strength measured by a Dynamometer Change from baseline in lipid values and Framingham cardiovascular risk scores Changes in renal tubular and glomerular function: GFR (glomerular filtration rate), Creatinine, urine albumin /creatinine and protein/creatinine, glucosuria Safety (clinical and laboratory adverse events) Changes in biomarkers of inflammation, coagulation and bone metabolism Tolerability (EuroQoL questionnaire)

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Study Type : Interventional  (Clinical Trial)
Actual Enrollment : 34 participants
Allocation: Randomized
Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
Masking: Quadruple (Participant, Care Provider, Investigator, Outcomes Assessor)
Primary Purpose: Treatment
Official Title: Bone Health in Aging HIV Infected Women: Improvement or Prevention of Changes in Bone Mineral Density by Switching Antiretroviral Agents. Is There an Optimal Time to Intervene?
Actual Study Start Date : September 12, 2017
Estimated Primary Completion Date : June 2021
Estimated Study Completion Date : December 2022

Arm Intervention/treatment
Experimental: Immediate switch
Open label tenofovir-alafenamide (25/10mg)-emtricitabine (200mg) tablet once daily by mouth for 96 weeks
Drug: tenofovir-alafenamide-emtricitabine
comparison of tenofovir-emtricitabine and tenofovir-alafenamide-emtricitabine on bone mineral density
Other Name: Descovy

Active Comparator: delayed switch
Open-label tenofovir (300mg)-emtricitabine (200mg) tablet once daily by mouth for 48 weeks followed by open label tenofovir-alafenamide (25/10mg)-emtricitabine (200mg) tablet once daily by mouth for an additional 48 weeks
Drug: tenofovir-emtricitabine
comparison of tenofovir-emtricitabine and tenofovir-alafenamide-emtricitabine on bone mineral density
Other Name: Truvada

Primary Outcome Measures :
  1. per cent change in bone mineral density from baseline at the lumbar spine [ Time Frame: 48 weeks and 96 weeks ]

Secondary Outcome Measures :
  1. % change in bone mineral density from baseline at the hip [ Time Frame: 48 weeks and 96 weeks ]
  2. viral load [ Time Frame: 24, 48 and 96 weeks ]
    proportion who maintain suppression to < 50 copies/ml

  3. changes in bone architecture [ Time Frame: 48 and 96 weeks ]
    measured by HRqCT (high resolution quantitative computerized tomography), and trabecular bone scan

  4. kidney function [ Time Frame: 48 and 96 weeks ]
    change in glomerular filtration rate, and proteinuria

  5. sarcopenia [ Time Frame: 48 and 96 weeks ]
    change in grip strength using a dynameter

  6. fall frequency [ Time Frame: 48 and 96 weeks ]
    changes in self administered questionnaire

  7. balance and walking speed [ Time Frame: 48 and 96 weeks ]
    changes in short performance physical battery test

  8. frailty [ Time Frame: 48 and 96 weeks ]
    changes in frailty index

  9. cholesterol [ Time Frame: 48 and 96 weeks ]
    changes in low density lipoprotein cholesterol

Information from the National Library of Medicine

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Ages Eligible for Study:   40 Years to 60 Years   (Adult)
Sexes Eligible for Study:   Female
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   No

Inclusion Criteria:

  1. Biological female aged 40-60
  2. Documented HIV-1 infection
  3. Peri-menopausal ( as documented by history).
  4. Signed Informed Consent Form and willing to comply with the protocol.
  5. Receiving a cART regimen containing a ritonavir boosted PI (darunavir, atazanavir, lopinavir,) or an NNRTI (efavirenz, nevirapine or rilpivirine) or an integrase inhibitor (dolutegravir or raltegravir or elvitegravir) in combination with TDF-FTC for > 24 weeks.
  6. Stable viral suppression (plasma HIV-RNA<50 copies/mL for > 24 weeks). Single viral blip <500/ml allowed if re-suppresses.
  7. If of childbearing potential, is using effective birth control methods and is willing to continue during the trial.
  8. Women will be assessed for vitamin D and calcium dietary intake; if inadequate for age, supplements will be recommended.

Exclusion Criteria:

  1. HIV-2
  2. High 10-year fracture risk at baseline ( > 20%) based on country specific FRAX
  3. Current treatment with active bone medications- bisphosphonates, denosumab, calcitonin, raloxifene, teriparatide, strontium
  4. Current use of systemic steroids ( inhaled steroids permitted) or chemotherapeutic agents
  5. Acute viral hepatitis
  6. Chronic hepatitis C with liver transaminases >5 x ULN or expected to require treatment for hepatitis C during the trial period.
  7. Any investigational ARV within 30 days.
  8. Dialysis or renal insufficiency (creatinine clearance < 50ml/min)
  9. History of decompensated liver disease (AST or ALT≥5x the upper limit of normal (ULN) or ALT ≥ 3 x ULN and bilirubin ≥ 1.5 x ULN with > 35% direct bilirubin), or the presence of ascites, encephalopathy, coagulopathy, hypoalbuminemia, esophageal or gastric varices.
  10. Pregnant or breastfeeding
  11. Screening blood result with any grade 3/4 toxicity according to Division of AIDS (DAIDS) grading scale, except: asymptomatic grade 3 amylase, creatinine phosphokinase, or lipid elevation.
  12. Any condition (including illicit drug use or alcohol abuse) or lab results which, in the investigator's opinion, interfere with assessments or completion of the trial.

Information from the National Library of Medicine

To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contact information provided by the sponsor.

Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier (NCT number): NCT02815566

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Canada, British Columbia
Vancouver ID Research and Care Centre
Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, V6Z 2C7
Canada, Ontario
Hamilton Health Sciences
Hamilton, Ontario, Canada, L8S 1A4
University Health Network
Toronto, Ontario, Canada, M5G 2C4
Canada, Quebec
McGill University Health Centre
Montréal, Quebec, Canada, H4A 3J1
CHU de Québec-Université Laval
Québec, Quebec, Canada, G1V 4G2
Ospedale San Raffaele
Milan, Italy, 20127
Università degli Studi di Modena e Reggio Emilia
Modena, Italy, 41124
Sponsors and Collaborators
University Health Network, Toronto
University of Modena and Reggio Emilia
San Raffaele University Hospital, Italy
Gilead Sciences
CIHR Canadian HIV Trials Network
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Principal Investigator: sharon walmsley, MD University Health Network, Toronto
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Responsible Party: Sharon Walmsley, MD, Professor of Medicine, University Health Network, Toronto
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02815566    
Other Study ID Numbers: IN-CA-311-3963
First Posted: June 28, 2016    Key Record Dates
Last Update Posted: March 24, 2020
Last Verified: March 2020
Individual Participant Data (IPD) Sharing Statement:
Plan to Share IPD: Yes
Plan Description: Information on viral load, toxicity and bone scans will be available to treating physicians

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Studies a U.S. FDA-regulated Drug Product: Yes
Studies a U.S. FDA-regulated Device Product: No
Product Manufactured in and Exported from the U.S.: Yes
Keywords provided by Sharon Walmsley, MD, University Health Network, Toronto:
kidney, antiretroviral agent, tenofovir, osteoporosis, women
Additional relevant MeSH terms:
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Bone Diseases, Metabolic
Bone Diseases
Musculoskeletal Diseases
Metabolic Diseases
Antiviral Agents
Anti-Infective Agents
Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors
Nucleic Acid Synthesis Inhibitors
Enzyme Inhibitors
Molecular Mechanisms of Pharmacological Action
Anti-HIV Agents
Anti-Retroviral Agents