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Pembrolizumab and BCG Solution in Treating Patients With Recurrent Non-Muscle-Invasive Bladder Cancer

This study is currently recruiting participants.
See Contacts and Locations
Verified February 2017 by Joshua Meeks, Northwestern University
Sponsor:
Collaborators:
Merck Sharp & Dohme Corp.
National Cancer Institute (NCI)
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
Joshua Meeks, Northwestern University
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier:
NCT02808143
First received: May 25, 2016
Last updated: February 20, 2017
Last verified: February 2017
  Purpose
The purpose of this study is to evaluate the efficacy (the effect of drug on tumor) and the tolerability (the effect of drug on the body) of pembrolizumab, when given as a single agent in patients with bladder tumors. Another purpose of the study is to see what tumor characteristics are associated with increased efficacy of the pembrolizumab. Pembrolizumab (MK-3475) is an antibody (a human protein that sticks to a part of the tumor and/or immune cells) designed to allow the body's immune system to work against tumor cells. Pembrolizumab is Food and drug Administration (FDA) approved for the treatment of advanced melanoma (a type of skin cancer) and some types of lung cancer. It is not yet approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration (USFDA) for bladder cancer, hence it is considered an investigational agent for this disease.

Condition Intervention Phase
Recurrent Bladder Carcinoma Stage 0a Bladder Urothelial Carcinoma Stage 0is Bladder Urothelial Carcinoma Stage I Bladder Cancer Biological: BCG Solution Other: Laboratory Biomarker Analysis Biological: Pembrolizumab Other: Pharmacological Study Phase 1

Study Type: Interventional
Study Design: Intervention Model: Single Group Assignment
Masking: No masking
Primary Purpose: Treatment
Official Title: A Phase 1 Dose-Escalation Study of Intravesical MK-3475 and Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) in Subjects With High Risk and BCG-Refractory Non-Muscle-Invasive Bladder Cancer

Resource links provided by NLM:


Further study details as provided by Joshua Meeks, Northwestern University:

Primary Outcome Measures:
  • Maximum Tolerated Dose (MTD) [ Time Frame: Up to 9 weeks ]
    Determine the MTD of the study drug (MK-3475) when administered intravesically in combination with BCG in patients with high risk or BCG-refractory non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (up to the individual maximum tolerated dose of each drug alone). The MTD will be defined as the highest dose that causes dose limiting toxicities (DLTs) in <2 of 6 patients graded by the National Cancer Institute (NCI) Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE) version 4.03.


Secondary Outcome Measures:
  • Dose Limiting Toxicities (DLTs) [ Time Frame: Up to 9 weeks ]
    Evaluate the DLTs of MK-3475 in combination with BCG in this population. DLTs will be defined as significant adverse events occurring during the DLT observation period (2 week pre-induction phase and the 7 weeks of induction phase) that is related to either drug or the combination. DLT will be evaluated according to CTCAE v 4.03 criteria.

  • Incidence of adverse events [ Time Frame: Up to 30 days from the last dose of study drug ]
    Determine the safety and tolerability of the combination of MK-3475 and BCG in subjects with high risk or BCG-refractory non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer by evaluating number, frequency, and severity of adverse events using CTCAE v 4.03.


Other Outcome Measures:
  • Change in cytokines in the blood [ Time Frame: At weeks -2, 0, and 17 ]
    Blood will be collected for measurement of cytokines in order to explore humoral and cellular responses to MK-3475 and BCG treatments. Cytokines will be measured using ELISA assays.

  • Change in cytokines in urine [ Time Frame: Up to week 49 ]
    Urine will be collected for measurement of cytokines in order to explore humoral and cellular responses to MK-3475 and BCG treatments. Cytokines will be measured using ELISA assays.

  • Expression of PD-L1 [ Time Frame: At baseline and then up to 49 weeks ]
    Expression of tumor biomarker PD-L1 as defined by immunohistochemistry (IHC) will be assessed and results will be correlated with adverse effects and recurrence rate. This evaluation will be performed on archived tissue samples obtained at baseline and on fresh tissue from any subsequent biopsies.

  • Expression of PD-1 [ Time Frame: At baseline and then up to 49 weeks ]
    Expression of tumor biomarker PD-1 as defined by immunohistochemistry (IHC) will be assessed and results will be correlated with adverse effects and recurrence rate. This evaluation will be performed on archived tissue samples obtained at baseline and on fresh tissue from any subsequent biopsies.

  • Expression of PD-L2 [ Time Frame: At baseline and then up to 49 weeks ]
    Expression of tumor biomarker PD-L2 and immune cell infiltration as defined by immunohistochemistry (IHC) will be assessed and results will be correlated with adverse effects and recurrence rate. This evaluation will be performed on archived tissue samples obtained at baseline and on fresh tissue from any subsequent biopsies.

  • Lymphocyte profile [ Time Frame: At weeks -2, 0, and 17 ]
    Peripheral blood will be taken for evaluation of a lymphocyte profile which will be analyzed using automated flow cytometric techniques and will measure humoral and cellular response to tumor antigens.

  • Plasma concentration-time profile [ Time Frame: Week -2: At minute 0, then 15, 30, and 60 minutes post-dosing ]
    Blood serum concentrations of MK-3475 will be evaluated during pre-induction (week -2) at baseline (0 minutes) and at 15, 30, and 60 minutes post-dosing for determination of plasma PK parameters.

  • Plasma concentration-time profile [ Time Frame: Week 4: At minute 0, then 15, 30, and 60 minutes post-dosing ]
    Blood serum concentrations of MK-3475 will be evaluated during induction (week 4) at baseline (0 minutes) and at 15, 30, and 60 minutes post-dosing for determination of plasma PK parameters.

  • Urine concentration-time profile [ Time Frame: Week -2: At 30 minutes prior to dosing and 2 hours after dosing ]
    Urine concentrations of MK-3475 will be evaluated during induction (week -2) at 30 minutes prior to dosing and 2 hours post-dosing for determination of urine concentration-time profile.

  • Urine concentration-time profile [ Time Frame: Week 4: At 30 minutes prior to dosing and 2 hours after dosing ]
    Urine concentrations of MK-3475 will be evaluated during induction (week 4) at 30 minutes prior to dosing and 2 hours post-dosing for determination of urine concentration-time profile.

  • Response rate [ Time Frame: At baseline and up to 49 weeks ]
    Determine the response rate in terms of complete pathologic response in this population will be assessed when the patient undergoes cystoscopies. Patients will be examined via bladder cystoscopy and may undergo biopsy for pathological confirmation if needed. Responses will be categorized as yes or no for bladder recurrence.

  • Tumor progression [ Time Frame: Up to 49 weeks ]
    The progression rate of the tumor will be defined as positive transurethral resection and/or biopsy.


Estimated Enrollment: 27
Actual Study Start Date: February 10, 2017
Estimated Study Completion Date: February 2020
Estimated Primary Completion Date: January 2019 (Final data collection date for primary outcome measure)
Arms Assigned Interventions
Experimental: Treatment (pembrolizumab, BCG solution)

PRE-INDUCTION PHASE: Patients receive pembrolizumab intravesically once on day -14.

INDUCTION PHASE: Patients receive BCG solution intravesically once weekly for 6 weeks at weeks 0-5 and pembrolizumab intravesically every 2 weeks at weeks 0, 2, and 4.

MAINTENANCE PHASE: Beginning 2 weeks after the last dose of BCG solution, patients receive pembrolizumab intravesically every 2 weeks for 12 weeks at weeks 7, 9, 11, 13, 15, and 17 for a total of 6 doses. Patients then receive pembrolizumab intravesically every 4 weeks at weeks 21, 25, 29, 33, 37, 41, 45, and 49 for a total of 8 doses.

Biological: BCG Solution
Given intravesically
Other Names:
  • Bacillus Calmette-Guerin Solution
  • TICE BCG Solution
Other: Laboratory Biomarker Analysis
Correlative studies
Biological: Pembrolizumab
Given intravesically
Other Names:
  • Keytruda
  • Lambrolizumab
  • MK-3475
  • SCH 900475
Other: Pharmacological Study
Correlative studies

Detailed Description:

PRIMARY OBJECTIVES:

I. To determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of the study drug (pembrolizumab [MK-3475]) when administered intravesically in combination with BCG in patients with high risk or BCG-refractory non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (up to the individual maximum tolerated dose of each drug alone).

SECONDARY OBJECTIVES:

I. To describe the dose limiting toxicities (DLTs) of MK-3475 in combination with BCG in this population.

II. To assess the safety and tolerability of the combination of MK-3475 and BCG in subjects with high risk or BCG-refractory non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer.

TERTIARY OBJECTIVES:

I. To characterize the pharmacokinetics (PK) of MK-3475 in both blood and urine when administered intravesically in combination with BCG.

II. To measure humoral and cellular responses to tumor antigens on serum and urine samples by measuring the levels of cytokines (ie, interleukin [IL]-2, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-18, interferon gamma [IFN-gamma] and tumor necrosis factor alpha [TNF-alpha]) and peripheral blood lymphocyte phenotype throughout treatment.

III. To determine the response rate in terms of complete pathologic response in this population assessed when patient undergoes cystoscopies (weeks 17, 25, 33, 41, and 49 if applicable).

IV. To document the progression rate associated with the combination of intravesical MK-3475 and BCG in patients with high risk or BCG-refractory non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer.

V. To evaluate the relationship between tumor biomarkers programmed cell death (PD)-ligand (L)1, PD-L2, PD-1 as defined by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and adverse effects and recurrence rate.

OUTLINE: This is a dose-escalation study of pembrolizumab.

PRE-INDUCTION PHASE: Patients receive pembrolizumab intravesically once on day -14.

INDUCTION PHASE: Patients receive BCG solution intravesically once weekly for 6 weeks at weeks 0-5 and pembrolizumab intravesically every 2 weeks at weeks 0, 2, and 4.

MAINTENANCE PHASE: Beginning 2 weeks after the last dose of BCG solution, patients receive pembrolizumab intravesically every 2 weeks for 12 weeks at weeks 7, 9, 11, 13, 15, and 17 for a total of 6 doses. Patients then receive pembrolizumab intravesically every 4 weeks at weeks 21, 25, 29, 33, 37, 41, 45, and 49 for a total of 8 doses.

After completion of study treatment, patients are followed up every 3 months for 2 years, every 4 months for 2 years, every 6 months for 2 years, and then annually thereafter.

  Eligibility

Ages Eligible for Study:   18 Years and older   (Adult, Senior)
Sexes Eligible for Study:   All
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   No
Criteria

Inclusion Criteria:

  • Patients must have a histologically documented recurrence of non-muscle-invasive bladder carcinoma (T1HG, T1HG after repeat transurethral resection [reTUR]) or BCG refractory; if patient has received BCG they can be Ta, Tis, or T1)
  • Patients must have persistent high grade disease OR be BCG refractory, defined as either:

    • Recurrence within 6 months of receiving at least 2 courses of intravesical BCG (at least 5 or 6 inductions and at least 2 or 3 maintenance doses) or
    • T1 high grade disease at the first evaluation following induction BCG alone (at least 5 of 6 induction doses)
  • Patients must agree to provide tissue from archival biopsy samples or newly obtained excisional biopsy of a tumor lesion

    • NOTE: Patients who do not have available specimens from previous biopsy or do not agree to provide this tissue are not eligible; cytological specimens will not be acceptable; availability of tissue must be confirmed at the time of registration, but the actual sample does not have to be received in order to complete registration
  • Patients must have received one course of induction treatment with BCG (4-6 weekly doses), irrespective of the interval since last treatment; patients are allowed to have received any number of prior chemotherapy instillations

    • NOTE: Patients may have received prior intravesical interferon
  • All patients must have imaging (computed tomography [CT] scan or magnetic resonance imaging [MRI]) documenting normal upper urinary tracts and absence of locally advanced bladder cancer within 60 days prior to study registration
  • Have a performance status of 0-2 on the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) Performance Scale
  • Absolute neutrophil count (ANC) >= 1,500 /mcL within 14 days prior to registration
  • Platelets >= 100,000 / mcL within 14 days prior to registration
  • Hemoglobin >= 9 g/dL or >= 5.6 mmol/L within 14 days prior to registration
  • Serum creatinine =< 1.5 X upper limit of normal (ULN) OR measured or calculated (creatinine clearance should be calculated per institutional standard) creatinine clearance (glomerular filtration rate [GFR] can also be used in place of creatinine or creatinine clearance [CrCl]) >= 60 mL/min for subject with creatinine levels > 1.5 X institutional ULN within 14 days prior to registration
  • Serum total bilirubin =< 1.5 X ULN OR direct bilirubin =< ULN for subjects with total bilirubin levels > 1.5 ULN within 14 days prior to registration
  • Aspartate aminotransferase (AST) (serum glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase [SGOT]) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) (serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase [SGPT]) =< 2.5 X ULN within 14 days prior to registration
  • International normalized ratio (INR) or prothrombin time (PT) =< 1.5 X ULN unless subject is receiving anticoagulant therapy as long as PT or partial thromboplastin time (PTT) is within therapeutic range of intended use of anticoagulants within 14 days prior to registration
  • Activated PTT (aPTT) =< 1.5 X ULN unless subject is receiving anticoagulant therapy as long as PT or PTT is within therapeutic range of intended use of anticoagulants within 14 days prior to registration
  • Females of child-bearing potential (FOCBP) and males must agree to use adequate contraception (e.g. hormonal or barrier method of birth control; abstinence) prior to study entry, for the duration of study participation, and for 120 days following completion of therapy; should a female patient become pregnant or suspect she is pregnant while participating in this study, she should inform her treating physician immediately;

    • NOTE: A FOCBP is any woman (regardless of sexual orientation, having undergone a tubal ligation, or remaining celibate by choice) who meets the following criteria
    • Has not undergone a hysterectomy or bilateral oophorectomy
    • Has had menses at any time in the preceding 12 consecutive months (and therefore has not been naturally postmenopausal for > 12 months)
  • FOCBP must have a negative urine or serum pregnancy test within 7 days prior to receiving the first dose of study medication; if the urine test is positive or cannot be confirmed as negative, a serum pregnancy test will be required
  • Patients must have the ability to understand and the willingness to sign a written informed consent prior to registration on study

Exclusion Criteria:

  • Patients who have had chemotherapy, targeted small molecule therapy, or radiation therapy within 2 weeks prior to study day -14 or who have not recovered (to =< grade 1 or baseline) from adverse events due to a previously administered agent are not eligible

    • Note: subjects with =< grade 2 neuropathy are an exception to this criterion and do qualify for the study
    • Note: if subject received major surgery within 4 weeks prior to day -14, they must have recovered adequately from the toxicity and/or complications per PI discretion
  • Patients may not be receiving any other investigational agents within 4 weeks of the first dose of treatment
  • Patients who have received a prior monoclonal antibody within 4 weeks prior to study day -14 or who have not recovered (to =< grade 1 or baseline) from adverse events due to agents administered more than 4 weeks earlier are not eligible
  • Patients who have a diagnosis of immunodeficiency (per PI discretion) or who have received treatment with systemic immunosuppressive medications (including but not limited to prednisone, cyclophosphamide, azathioprine, methotrexate, thalidomide, and anti-TNF agents within 2 weeks prior to study registration are not eligible

    • NOTE: patients who have received acute, low-dose, systemic immunosuppressant medications (eg, one-time dose of dexamethasone for nausea) may be enrolled in the study; the use of inhaled corticosteroids and mineralocorticoids (eg, fludrocortisone) is allowed
  • Patients who have a history of allergic reactions attributed to compounds of similar chemical or biologic composition to MK-3475 are not eligible AND/OR patients who have had prior exposure to compounds of similar chemical or biologic composition to MK-3475 are not eligible
  • Patients who have documentation of an uncontrolled intercurrent illness (as noted in their medical records) including, but not limited to any of the following, are not eligible

    • Ongoing or active infection requiring systemic treatment
    • Symptomatic congestive heart failure (New York Heart Association cardiac disease class III or IV)
    • Unstable angina pectoris
    • Myocardial infarction within the previous 3 months
    • Unstable cardiac arrhythmias
    • Psychiatric illness/social situations that would limit compliance with study requirements
    • Any other illness or condition that the treating investigator feels would interfere with study compliance or would compromise the patient's safety or study endpoints
  • Female patients who are pregnant or nursing are not eligible
  • Patients who have a history of allergic reactions attributed to compounds of similar chemical or biologic composition to BCG are not eligible
  • Patients who have had an active infection requiring systemic therapy within 1 week prior to day -14 are not eligible UNLESS they are symptom-free and have a negative culture at the time of dosing on day -14
  • Patients who received a live, attenuated vaccine within 4 weeks before study registration or are anticipated to require such a live attenuated vaccine are not eligible; NOTE: Influenza vaccination should be given during influenza season only (approximately October to March); patients must not receive live, attenuated influenza vaccine (e.g., FluMist) within 4 weeks prior to study registration or at any time during the study
  • Patients who are known to be (i.e. documented in medical records) human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) positive are not eligible
  • Patients with active tuberculosis are not eligible
  • Patients with known active hepatitis B (chronic or acute; defined as having a positive hepatitis B surface antigen [HBsAg] test at screening) or hepatitis C are not eligible

    • NOTE: patients with past hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection or resolved HBV infection (defined as the presence of hepatitis B core antibody [HBc Ab] and absence of HBsAg) are eligible; HBV deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) must be obtained in these patients 14 days prior to study registration
    • NOTE: patients positive for hepatitis C virus (HCV) antibody are eligible only if polymerase chain reaction is negative for HCV ribonucleic acid (RNA)
  • Patients who have a history of severe allergic, anaphylactic, or other hypersensitivity reactions to chimeric or humanized antibodies or fusion proteins are not eligible
  • Patients with an active autoimmune disease requiring systemic treatment within the past 2 years (i.e. with use of disease modifying agents, corticosteroids or immunosuppressive drugs); replacement therapy (eg. thyroxine, insulin, or physiologic corticosteroid replacement therapy for adrenal or pituitary insufficiency, etc.) is not considered a form of systemic treatment
  • Patients with a documented history of clinically severe autoimmune disease, or a syndrome that requires systemic steroids or immunosuppressive agents; subjects with vitiligo or resolved childhood asthma/atopy would be an exception to this rule; subjects that require intermittent use of bronchodilators or local steroid injections would not be excluded from the study; subjects with hypothyroidism stable on hormone replacement or Sjogren's syndrome will not be excluded from the study
  • Patients with history of interstitial lung disease or active, non-infectious pneumonitis are not eligible

    • NOTE: history of radiation pneumonitis in the radiation field (fibrosis) is permitted
  • Treatment with systemic immunostimulatory agents (including but not limited to IFNs, IL-2) within 6 weeks or five half-lives of the drug, whichever is shorter, prior to study registration are not eligible
  • Patients who received prior treatment with an anti-PD-1, anti-PD-L1, anti-PD-L2, anti-CD137, or anti-cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen-4 (CTLA-4) antibody (including ipilimumab or any other antibody or drug specifically targeting T-cell co-stimulation or checkpoint pathways) are not eligible
  • Patients who have a history of prior malignancy are not eligible; please NOTE the following exceptions when patient has undergone potentially curative therapy with no evidence of that disease recurrence for 5 years since initiation of that therapy

    • Basal cell carcinoma of the skin
    • Squamous cell carcinoma of the skin
    • In situ cervical cancer
  • Patients who have a history of an allogeneic tissue/solid organ transplant are not eligible
  Contacts and Locations
Choosing to participate in a study is an important personal decision. Talk with your doctor and family members or friends about deciding to join a study. To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the Contacts provided below. For general information, see Learn About Clinical Studies.

Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT02808143

Contacts
Contact: Study Coordinator (312)695-1301 cancertrials@northwestern.edu

Locations
United States, Illinois
Northwestern University Recruiting
Chicago, Illinois, United States, 60611
Contact: Joshua J. Meeks    312-695-1301    Joshua.meeks@northwestern.edu   
Principal Investigator: Joshua J. Meeks, MD, PhD         
Sub-Investigator: Benedito Carneiro, MD, MSc         
Sub-Investigator: Timothy Kuzel, MD         
Sponsors and Collaborators
Northwestern University
Merck Sharp & Dohme Corp.
National Cancer Institute (NCI)
Investigators
Principal Investigator: Joshua Meeks Northwestern University
  More Information

Responsible Party: Joshua Meeks, Joshua Meeks, MD, PhD, Northwestern University
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02808143     History of Changes
Other Study ID Numbers: NU 15U06
STU00202754 ( CTRP (Clinical Trial Reporting Program) )
NU 15U06 ( Other Identifier: Northwestern University )
P30CA060553 ( U.S. NIH Grant/Contract )
NCI-2016-00664 ( Registry Identifier: CTRP (Clinical Trial Reporting Program) )
Study First Received: May 25, 2016
Last Updated: February 20, 2017

Studies a U.S. FDA-regulated Drug Product: Yes
Studies a U.S. FDA-regulated Device Product: No

Additional relevant MeSH terms:
Carcinoma
Urinary Bladder Neoplasms
Carcinoma, Transitional Cell
Carcinoma in Situ
Neoplasms, Glandular and Epithelial
Neoplasms by Histologic Type
Neoplasms
Urologic Neoplasms
Urogenital Neoplasms
Neoplasms by Site
Urinary Bladder Diseases
Urologic Diseases
Pharmaceutical Solutions
Pembrolizumab
BCG Vaccine
Antineoplastic Agents
Adjuvants, Immunologic
Immunologic Factors
Physiological Effects of Drugs

ClinicalTrials.gov processed this record on July 21, 2017