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Effect of Strength Training on Sleep Apnea in the Elderly

The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Read our disclaimer for details. Identifier: NCT02742792
Recruitment Status : Unknown
Verified October 2017 by Hospital de Clinicas de Porto Alegre.
Recruitment status was:  Enrolling by invitation
First Posted : April 19, 2016
Last Update Posted : October 23, 2017
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
Hospital de Clinicas de Porto Alegre

Brief Summary:
The objective of the study is to evaluate the impact of strength training on sleep apneas in the elderly. Individuals aged between 65 and 80 years and that presenting apnea-hypopnea index between 20 and 50 events per hour, measured by out-of-center portable polysomnography, will be recruited. Those included will be randomized to two groups: Intervention: consisted of 12 weeks, twice a week, of strength training; or control: consisted of lifestyle recommendations.

Condition or disease Intervention/treatment Phase
Sleep Apnea Other: Resistance training Other: Advice on Lifestyle Not Applicable

Detailed Description:

Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a disorder that exposes the individual to repeated periods of hypoxia and awakenings during sleep. OSA occurs in up to one third of the population, constituting a public health problem. The prevalence of sleep apnea increases with age, reaching up to 90%. Its consequences include sympathetic nervous system activation, increased blood pressure and heart rate, myocardial contractility overload, decline in parasympathetic activity, oxidative stress, systemic inflammation, platelet activation, and impaired vascular endothelial function. OSA is a risk factor for hypertension, coronary artery disease, peripheral artery disease, heart failure, and arrhythmias. The classical treatment options for OSA are the use of continuous positive airway pressure, oral appliances for mandibular advancement, surgery, weight reduction, and lifestyle change, including recommendation of regular practice of exercise.

Physical exercise is accepted culturally and scientifically as a non-pharmacological intervention beneficial to health. Aerobic and resistance exercises improve the quality of sleep. There is evidence of improvement in the general well-being and, particularly in sleep. Promote or improve sleep through exercise is healthy, safe, and simple. A sedentary lifestyle is linked with a higher incidence and severity of sleep apnea. Increase in the number of hours of exercise reduces these problems. Exercise has been used with consistent results to treat OSA. The effect size of exercise in treatment of OSA ranges between 0.4 and 1.5 standard deviations. In a meta-analysis, totaling 129 participants, the mean effect was the reduction of 7 events per hour. Although the results of randomized clinical trials and other studies pointing to the decrease in AHI after physical training, all studies involved adult populations with an average age between 42 and 54 years. The role of exercise in the elderly with OSA, the most affected population, remains uninvestigated.

The research question is: What is the effect of strength training on the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) in elderly with OSA? The objective of the study is to evaluate the impact of strength training on OSA in the elderly.

The trial will recruit individuals aged 65 to 80 years ascribed to a primary care unit linked to the university hospital. Individuals that accept to participate in the study, will undergo out-of-center polysomnography in order to detect and quantify the severity of OSA. Individuals with AHI between 20 and 50 events per hour will be eligible, and will be randomly allocated to the intervention or the control group. Randomization will be performed by sequence numbers generated by computer at

Individuals allocated to the intervention group will hold two sessions per week of strength training consisted of exercises for legs, arms, chest, back, and abdomen in the university Physical Education High School, during 12 weeks. The individuals allocated to the control group will receive advice on lifestyle and will participate in the meetings of an elderly social group in the basic health unit. All individuals from both groups will perform an evaluation consisting of body composition by bioelectrical impedance, maximum dynamic force by 1-repetition maximum strength test, quality and muscle thickness by ultrasound, and physical function by Sit-to-stand test, Timed up and go test and Handgrip strength test. All evaluations will be repeated at the end of the 12-week period.

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Study Type : Interventional  (Clinical Trial)
Estimated Enrollment : 26 participants
Allocation: Randomized
Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
Masking: Single (Outcomes Assessor)
Primary Purpose: Treatment
Official Title: Effect of Strength Training on Sleep Apnea in the Elderly
Study Start Date : April 2016
Estimated Primary Completion Date : November 30, 2017
Estimated Study Completion Date : December 31, 2017

Resource links provided by the National Library of Medicine

MedlinePlus related topics: Sleep Apnea

Arm Intervention/treatment
Experimental: Resistance training
Resistance training, twice a week during 12 weeks.
Other: Resistance training
Twenty-four strength training sessions consisted in exercises of extension and flexion knees, lat pull-down, elbow extension and flexion, sitting bench press and hip abduction.

Advice on lifestyle
Patients receive advice on lifestyle. Patients will be asked to participate in the elderly group meetings the basic health unit linked to the hospital.
Other: Advice on Lifestyle
Patients receive advice on lifestyle. Patients will be asked to participate in the elderly group meetings the basic health unit linked to the hospital.

Primary Outcome Measures :
  1. Apnea-hypopnea index [ Time Frame: 12 weeks ]
    Measured by out-of-center polysomnography

Secondary Outcome Measures :
  1. Muscle strength [ Time Frame: 12 weeks ]
    Measured by 1-repetition maximum strength test

  2. Muscle thickness [ Time Frame: 12 weeks ]
    Measured by ultrasound

  3. Muscle quality [ Time Frame: 12 weeks ]
    Measured by ultrasound

  4. Muscle strength of legs [ Time Frame: 12 weeks ]
    Measured by Sit-to-stand test

  5. Mobility [ Time Frame: 12 weeks ]
    Measured by Timed up and go test

  6. Grip strength [ Time Frame: 12 weeks ]
    Measured by Handgrip strength test

Information from the National Library of Medicine

Choosing to participate in a study is an important personal decision. Talk with your doctor and family members or friends about deciding to join a study. To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contacts provided below. For general information, Learn About Clinical Studies.

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Ages Eligible for Study:   65 Years to 80 Years   (Older Adult)
Sexes Eligible for Study:   All
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   No

Inclusion Criteria:

  • Age between 65 and 80 years
  • Both genders
  • Not being engaged in regular structured resistance exercise
  • Apnea-hypopnea index between 20 and 50 events per hour
  • Time availability to include physical activity in routine
  • Consenting to participate in the survey

Exclusion Criteria:

  • Being in treatment for sleep apnea
  • Osteoarticular problems that compromise the exercises included in the project
  • Neuromuscular Problems
  • Serious illness
  • Uncontrolled hypertension
  • Acute myocardial infarction in the last year
  • Recent trauma of the upper airway
  • Other chronic diseases in treatment for over a month in the last year
  • Drugs with effect on the central nervous system

Information from the National Library of Medicine

To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contact information provided by the sponsor.

Please refer to this study by its identifier (NCT number): NCT02742792

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Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre
Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil, 90035-903
Sponsors and Collaborators
Hospital de Clinicas de Porto Alegre
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Principal Investigator: Denis Martinez, PhD Graduate Program in Cardiology and Cardiovascular Sciences, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil; Cardiology Unit, Hospital de Clinicas de Porto Alegre (HCPA - UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil

Publications automatically indexed to this study by Identifier (NCT Number):
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Responsible Party: Hospital de Clinicas de Porto Alegre Identifier: NCT02742792     History of Changes
Other Study ID Numbers: 15-0613
First Posted: April 19, 2016    Key Record Dates
Last Update Posted: October 23, 2017
Last Verified: October 2017
Individual Participant Data (IPD) Sharing Statement:
Plan to Share IPD: Undecided
Keywords provided by Hospital de Clinicas de Porto Alegre:
sleep apnea
Additional relevant MeSH terms:
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Sleep Apnea Syndromes
Respiration Disorders
Respiratory Tract Diseases
Signs and Symptoms, Respiratory
Signs and Symptoms
Sleep Disorders, Intrinsic
Sleep Wake Disorders
Nervous System Diseases