Clinical Study of Pulsed, Inhaled Nitric Oxide Versus Placebo in Symptomatic Subjects With PAH (INOvation-1)
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|ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02725372|
Recruitment Status : Terminated (Trial stopped for futility)
First Posted : April 1, 2016
Results First Posted : January 25, 2023
Last Update Posted : February 21, 2023
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|Condition or disease||Intervention/treatment||Phase|
|Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension||Drug: Inhaled Nitric Oxide 75 mcg/kg IBW/hr Drug: Placebo||Phase 3|
|Study Type :||Interventional (Clinical Trial)|
|Actual Enrollment :||207 participants|
|Intervention Model:||Parallel Assignment|
|Masking:||Quadruple (Participant, Care Provider, Investigator, Outcomes Assessor)|
|Official Title:||A Phase 3, Placebo Controlled, Double-Blind, Randomized, Clinical Study to Determine Efficacy, Safety, and Tolerability of Pulsed, Inhaled Nitric Oxide (iNO) Versus Placebo in Symptomatic Subjects With PAH (Part 1 and Part 2)|
|Actual Study Start Date :||April 2016|
|Actual Primary Completion Date :||August 2018|
|Actual Study Completion Date :||August 2018|
Experimental: Inhaled Nitric Oxide 75mcg/KgIBW/Hr
15Mcg/kg IBW/hr during Run-in Period dose titrated to Inhaled Nitric Oxide / 75mcg/KgIBW/Hr upon randomization to treatment arm.
Part 2: iNO 75 mcg/kg IBW/hr Open Label Treatment (Open Label Treatment - All Subjects)
Drug: Inhaled Nitric Oxide 75 mcg/kg IBW/hr
Inhaled Nitric Oxide 15mcg/Kg IBW/hr for two week run in period dose titrated to Inhaled Nitric Oxide 75 mcg/kg IBW/hr at randomizationTreatment Period (Week 3 to Week 18)
Placebo Comparator: Placebo
Placebo dose setting 15mcg/kg IBW/hr Run In Period / Placebo dose setting 75 mcg/kg IBW/hr treatment period
Part 1 Placebo arm: Inhaled Nitric Oxide 15mcg/Kg IBW/hrfor two week run in period dose titrated to Inhaled Nitric Oxide 75 mcg/kg IBW/hr at randomizationTreatment Period
- Change in 6-minute Walk Distance (6MWD) From Baseline (Randomization) to End of Treatment Period (Week 18) [ Time Frame: Change in 6MWD from Week 2 (2 weeks after randomization and run-in period) to Week 18 (end of blinded treatment period) ]The 6-minute walk distance test (6MWD) is a non-encouraged test performed in a 30 m long flat corridor, where the patient is instructed to walk as far as possible, back and forth around two cones, with the permission to slow down, rest, or stop if needed. All patients were required to complete two walks while on chronic oxygen therapy given at a standard rate during the test and throughout the study while using the investigational product (INOpulse device with nitric oxide or matching placebo). The average of two walks at Week 2 visit (2 weeks after Run-In) was used as the Baseline 6MWD.
- Time (in Days) to First Clinical Worsening Event (TTCW) [ Time Frame: From Randomization to Week 18 (End of blinded treatment period) ]Clinical worsening was assessed continuously from Randomization to Week 18 (End of blinded treatment period). Clinical worsening events were defined as death (all causes), atrial septostomy, hospitalization due to worsening of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), initiation of new pulmonary arterial hypertension treatment including endothelin receptor antagonists [ERAs], phosphodiesterase type-5 [PDE-5] inhibitors or prostanoids, an increase in existing treatment of ERA or PDE-5, increase in the dose or frequency of an inhaled prostanoids, or an increase in the dose of an intravenous or subcutaneous prostanoids by >10%, a decrease of >15% from baseline or >30% compared with the last study related measurement in 6MWD or worsening of WHO Functional Class (e.g., from Class II to Class III or IV, OR Class III to Class IV). All worsening events were entered by the study sites into the eCRF.
- Number of Participants With an Improvement in World Health Organization Functional Class (WHO FC) Baseline (Randomization) to End of Treatment Period (Week 18) [ Time Frame: From Randomization to Week 18 (End of blinded treatment period) ]WHO FC (where Class I is defined as "No limitations in daily physical activities. No symptoms of dyspnea and with routine exertion" and Class IV is defined as "Inability to perform even minimal activities. Signs and symptoms of right heart failure may be present. Dyspnea present at rest") for PAH was taken at randomization (Week 0) for all participants and was assessed after blinded treatment (Week 18). The number of participants that had an improvement (lower functional class) as compared to baseline were measured.
- Change in Plasma N-Terminal Pro-brain Natriuretic Peptide (NT-proBNP) From Screening to End of Treatment Period (Week 18) [ Time Frame: From Screening (28 days prior to baseline/randomization) to end of Blinded Treatment Period (Week 18) ]Plasma NT-proBNP concentration is a useful biomarker for the severity of PAH as it is associated with changes in right heart morphology and function. NT-proBNP sample collection occurred at Screening visit (prior to starting study drug at Randomization) and after 16 weeks of blinded treatment therapy (Week 18). The change in NT-proBNP between Screening (28 days prior to baseline/randomization) and the end of blinded treatment period (Week 18) is reported.
- Change in Borg Dyspnea Scale Immediately Following 6-minute Walk Test (6MWT) From Baseline (Randomization) to End of Treatment Period (Week 18) [ Time Frame: From Randomization to Week 18 (End of blinded treatment period) ]The Borg dyspneas score is a self-rating scale to evaluate the severity of dyspnea (from 0 "no shortness of breath at all" to 10 "very, very severe / maximal") shortness of breath, where high score on the scale signifies a worse score. The self assessment was collected from each participant immediately after each 6-minute walk test throughout the blinded treatment period. The change in Borg dyspnea Score at the end of the blinded treatment period (Week 18) compared to baseline (randomization) (Week 0) is reported.
- Number of Participants With an Unsatisfactory Clinical Response From Baseline (Randomization) to End of Treatment Period (Week 18) [ Time Frame: From Randomization to Week 18 (End of blinded treatment period) ]Unsatisfactory Clinical Response was defined as the number of participants with WHO Functional Class III (defined as moderate dyspnea with routine activities and activities of daily living. No symptoms at rest.) or Class IV (defined as inability to perform even minimal activities. Signs and symptoms of right heart failure may be present. Dyspnea present at rest) with no improvement in 6-minute walk distance (6MWD) from baseline to end of blinded treatment period (Week 18).
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|Ages Eligible for Study:||18 Years to 85 Years (Adult, Older Adult)|
|Sexes Eligible for Study:||All|
|Accepts Healthy Volunteers:||No|
- Signed Informed Consent Form (and assent as appropriate) prior to the initiation of any study mandated procedures or assessments
- A confirmed diagnosis of PAH Group 1 who have either idiopathic PAH (IPAH), heritable PAH, drug and toxin-induced PAH, associated PAH (APAH) with connective tissue disease (CTD), APAH with repaired simple congenital systemic to pulmonary shunt (i.e., atrial septal defect, ventricular septal defect and/or patent ductus arteriosus; complete repair at least 1 year prior to Screening), APAH with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), or APAH with portal hypertension
- Subjects receiving at least one PAH specific therapy (ERA or PDE-5 inhibitor, or inhaled, subcutaneous, or intravenous prostacyclin or a prostacyclin analog) with the same type of therapy for at least 3 months with stable dosing 4 weeks prior to Screening. (Subjects should be receiving optimal therapy according to the disease severity)
- Subjects using oxygen therapy by nasal cannula for at least 4 weeks prior to Screening
PAH diagnosis confirmed by RHC within the previous 5 years, according to the following definitions:
- PVR ≥ 400 dynes.sec.cm-5 (5 Wood units)
- mPAP ≥ 25 mmHg
- PCWP or LVEDP ≤ 15 mmHg
- Subjects who otherwise meet all the inclusion criteria and none of the exclusion criteria but have not undergone a RHC within the previous 5 years may be considered eligible for the study if they undergo a RHC and then meet the pulmonary hemodynamics criterion
- 6MWD ≥ 100 meters and ≤ 450 meters prior to randomization
- WHO Functional Class II-IV. Subjects with WHO Functional Class IV should be treated with prostacyclin or a prostacyclin analog (subcutaneous or intravenous), plus at least one additional PAH specific therapy (ERA or PDE-5), if available to the subject and reimbursed by health insurance
- Age between 18 and 85 years (inclusive)
- Willingness to use INOpulse delivery device for at least 12 hours per day
- Willingness to continue on study drug until the subject has completed Week 18 assessments
- Female subjects of childbearing potential must have a negative pre-treatment pregnancy test (serum or urine). All female subjects should take adequate precaution to avoid pregnancy.
1. Subjects with known HIV infection who have a history within the past 3 months of any opportunistic pulmonary disease (e.g., tuberculosis, Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia, or other pneumonias) at the time of Screening 2. PAH associated with untreated thyroid disorders, glycogen storage disease, Gaucher's disease, hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia, hemoglobinopathies, myeloproliferative disorders or splenectomy 3. Subjects with pulmonary conditions that may contribute to PAH including, but not limited to, chronic bronchiectasis, cystic fibrosis, or other pulmonary condition that the Investigator may deem to contribute to the severity of the disease or impair the delivery of iNO due to airway disease 4. Subjects receiving riociguat 5. Subjects receiving oral prostanoids as monotherapy 7. PAH associated with significant venous or capillary involvement, known or suspected pulmonary veno-occlusive disease, or pulmonary capillary hemangiomatosis 8. Any subject with WHO PH Groups 2, 3, 4 or 5 9. Subjects with any of the following cardiac abnormalities:
a. Underlying cardiomyopathy or clinically significant aortic or mitral valve disease in the opinion of the investigator b. Left ventricular systolic dysfunction (LVSD), i.e., left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) < 40% or left ventricular shortening fraction (LVSF) < 22%, as determined by local reading c. Current symptomatic coronary artery disease, myocardial infarction within 1 year, or any coronary artery interventions within 6 months 10. Systemic hypertension defined as systolic blood pressure (SBP) > 160 mmHg and/or diastolic blood pressure (DBP) > 100 mmHg persistent at Screening after a period of rest (treated or untreated) 11. Subjects with a history of deep vein thrombosis, pulmonary embolism/infarction or prothrombotic disorder must have had chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) excluded by ventilation/perfusion lung (V/Q) scan 12. Severe obstructive lung disease defined as both a forced expiratory volume in 1 second/forced vital capacity (FEV1/FVC) < 70% and FEV1 < 55% of predicted value 13. Moderate to severe restrictive lung disease: total lung capacity (TLC) < 60% of predicted; if TLC 60% to 70% predicted, a high resolution CT scan showing diffuse disease or more than mild patchy disease 14. Any subject who develops or has developed a PCWP > 20 mmHg during acute vasodilator testing (AVT) 15. Systemic hypotension defined as SBP < 90 mmHg persistent at Screening after a period of rest 16. Moderate to severe hepatic impairment, i.e., Child-Pugh Class B or C 17. On dialysis 18. Acute or chronic physical impairment (other than dyspnea due to PAH) that would limit the ability to comply with study procedures or adherence to therapy (i.e., 6MWT), including carrying and wearing the pulsed delivery device per study protocol, or medical problem(s) likely to preclude completion of the study 19. Pregnant or breastfeeding females at Screening 20. Administered L-arginine within 1 month prior to Screening 21. Known concomitant life-threatening disease with a life expectancy less than 1 year 22. Atrial septostomy within 3 months preceding randomization 23. The concurrent use of the INOpulse device with a continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP), Bilevel positive airway presure BiPAP, or any other positive pressure device.
24. Use of investigational drugs or devices within 1 month prior to Screening (other than acute vasodilator testing with iNO) 25. Any underlying medical or psychiatric condition that, in the opinion of the Investigator, makes the subject an unsuitable candidate for the study 26. Any subject who has been enrolled in any previous clinical study with inhaled NO administered through pulse delivery.
To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contact information provided by the sponsor.
Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier (NCT number): NCT02725372
|Study Director:||Ashika Ahmed, MD||Bellerophon Therapeutics|
Documents provided by Bellerophon ( Bellerophon Pulse Technologies ):
|Responsible Party:||Bellerophon Pulse Technologies|
|Other Study ID Numbers:||
|First Posted:||April 1, 2016 Key Record Dates|
|Results First Posted:||January 25, 2023|
|Last Update Posted:||February 21, 2023|
|Last Verified:||January 2023|
|Individual Participant Data (IPD) Sharing Statement:|
|Plan to Share IPD:||No|
Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension
Inhaled Nitric Oxide
long term oxygen therapy
Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension
Respiratory Tract Diseases
Peripheral Nervous System Agents
Physiological Effects of Drugs
Respiratory System Agents
Free Radical Scavengers
Molecular Mechanisms of Pharmacological Action
Endothelium-Dependent Relaxing Factors