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Study of Pembrolizumab (MK-3475) vs. Best Supportive Care in Participants With Previously Systemically Treated Advanced Hepatocellular Carcinoma (MK-3475-240/KEYNOTE-240)

The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Read our disclaimer for details.
 
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02702401
Recruitment Status : Active, not recruiting
First Posted : March 8, 2016
Results First Posted : February 17, 2020
Last Update Posted : April 3, 2020
Sponsor:
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
Merck Sharp & Dohme Corp.

Brief Summary:

This is a study of pembrolizumab (MK-3475) in participants with previously systemically treated advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).

The primary objectives of this study are to determine 1) Progression-Free Survival (PFS) and 2) Overall Survival (OS) of pembrolizumab plus best supportive care (BSC) compared with placebo plus BSC. The primary hypotheses of this study are: 1) pembrolizumab plus BSC prolongs PFS per Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST) 1.1, assessed by Blinded Independent Central Review compared to placebo plus BSC, and 2) pembrolizumab plus BSC improves OS compared with placebo plus BSC.


Condition or disease Intervention/treatment Phase
Hepatocellular Carcinoma Biological: Pembrolizumab Drug: Placebo Other: Best Supportive Care Phase 3

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Study Type : Interventional  (Clinical Trial)
Actual Enrollment : 413 participants
Allocation: Randomized
Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
Masking: Triple (Participant, Investigator, Outcomes Assessor)
Primary Purpose: Treatment
Official Title: A Phase III Study of Pembrolizumab (MK-3475) vs. Best Supportive Care as Second-Line Therapy in Subjects With Previously Systemically Treated Advanced Hepatocellular Carcinoma (KEYNOTE-240)
Actual Study Start Date : May 26, 2016
Actual Primary Completion Date : January 2, 2019
Estimated Study Completion Date : June 30, 2020

Resource links provided by the National Library of Medicine


Arm Intervention/treatment
Experimental: Pembrolizumab+Best Supportive Care
Participants receive a pembrolizumab 200 mg intravenous (IV) infusion on Day 1 of each 3-week cycle for up to 35 cycles of treatment PLUS BSC. Participants who complete 35 administrations or achieve a complete response (CR) but progress after discontinuation can initiate a second course of pembrolizumab for up to 17 cycles (approximately 1 additional year).
Biological: Pembrolizumab
IV infusion
Other Names:
  • MK-3475
  • KEYTRUDA®

Other: Best Supportive Care
Best supportive care will include pain management and management of other potential complications including ascites per local standards of care.

Placebo Comparator: Placebo+Best Supportive Care
Participants receive a placebo IV infusion on Day 1 of each 3-week cycle for up to 35 cycles of treatment PLUS BSC.
Drug: Placebo
0.90% w/v sodium chloride IV infusion

Other: Best Supportive Care
Best supportive care will include pain management and management of other potential complications including ascites per local standards of care.




Primary Outcome Measures :
  1. Progression-Free Survival (PFS) Per Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors Version 1.1 (RECIST 1.1) [ Time Frame: Through database cutoff date of 26-Mar-2018 (Up to approximately 21 months) ]
    PFS was defined as the time from randomization to the first documented progressive disease (PD) or death due to any cause, whichever occurred first, per RECIST 1.1 as assessed by Blinded Independent Central Review (BICR). PD was defined as ≥20% increase in the sum of diameters of target lesions and an absolute increase of ≥5 mm. The appearance of ≥1 new lesion was also considered PD. If there was no disease progression or death, participants were censored at the date of their last disease assessment. The PFS was analyzed using the product-limit (Kaplan-Meier) method for censored data. The primary analysis of PFS was performed at the time of the first interim analysis of OS (as pre-specified in the protocol), with data cutoff of 26-Mar-2018.

  2. Overall Survival (OS) [ Time Frame: Through database cutoff date of 02-Jan-2019 (Up to approximately 30 months) ]
    OS was determined for all participants and was defined as the time from randomization to death due to any cause. Participants were censored at the date of their last follow-up. The OS was analyzed using the product-limit (Kaplan-Meier) method for censored data. The OS for all participants is presented.


Secondary Outcome Measures :
  1. Objective Response Rate (ORR) Per Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors Version 1.1 (RECIST 1.1) [ Time Frame: Through database cutoff date of 02-Jan-2019 (Up to approximately 30 months) ]
    ORR was determined in all participants and was defined as the percentage of participants who had a confirmed Complete Response (CR: Disappearance of all target lesions) or a Partial Response (PR: At least a 30% decrease in the sum of diameters of target lesions) per RECIST 1.1 as assessed by Blinded Independent Central Review (BICR). Participants with missing data were considered non-responders. The ORR was analyzed using the Miettinen & Nurminen method. The percentage of participants who experienced a CR or PR per RECIST 1.1 is presented.

  2. Disease Control Rate (DCR) Per Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors Version 1.1 (RECIST 1.1) [ Time Frame: Through database cutoff date of 02-Jan-2019 (Up to approximately 30 months) ]
    DCR was defined as the percentage of participants who had a Complete Response (CR: Disappearance of all target lesions), Partial Response (PR: ≥30% decrease in the sum of diameters of target lesions, taking as reference the baseline sum diameters), or Stable Disease (SD) per RECIST 1.1 after ≥6 weeks as assessed by Blinded Independent Central Review (BICR). The DCR was analyzed using the Miettinen & Nurminen method. The percentage of participants who experienced a CR, PR, or SD is presented.

  3. Time to Progression (TTP) Per Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors Version 1.1 (RECIST 1.1) [ Time Frame: Through database cutoff date of 02-Jan-2019 (Up to approximately 30 months) ]
    TTP was defined as the time from randomization to the first documented disease progression per RECIST 1.1 as assessed by Blinded Independent Central Review (BICR). PD was defined as ≥20% increase in the sum of diameters of target lesions and an absolute increase of ≥5 mm. The appearance of ≥1 new lesion was also considered PD. If there was no documented disease progression, TTP was censored at last tumor assessment date. The TTP was analyzed using the product-limit (Kaplan-Meier) method for censored data. TTP per RECIST 1.1 is presented for all participants.

  4. Duration of Response (DOR) Per Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors Version 1.1 (RECIST 1.1) [ Time Frame: From time of first documented evidence of CR or PR through database cutoff date of 02-Jan-2019 (Up to approximately 30 months) ]
    DOR was determined in participants who demonstrated a Complete Response (CR: disappearance of all target lesions) or Partial Response (PR: ≥30% decrease in the sum of diameters of target lesions) per RECIST 1.1 as assessed by Blinded Independent Central Review (BICR). DOR was defined as the time from first documented evidence of a CR or PR until progressive disease (PD) or death. Participants who had not progressed or died at the time of analysis were censored at the date of their last tumor assessment. PD was defined as ≥20% increase in the sum of diameters of target lesions and an absolute increase of ≥5 mm. The appearance of ≥1 new lesion was also considered PD. The DOR was analyzed using the product-limit (Kaplan-Meier) method for censored data.

  5. Number of Participants Who Experienced At Least One Adverse Event (AE) [ Time Frame: Through database cutoff date of 02-Jan-2019 (Up to approximately 30 months) ]
    An AE was defined as any untoward medical occurrence in a participant administered a study treatment and which does not necessarily have to have a causal relationship with this treatment. An AE can therefore be any unfavorable and unintended sign, symptom, or disease temporally associated with the use of a medicinal product or protocol-specified procedure, whether or not considered related to the study treatment or protocol-specified procedure. Any worsening (i.e., any clinically significant adverse change in frequency and/or intensity) of a pre-existing condition that was temporally associated with the use of study treatment, was also an AE. The number of participants who experienced at least one AE is presented. These safety results are based on a 02-Jan-2019 data cutoff date.

  6. Number of Participants Who Discontinued Study Treatment Due to an Adverse Event (AE) [ Time Frame: From Day 1 through end of treatment (Up to approximately 24 months) ]
    An AE was defined as any untoward medical occurrence in a participant administered a study treatment and which does not necessarily have to have a causal relationship with this treatment. An AE can therefore be any unfavorable and unintended sign, symptom, or disease temporally associated with the use of a medicinal product or protocol-specified procedure, whether or not considered related to the study treatment or protocol-specified procedure. Any worsening (i.e., any clinically significant adverse change in frequency and/or intensity) of a pre-existing condition that was temporally associated with the use of study treatment, was also an AE. The number of participants who discontinued study treatment due to an AE is presented. These results are based on a 02-Jan-2019 data cutoff date.



Information from the National Library of Medicine

Choosing to participate in a study is an important personal decision. Talk with your doctor and family members or friends about deciding to join a study. To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contacts provided below. For general information, Learn About Clinical Studies.


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Ages Eligible for Study:   18 Years and older   (Adult, Older Adult)
Sexes Eligible for Study:   All
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   No
Criteria

Inclusion Criteria:

  • Has a HCC diagnosis confirmed by radiology, histology or cytology (fibrolamellar and mixed hepatocellular/cholangiocarcinoma subtypes are not eligible).
  • Has Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) Stage C disease, or BCLC Stage B disease not amenable to locoregional therapy or refractory to locoregional therapy, and not amenable to a curative treatment approach.
  • Has a Child-Pugh Class A liver score within 7 days of first dose of study drug.
  • Has a predicted life expectancy >3 months.
  • Has at least one measurable lesion based on RECIST 1.1 as confirmed by the blinded central imaging vendor.
  • Has a performance status of 0 or 1 using the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) Performance Scale within 7 days of first dose of study drug.
  • Has documented objective radiographic progression during or after treatment with sorafenib or intolerance to sorafenib.
  • Participants with chronic infection by Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) who are treated (successfully or treatment failure) or untreated are allowed on study. In addition, participants with successful HCV treatment are allowed as long as there are ≥4 weeks between achieving sustained viral response (SVR12) and start of study drug.
  • Has controlled infection by Hepatitis B Virus (HBV).
  • Is willing to use an adequate method of contraception for the course of the study through at least 120 days or longer based on local regulation after the last dose of study drug (male and female participants of childbearing potential).
  • Demonstrates adequate organ function.

Exclusion Criteria:

  • Is currently participating, or has participated in a study of an investigational agent and received study drug, herbal/complementary oral or IV medicine, or used an investigational device within 4 weeks of the first dose of study drug. Participants must also have recovered from associated therapy (i.e., to Grade ≤1 or baseline) and from adverse events (AEs) due to any prior therapy.
  • Has received sorafenib within 14 days of first dose of study drug.
  • Has had esophageal or gastric variceal bleeding within the last 6 months.
  • Has clinically apparent ascites on physical examination. Note: ascites detectable on imaging studies only ARE allowed.
  • Portal vein invasion at the main portal (Vp4), inferior vena cava, or cardiac involvement of HCC based on imaging.
  • Has had clinically diagnosed hepatic encephalopathy in the last 6 months.
  • Has had a solid organ or hematologic transplant.
  • Has had prior systemic therapy for HCC in the advanced (incurable) setting other than sorafenib, prior to the start of study drug.
  • Has a known severe hypersensitivity (≥Grade 3) to pembrolizumab, its active substance and/or any of its excipients.
  • Has active autoimmune disease that has required systemic treatment in past 2 years (i.e., with use of disease-modifying agents, corticosteroids, or immunosuppressive drugs).
  • Has a diagnosis of immunodeficiency or is receiving systemic steroid therapy or any other form of immunosuppressive therapy within 7 days prior to the first dose of study drug.
  • Has received locoregional therapy to liver (transcatheter chemoembolization [TACE], transcatheter embolization [TAE], hepatic arterial infusion [HAI], radiation, radioembolization, or ablation) within 4 weeks prior to the first dose of study drug.
  • Has had major surgery to liver or other site within 4 weeks prior to the first dose of study drug.
  • Has had minor surgery (i.e., simple excision, tooth extraction) ≤7 days prior to the first dose of study drug (Cycle 1, Day 1).
  • Has not recovered adequately (i.e., Grade ≤1 or baseline) from the toxicity and/or complications from any intervention prior to starting study drug.
  • Has a diagnosed additional malignancy within 3 years prior to first dose of study drug with the exception of curatively treated basal cell carcinoma of the skin, squamous cell carcinoma of the skin and/or curatively resected in situ cancers.
  • Has known history of, or any evidence of, central nervous system (CNS) metastases and/or carcinomatous meningitis.
  • Has a history of non-infectious pneumonitis that required steroids or current pneumonitis.
  • Has an active infection requiring systemic therapy.
  • Has known psychiatric or substance abuse disorders that would interfere with cooperation with the requirements of the study.
  • Is pregnant or breastfeeding, or expecting to conceive or father children within the projected duration of the trial, starting with the first dose of study drug through 120 days or longer based on local regulation after the last dose of study drug.
  • Has received prior immunotherapy including anti-programmed cell death-1 (anti-PD-1), anti-PD-ligand-1 (anti-PD-L1), or anti-PD-L2 agents, or if the participant has previously participated in Merck pembrolizumab (MK-3475) studies.
  • Has a known history of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).
  • Has dual active HBV infection and HCV infection at study entry.
  • Has received a live vaccine within 30 days of planned start of study drug (Cycle 1, Day 1).

Information from the National Library of Medicine

To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contact information provided by the sponsor.

Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier (NCT number): NCT02702401


Sponsors and Collaborators
Merck Sharp & Dohme Corp.
Investigators
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Study Director: Medical Director Merck Sharp & Dohme Corp.
  Study Documents (Full-Text)

Documents provided by Merck Sharp & Dohme Corp.:
Additional Information:
Layout table for additonal information
Responsible Party: Merck Sharp & Dohme Corp.
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02702401    
Other Study ID Numbers: 3475-240
2015-004567-36 ( EudraCT Number )
163456 ( Registry Identifier: JAPIC-CTI )
MK-3475-240 ( Other Identifier: Merck )
KEYNOTE-240 ( Other Identifier: Merck )
First Posted: March 8, 2016    Key Record Dates
Results First Posted: February 17, 2020
Last Update Posted: April 3, 2020
Last Verified: March 2020
Individual Participant Data (IPD) Sharing Statement:
Plan to Share IPD: Yes
Plan Description: http://engagezone.msd.com/doc/ProcedureAccessClinicalTrialData.pdf
URL: http://engagezone.msd.com/ds_documentation.php
Keywords provided by Merck Sharp & Dohme Corp.:
PD1
PD-1
PDL1
PD-L1
Additional relevant MeSH terms:
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Carcinoma
Carcinoma, Hepatocellular
Neoplasms, Glandular and Epithelial
Neoplasms by Histologic Type
Neoplasms
Adenocarcinoma
Liver Neoplasms
Digestive System Neoplasms
Neoplasms by Site
Digestive System Diseases
Liver Diseases
Pembrolizumab
Antineoplastic Agents, Immunological
Antineoplastic Agents