Tongue Motor Recruitment During Exercise

The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Read our disclaimer for details. Identifier: NCT02687737
Recruitment Status : Completed
First Posted : February 22, 2016
Last Update Posted : January 5, 2017
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
University of Florida

Brief Summary:

The prevalence of dysphagia may be as high as 22% in individuals over 50 years of age. There are few therapeutic options offered to these individuals. One more recent therapeutic option is Expiratory Muscle Strength Training (EMST), which has been used successfully to maintain or increase expiratory force generating pressures, cough function, and swallowing in a number of disease populations. Recently, the investigators have noted improvements in oral transit time during swallowing in individuals with Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) that could potentially be attributed to improved base of tongue functioning and muscle activation.

There has been one study that demonstrated that breathing training resulted in increased and prolonged submental (under the chin) muscle activation as evidenced by surface electromyography. However, no studies have investigated the activation of the tongue muscles during various swallowing and breathing exercises. A small needle electrode (fine wire EMG) is standard of care in diagnosing muscular diseases because it can determine amount of muscle recruitment for muscles throughout the body. This aim of this research study is to examine the effects of breathing exercises and swallowing exercises on tongue muscle activity in healthy adults.

Condition or disease Intervention/treatment Phase
Healthy Procedure: Electromyography Procedure: Maximum expiratory pressure Procedure: Videofluoroscopy Behavioral: Swallowing Tasks Not Applicable

Detailed Description:
This study will measure tongue muscle activation using fine wire EMG placed into the tongue muscle (underneath the chin) during swallowing and breathing exercises. A neurologist trained in EMG will perform all procedures to ensure best placement and minimize discomfort of the participant. While the needle is in place, the participant will complete a series of swallowing tasks and breathing exercises using a small, handheld training device. All swallowing and breathing tasks will be viewed under x-ray in order to see the movement and timing of the tongue and swallowing muscles during each task. Participation in the study will take one, one-hour visit to the Shands Dental Tower lab spaces where all procedures will be completed.

Study Type : Interventional  (Clinical Trial)
Actual Enrollment : 30 participants
Intervention Model: Single Group Assignment
Masking: None (Open Label)
Primary Purpose: Treatment
Official Title: Genioglossus Motor Recruitment During Swallowing and Expiratory Loading Exercises
Study Start Date : May 2016
Actual Primary Completion Date : December 2016
Actual Study Completion Date : December 2016

Resource links provided by the National Library of Medicine

Arm Intervention/treatment
Experimental: Exercise
The participants will have the following tests performed: Maximum Expiratory Pressure (MEP), insertion of a fine-wire electromyography (EMG) electrode into the mid-line base of the tongue, will complete swallowing tasks and breathing tasks under Videofluoroscopy (fluoroscopy on only during the actual task)
Procedure: Electromyography
During the fine wire electromyography (EMG), the participant will be asked to complete breathing exercises at 50% and 75% of their maximum capacity (determined prior to fine wire EMG using manometry) to determine activation and recruitment of genioglossus muscle.
Other Name: EMG

Procedure: Maximum expiratory pressure
The participants' maximum expiratory pressure (MEP) will be assessed using a hand-held digital manometer (MP01, Micro Direct Inc.). The subject will be standing and while wearing a nose clip be asked to blow out as hard and fast as they can to determine their MEP. This will be completed a maximum of three times to obtain values within close range of one another.
Other Name: MEP

Procedure: Videofluoroscopy
Videofluoroscopy allows for time-synced, frame-by-frame data analysis for the specific measures taken during swallowing tasks.
Other Name: Videofluoroscopy and Barium

Behavioral: Swallowing Tasks
These include: an anterior tongue press to the alveolar ridge (behind the front molars), a saliva swallow, a 10 mL barium swallow, a 10 mL barium "hard" swallow (i.e. swallowing with extra effort), and two breathing exercise trials at 50% MEP and 75% MEP.

Primary Outcome Measures :
  1. Electromyography (EMG) will be used to analyze genioglossus muscle movement [ Time Frame: Baseline ]
    Electromyography (EMG) activity will be recorded via standard concentric needle electrodes inserted into the genioglossus muscle. Maximum muscle activation will be recorded and analyzed to determine difference between tasks using the genioglossus muscle.

  2. Kinematic Swallowing Measurements will be used to analyze a normal movement of swallowing [ Time Frame: Baseline ]
    Kinematic swallowing measurements is an objective analysis of videofluoroscopy. This involves capturing and manipulating digital images with computer technology to make exact timing measures of bolus flow and movement of structures, as well as spatial measurements of distance and area against reference points.

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Ages Eligible for Study:   18 Years to 90 Years   (Adult, Older Adult)
Sexes Eligible for Study:   All
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   Yes

Inclusion Criteria:

  • No known major disease, disorder or medical conditions

Exclusion Criteria:

  • Currently on anticoagulant therapy
  • Has a bleeding/anticoagulant disorder or disease

Information from the National Library of Medicine

To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contact information provided by the sponsor.

Please refer to this study by its identifier (NCT number): NCT02687737

United States, Florida
Shands Hospital at the University of Florida
Gainesville, Florida, United States, 32611
Sponsors and Collaborators
University of Florida
Principal Investigator: Emily K Plowman, PhD, CCC-SLP University of Florida College of Public Health and Health Professions