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The Potential of Carnosine Supplementation in Reducing the Cardiometabolic Risk

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ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02686996
Recruitment Status : Recruiting
First Posted : February 22, 2016
Last Update Posted : March 22, 2018
Sponsor:
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
Barbora de Courten, Monash University

Brief Summary:

The aim of this study is to determine whether carnosine supplementation in overweight/obese individuals can improve insulin secretion and/or insulin resistance by decreasing sub clinical inflammation.

The investigators hypothesise that carnosine supplementation will reduce type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular risk factors by lowering chronic low-grade inflammation (CLI), oxidative stress, advanced glycation end products (AGEs), and advanced lipoxidation end products (ALEs).

Aim :To determine the capacity of carnosine supplementation to decrease major risk factors for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease and identify metabolic pathways involved, specifically by:

  1. Reducing diabetes risk (insulin sensitivity; secretory function and glucose tolerance)
  2. Improving cardiovascular risk factors (lipids; arterial (aortic) stiffness; central blood pressure (cBP); endothelial function).
  3. Decreasing the CLI, oxidative stress, AGEs, and ALEs, and increase detoxification of reactive carbonyl species (RCSs).

Condition or disease Intervention/treatment Phase
Insulin Sensitivity Dietary Supplement: carnosine Other: Placebo Not Applicable

Detailed Description:

Cardiovascular risk factors including type 2 diabetes underpin a major threat to the globe and result in a heavy health and financial burden across the healthcare system. Treating type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease is expensive and often unsatisfactory. Current medications bring unwanted side effects, and often merely delay rather than prevent type 2 diabetes complications and cardiovascular disease. As a further concern, the micro- and macrovascular complications of type 2 diabetes often start developing before actual diagnosis. Diabetes prevention and treatment through weight loss and exercise programs is a difficult and costly public health measure, leaving the tidal wave of type 2 diabetes to swell even more. An alternative is urgently needed: a low-cost safe approach, easy to implement at population level.

Could carnosine be that alternative? The evidence suggests carnosine has significant metabolic impact and presents such an alternative. A naturally occurring dipeptide, carnosine is already emerging as a human therapy in exercise physiology, heart failure, cataract prevention and treatment, neurology, and psychiatry. A promising further use may derive from its effect on cardiovascular risk factors. Metabolic research, though confined to animal studies, strongly suggests that carnosine supplementation aids the prevention and treatment of obesity, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease - by virtue of its anti-inflammatory, antioxidative, and anti-glycating effects. The investigators conducted the first pilot data in human and demonstrate relationships among carnosine, obesity, insulin resistance, and dyslipidemia. Put briefly, the pilot weighs strongly in favour of carnosine as a means of reducing cardiovascular risk in humans.

Too good to be true? Apart from its excellent side-effect profile, carnosine is inexpensive and seemingly safe (available as an over-the-counter food additive), making it prima facie ideal for population use. In this setting research is now urgently needed - to test the significant metabolic potential of carnosine to address a major health problem.

The investigators propose a comprehensive double-blind placebo-controlled human trial to investigate the effects of carnosine supplementation on cardiovascular risk factors. If the investigators demonstrate a role in reducing risk factors for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease in overweight and obese non-diabetic humans, the public health implications will be revolutionary, offering the world a genuine low cost, accessible, intervention to curtail the advance of obesity, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease.


Study Type : Interventional  (Clinical Trial)
Estimated Enrollment : 84 participants
Allocation: Randomized
Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
Masking: Quadruple (Participant, Care Provider, Investigator, Outcomes Assessor)
Primary Purpose: Prevention
Official Title: The Potential of Carnosine Supplementation in Reducing the Cardiometabolic Risk: a Double-blind, Placebo-controlled Trial
Actual Study Start Date : February 13, 2017
Estimated Primary Completion Date : February 13, 2020
Estimated Study Completion Date : June 12, 2020

Resource links provided by the National Library of Medicine

MedlinePlus related topics: Allergy

Arm Intervention/treatment
Active Comparator: Intervention
Each participant will be given a daily oral dose 2 g of carnosine (2 tablets twice daily) for 14 weeks
Dietary Supplement: carnosine
Carnosine capsules (2g) twice per day for 14 weeks

Placebo Comparator: Control
Each participant will be given a daily oral dose 2 g of identical placebo tablets ( 2 tablets twice daily) for 14 weeks
Other: Placebo
Placebo (methylcellulose) capsules for control group identical to intervention capsules and dose




Primary Outcome Measures :
  1. Change in insulin sensitivity measured by euglycaemic glucose clamp [ Time Frame: From baseline to 14 weeks ]
    The clamp will be used to measure insulin sensitivity. The clamp is initiated by an intravenous bolus injection of insulin (9milliUnit/kg). Insulin is then constantly infused at a rate of 40 milliUnit.m-2.min-1 for 120 min into an arm vein, whilst glucose is variably infused to maintain euglycaemia. Plasma glucose values will be monitored every 5 minutes during the clamp and the variable infusion rate of glucose is adjusted to maintain blood glucose at a constant value of 5mmol/L.


Secondary Outcome Measures :
  1. Change in markers of endothelial dysfunction [ Time Frame: From baseline to 14 weeks ]
    This is done using non-invasive peripheral arterial tomography (PAT; endothelium-dependent digital pulse amplitude testing (EndoPAT), Itamar Medical Ltd, Israel), which records continuous plethysmo¬graphic signals of the finger arterial pulse wave. Finger plethysmographic probes are placed on each index finger; and after a 5 min equilib¬ration period, a blood pressure cuff on the non-dominant arm is inflated to 60 mmHg above systolic for 5 min and then deflated to induce reactive hyperaemia. Measurements of post-occlusion changes (reactive hyperaemia PAT: RH-PAT) are continued for 10 min. Results are normalised to the non-occluded arm, compensating for potential systemic changes (RH-PAT ratio).

  2. Change in Acute Insulin Secretory Response - Intravenous Glucose Tolerance Test [ Time Frame: From baseline to 14 weeks ]
    This will be measured in response to 25g intravenous glucose and calculated as the average incremental plasma insulin level from the third to the fifth minute after the glucose bolus.

  3. Change in Resting systolic and diastolic blood pressure [ Time Frame: From baseline to 14 weeks ]
    Resting systolic and diastolic blood pressure and pulse rate will be measured using an automated oscillometric measurement system (Dinamap, USA) after a 30 minute rest.


Other Outcome Measures:
  1. Change in Arterial waveform measurement [ Time Frame: From baseline to 14 weeks ]
    This is done with the BP+ device (Uscom Ltd, Australia). This is a device for non-invasive measurement of central blood pressure and augmentation index using an oscillometric method.

  2. Change in Oral Glucose Tolerance Test -OGTT [ Time Frame: From baseline to 14 weeks ]
    After a 10-12 h overnight fast, participants will ingest 75g of glucose over 2 mins. Blood samples will be drawn at 0, 30, 60, 90 and 120 min for plasma glucose and insulin concentrations. We will evaluate the area under the curve.

  3. Change in Measure of Adiposity (DEXA) [ Time Frame: From baseline to 14 weeks ]
    body composition by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA), which is a non-invasive assessment of soft tissue composition by region with a precision of 4-5%; central adiposity assessed in duplicate using a constant-tension tape for taking waist, and hip circumference. Bioimpedance measurement will be also collected for validation purposes.

  4. Change in plasma and urinary AGEs [ Time Frame: From baseline to 14 weeks ]
    Measured by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and ELISA tests. Circulating receptor for AGEs will be measured by ELISA. Protein modifications and the effect of carnosine supplementation will be determined by proteomic approaches.

  5. Change in plasma and urinary ALEs [ Time Frame: From baseline to 14 weeks ]
    This will be determined by measuring the advanced oxidation protein products and by measuring the cysteinate form of albumin by mass spectrometry. Mercapturic acid adducts with the main reactive carbonyls species will also be quantitatively determined by liquid chromatography electrospray ionization mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry analysis (LC-ESI-MS/MS).

  6. Change in inflammatory markers [ Time Frame: From baseline to 14 weeks ]
    Plasma inflammatory markers (interleukin 1β, 6, 8 and 10, tumour necrosis factor α (TNFα), macrophage migration inhibitory factor, monocyte chemotactic protein-1) will be measured by quantitative sandwich enzyme immunoassays (R & D Systems Inc, USA) (interassay Coefficients of Variation: 7.2%, 10.2%, 5.8%, respectively). Plasma C- reactive protein (hsCRP) via a high sensitivity assay (BN-II nephelometer; Dade Behring Diagnostics, NSW).

  7. Change in Carnosine concentrations in skeletal muscle [ Time Frame: From baseline to 14 weeks ]
    This will be measured in skeletal muscle (soleus and gastrocnemius) non-invasively with proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1 H-MRS) on a 3 tesla magnetic resonance imaging (3T MRI) scanner (Siemens Trio, Germany) as developed by our group. The lower leg is fixed in a knee coil and single-voxel point-resolved spectroscopy is used: repetition time (TR) 2.000 ms, echo time (TE) 30 ms, 128 excitations. The integral of the second conserved cysteine to histidine (C2H) peak (at 8 ppm) is quantified relative to the water peak integral. We will also measure muscle carnosine content ex-vivo by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) from the biopsy samples of vastus lateralis.

  8. Change in Serum and urine carnosine [ Time Frame: From baseline to 14 weeks ]
    This will be quantitatively analysed with HPLC-ESI-MS systems (triple quadrupole orbitrap mass spectrometry analyser); metabolites of carnosine from covalent detoxification of the reactive carbonyl species (precursors of AGEs and ALEs) will be profiled similarly.

  9. Change in Plasma carnosinase protein content [ Time Frame: From baseline to 14 weeks ]
    This will be measured by ELISA for human carnosinase 1 (CN1) with a monoclonal antibody (clone ATLAS, Abcam plc) and peroxidase substrate .

  10. Change in Other Tissue Analyses [ Time Frame: From baseline to 14 weeks ]
    We will measure changes in the expression and activation of important insulin signalling proteins, including the insulin receptor,and we will measure inflammation markers in skeletal, muscle and adipose tissue.



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Ages Eligible for Study:   18 Years to 60 Years   (Adult)
Sexes Eligible for Study:   All
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   Yes
Criteria

Inclusion Criteria:

  • Age >18 or <60 years,
  • Weight change < 5 kg in last 12 months
  • BMI >25kg/m2 but weight <159kg due to DEXA scan restrictions
  • Non-diabetic, no allergy, non-smoker, no high alcohol use
  • No current intake of medications including vitamin supplements
  • No kidney, cardiovascular, haematological, respiratory, gastrointestinal, endocrine or central nervous system disease, as well as no psychiatric disorders, no active cancer within the last five years; no presence of acute inflammation (by history, physical or laboratory examination)
  • Not pregnant or lactating

Exclusion Criteria:

  • Age <18 or > 60 years
  • Weight change > 5 kg in last 12 months
  • Diabetes (diagnosed or oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), allergy
  • Current smoking habit, high alcohol use
  • Current intake of medications including vitamin supplements
  • Kidney, cardiovascular, haematological, respiratory, gastrointestinal, endocrine or central nervous system disease, as well as psychiatric disorder, active cancer within the last five years; presence of acute inflammation (by history, physical or laboratory examination)
  • pregnancy or lactation

Information from the National Library of Medicine

To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contact information provided by the sponsor.

Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier (NCT number): NCT02686996


Contacts
Contact: Barbora de Courten, MD,PHD,MPH +61 385722651 barbora.decourten@monash.edu

Locations
Australia, Victoria
Monash Centre for Health Research and Implementation Recruiting
Melbourne, Victoria, Australia, 3168
Contact: Barbora de Courten, MD,PHD,MPH    +61 3 9594 7086    barbora.decourten@monash.edu   
Principal Investigator: Barbora de Courten, MD,PHD,MPH         
Sub-Investigator: Helena Teede, MBBS,PhD         
Sub-Investigator: James Cameron, MBBS,MD         
Sub-Investigator: Alexander Hodge, BSc,MBBS,PHD         
Sponsors and Collaborators
Monash University
Investigators
Principal Investigator: Barbora de courten, MD,PHD,MPH Monash University

Responsible Party: Barbora de Courten, Associate Professor, Monash University
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02686996     History of Changes
Other Study ID Numbers: 16061A
First Posted: February 22, 2016    Key Record Dates
Last Update Posted: March 22, 2018
Last Verified: March 2018
Individual Participant Data (IPD) Sharing Statement:
Plan to Share IPD: No

Studies a U.S. FDA-regulated Drug Product: No
Studies a U.S. FDA-regulated Device Product: No

Keywords provided by Barbora de Courten, Monash University:
carnosine
Insulin sensitivity
low grade inflammation
Oxidative stress
Advanced glycation
Type 2 diabetes
Cardiovascular disease

Additional relevant MeSH terms:
Hypersensitivity
Insulin Resistance
Immune System Diseases
Hyperinsulinism
Glucose Metabolism Disorders
Metabolic Diseases