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Ketamine Infusion in Neurologic Deficit (KIND)

The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Know the risks and potential benefits of clinical studies and talk to your health care provider before participating. Read our disclaimer for details. Identifier: NCT02636218
Recruitment Status : Recruiting
First Posted : December 21, 2015
Last Update Posted : September 19, 2019
Defence Research and Development Canada
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
Dr. Andrew Baker, St. Michael's Hospital, Toronto

Brief Summary:

Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) or bleeding in the brain as a result of ruptured aneurysm is a devastating type of stroke. Many patients who undergo emergent neurosurgery to repair the aneurysm and remove the bleeding suffer from complications in their subsequent hospital stay, the most frequent and morbid of which is delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI) or small strokes resulting from impaired blood flow to certain vital brain centers. This occurs because of changes to the brain's blood vessels that occur after the bleed. The arteries can become narrow (spasm) or small clots can form within the vasculature that disrupts normal blood flow. Patients are left with profound neurologic deficits from these secondary complications.

Anesthesiologists, neurosurgeons, and intensivists are in need of a way to protect the brain during this vulnerable period following aneurysm repair. One drug that may provide such protection is ketamine, a compound frequently used in operating rooms and intensive care units to provide anesthesia and analgesia. Ketamine works by blocking glutamate receptor ion channels that play a pivotal role in promoting brain cell death during strokes by flooding the brain with too much calcium and dangerous chemicals. This project is designed to test the efficacy of ketamine in protecting the brain following aneurysm repair by using a controlled infusion of the drug in the intensive care unit (ICU) when patients return from their operation.

Condition or disease Intervention/treatment Phase
Subarachnoid Hemorrhage Drug: Ketamine Drug: 0.9% NaCl Phase 2 Phase 3

Detailed Description:
Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) is a devastating type of stroke, with significant long-term morbidity for patients who survive the initial bleed. The most frequent and morbid complication is delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI) resulting from angiographic vasospasm of the arteries of the circle of Willis. At present, there is no protective therapy aimed at neuronal preservation during this period of ischemia. The standard medical care is primarily to maintain intravascular volume status to improve cerebral perfusion during arterial narrowing, or calcium channel blockers for smooth muscle relaxation on the arterial wall. Experimental and clinical data suggest a primary mechanism of neuronal injury during ischemia is excitotoxicity, glutamate-induced cell death resulting from overstimulation of ionotropic N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors and resultant excessive calcium influx. Ketamine is a dissociative anesthetic with a mechanism of action of non-competitive antagonism of the NMDA receptor, routinely used in operating rooms and intensive care units as an analgesic and anesthetic. In addition to its anesthetic properties, ketamine is also an anti-inflammatory agent and a sympathomimetic, maintaining sedation without the adverse effects of hemodynamic instability. Identification of a neuroprotective entity for DCI following SAH would vastly improve the quality of life and shorten hospital stay for patients with a ruptured intracerebral aneurysm. It is critical to identify such agents so that patients survive their injury, spend shorter time in the ICU, and can return to work and maintain relationships.

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Study Type : Interventional  (Clinical Trial)
Estimated Enrollment : 50 participants
Allocation: Randomized
Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
Masking: Triple (Participant, Care Provider, Investigator)
Primary Purpose: Treatment
Official Title: A Pilot Study of Sub-anesthetic Ketamine Infusion for Neuroprotection After Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: Effects on White Matter Integrity, Inflammatory Biomarkers and Neurocognitive Outcome
Study Start Date : January 2016
Estimated Primary Completion Date : March 2020
Estimated Study Completion Date : March 2020

Resource links provided by the National Library of Medicine

MedlinePlus related topics: Bleeding
Drug Information available for: Ketamine

Arm Intervention/treatment
Active Comparator: 0.9% NaCl control
Normal saline
Drug: 0.9% NaCl
500 ml of 0.9% NaCl infused at 5 ug/kg/min for 4 hours.
Other Name: NS

Experimental: Ketamine
Drug: Ketamine
500 ml of ketamine (0.2 mg/ml) infused at 5 ug/kg/min for 4 hours.
Other Name: Ketamine HCl

Primary Outcome Measures :
  1. Changes in physiologic parameters as specified below [ Time Frame: During infusion and 1 hour post-infusion ]
    Temperature, heart rate (HR), mean arterial pressure (MAP), intracranial pressure (ICP), central venous pressure (CVP) if available, peak airway pressure (PAP) if available, end-tidal carbon dioxide (ETCO2) will be evaluated during infusion. Collected measurement data will be analyzed based on the occurrence of adverse events such as increase in ICP by more than 3 mmHg, increase in HR by more than 30 bpm, increase in partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) by more than 20 mmHg, increase in lactate by more than 0.5, drop in pH by more than 0.2, increase in systolic blood pressure (SBP0 to over 200 mmHg, or any other unforeseen event that is deemed to be related to the drug treatment with adverse effects on the patient.

Secondary Outcome Measures :
  1. Biologic samples [ Time Frame: Day 1-2 post-infusion ]
    Blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples will be collected and analyzed for biomarker levels which would indicate extent of neuronal injury.

  2. Neurocognitive test Montreal Cognitive Assessment Scale (MoCA) [ Time Frame: Day 30 or Day 60 post-DCI ]
    Neurocognitive function will be assessed using the MoCA to determine preliminary effects of ketamine on neurocognitive outcome.

  3. Neurocognitive test modified Rankin Scale (mRS) [ Time Frame: Day 30 or Day 60 post-DCI ]
    Neurocognitive function will be assessed using the mRS determine preliminary effects of ketamine on neurocognitive outcome.

  4. Brain imaging using Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) [ Time Frame: Day 30 or Day 60 post-DCI ]
    Structural and functional brain imaging will be conducted using Tesla MRI system to assess white matter integrity.

  5. Hospital anxiety and depression score [ Time Frame: Day 30 or Day 60 post-DCI ]
    Assessments for neuro-cognitive outcomes and correlation with MRI findings

  6. EQ-5D-5L [ Time Frame: Day 30 or Day 60 post-DCI ]
    Neurocognitive outcome assessment and correlation with MRI results

  7. Trail making test [ Time Frame: Day 30 or Day 60 post-DCI ]
    Neurocognitive outcome assessment and correlation with MRI results

  8. Verbal fluency tests [ Time Frame: Day 30 or Day 60 post-DCI ]
    Neurocognitive outcome assessment and correlation with MRI results

Information from the National Library of Medicine

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Ages Eligible for Study:   18 Years to 80 Years   (Adult, Older Adult)
Sexes Eligible for Study:   All
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   No

Inclusion Criteria:

  1. Male or female 18 to 70 years old.
  2. World Federation of Neurological Surgeons (WFNS) grade 2 to 4, obtained after resuscitation and prior to dosing.
  3. SAH on admission cranial computed tomography (CT) scan (diffuse clot present in both hemispheres, thin or thick [>4 mm], or local thick SAH (>4 mm).
  4. Ruptured saccular aneurysm, confirmed by catheter angiography (CA) or CT angiography (CTA) and treated by neurosurgical clipping or endovascular coiling.
  5. External ventricular drain placed as part of routine care.
  6. Able to be dosed within 4 hours of new neurologic deficit.
  7. Historical modified Rankin score of 0 or 1.
  8. Hemodynamically stable after resuscitation (systolic blood pressure > 100 mm Hg)
  9. Haemoglobin >85 g/L, platelets >125,000 cells/mm3
  10. Informed consent.
  11. New neurologic deficits that were not present previously, identified by 1) a decrease of 2 points on the modified Glasgow coma scale (mGCS) or 2) an increase in 2 points on the National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS). i.e., a CODE VASOSPASM initiated in the ICU.

Exclusion Criteria:

  1. Subarachnoid hemorrhage due to causes other than a saccular aneurysm (e.g., trauma or rupture of fusiform or infective aneurysm).
  2. WFNS Grade 1 or 5 assessed after the completion of aneurysm repair.
  3. Increased intracranial pressure (ICP) >30 mm Hg in sedated patients lasting >4 hours anytime since admission.
  4. Intraventricular or intracerebral hemorrhage in absence of SAH or with only local, thin SAH.
  5. Angiographic vasospasm prior to aneurysm repair procedure, as documented by catheter angiogram or CT angiogram.
  6. Major complication during aneurysm repair such as, but not limited to, massive intraoperative hemorrhage, brain swelling, arterial occlusion, or inability to secure the ruptured aneurysm.
  7. Aneurysm repair requiring flow diverting stent or stent-assisted coiling and dual antiplatelet therapy.
  8. Hemodynamically unstable prior to administration of study drug (i.e., SBP <90 mm Hg, requiring >6 L colloid or crystalloid fluid resuscitation).
  9. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation was required following SAH.
  10. Female patients with positive pregnancy test (blood or urine) at screening.
  11. History within the past 6 months and/or physical finding on admission of decompensated heart failure (New York Heart Association [NYHA] Class III and IV or heart failure requiring hospitalization).
  12. Acute myocardial infarction within 3 months prior to the administration of the study drug.
  13. Symptoms or electrocardiogram (ECG)-based signs of acute myocardial infarction or unstable angina pectoris on admission.
  14. Electrocardiogram evidence and/or physical findings compatible with second or third degree heart block or of cardiac arrhythmia associated with hemodynamic instability.
  15. Echocardiogram, if performed as part of standard-of-care before treatment, revealing a left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) <40%.
  16. Severe or unstable concomitant condition or disease (e.g., known significant neurologic deficit, cancer, hematologic, or coronary disease), or chronic condition (e.g., psychiatric disorder) that, in the opinion of the Investigator, may increase the risk associated with study participation or study drug administration, or may interfere with the interpretation of study results.
  17. Patients who have received an investigational product or participated in another interventional clinical study within 30 days prior to randomization.
  18. Kidney disease as defined by plasma creatinine ≥2.5 mg/dl (221 umol/l); liver disease as defined by total bilirubin >3 mg/dl (51.3 mmol/l); and/or known diagnosis or clinical suspicion of liver cirrhosis.
  19. Known hypersensitivity or contraindication to ketamine per product monograph.

Information from the National Library of Medicine

To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contact information provided by the sponsor.

Please refer to this study by its identifier (NCT number): NCT02636218

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Contact: Marlene S. Santos, MD 416-864-6060 ext 2322
Contact: Joshua Bell, MD, PhD 647-200-4568

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Canada, Ontario
St Michael's Hospital Recruiting
Toronto, Ontario, Canada, M5B 1W8
Principal Investigator: Andrew Baker, MD         
Sponsors and Collaborators
Dr. Andrew Baker
Defence Research and Development Canada
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Principal Investigator: Andrew Baker, MD, FRCPC St. Michael's Hospital, Toronto

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Responsible Party: Dr. Andrew Baker, Medical Director, Critical Care Medicine, St. Michael's Hospital, Toronto Identifier: NCT02636218     History of Changes
Other Study ID Numbers: KTM-3007
First Posted: December 21, 2015    Key Record Dates
Last Update Posted: September 19, 2019
Last Verified: September 2019
Individual Participant Data (IPD) Sharing Statement:
Plan to Share IPD: No
Keywords provided by Dr. Andrew Baker, St. Michael's Hospital, Toronto:
Additional relevant MeSH terms:
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Subarachnoid Hemorrhage
Pathologic Processes
Intracranial Hemorrhages
Cerebrovascular Disorders
Brain Diseases
Central Nervous System Diseases
Nervous System Diseases
Vascular Diseases
Cardiovascular Diseases
Central Nervous System Depressants
Physiological Effects of Drugs
Sensory System Agents
Peripheral Nervous System Agents
Anesthetics, Dissociative
Anesthetics, Intravenous
Anesthetics, General
Excitatory Amino Acid Antagonists
Excitatory Amino Acid Agents
Neurotransmitter Agents
Molecular Mechanisms of Pharmacological Action