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PK of Efavirenz & Lopinavir Nano-formulations in Healthy Volunteers

The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Read our disclaimer for details.
 
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02631473
Recruitment Status : Suspended (Study is on hold whilst a grant application for further funding is put together)
First Posted : December 16, 2015
Last Update Posted : December 7, 2016
Sponsor:
Collaborator:
University of Liverpool
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
St Stephens Aids Trust

Brief Summary:
This study is an open-label, prospective pharmacokinetic study investigating two antiretroviral agents in parallel and employing an adaptive design with two stages, whereby the results obtained in the primary stage inform the doses selected for investigation in the secondary stage

Condition or disease Intervention/treatment Phase
HIV Drug: 50mg NANO-efavirenz Drug: 400mg NANO-Lopinavir Drug: 200mg NANO-Lopinavir Drug: 100mg Ritonavir Drug: 300mg NANO-Efavirenz Drug: 600mg Sustiva Drug: 200mg NANO-Efavirenz Drug: Kaletra® (lopinavir 400mg/ritonavir 100mg) Drug: +/- 200mg NANO-Lopinavir Drug: +/- 200mg ritonavir NORVIR Drug: 400mg Sustiva Phase 1

Detailed Description:

The objectives of this study are:

Primary

  • To investigate the pharmacokinetics of a new pharmaceutical formulation of efavirenz (NANO-efavirenz) in HIV negative healthy volunteers after single dose and a steady-state.
  • To investigate the pharmacokinetics of a new pharmaceutical formulation of lopinavir (NANO-lopinavir) in HIV negative healthy volunteers

Secondary

  • To investigate the safety and tolerability of NANO-efavirenz and NANO-lopinavir in HIV negative healthy volunteers
  • To assess the bioequivalence of a selected single-dose of NANO-efavirenz to a single dose 600mg of efavirenz as Sustiva®
  • To investigate the association between genetic polymorphisms in drug disposition genes and drug exposure

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Study Type : Interventional  (Clinical Trial)
Estimated Enrollment : 50 participants
Allocation: Randomized
Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
Masking: None (Open Label)
Primary Purpose: Treatment
Official Title: Pharmacokinetics of Efavirenz and Lopinavir Nano-formulations in HIV Negative Healthy Volunteers: an Adaptive Design Study
Study Start Date : November 2015
Estimated Primary Completion Date : November 2017

Resource links provided by the National Library of Medicine

MedlinePlus related topics: HIV/AIDS

Arm Intervention/treatment
Active Comparator: 1st Stage-Group A
  1. Day 1: 50 mg NANO-efavirenz single dose
  2. Days 4-21: 50 mg NANO-efavirenz OD (once daily)
Drug: 50mg NANO-efavirenz
OD

Active Comparator: 1st Stage-Group B
  1. Days 1-7: 400mg NANO-lopinavir BID (twice daily)
  2. Days 8-21: Wash-out period
  3. Days: 22-28: 200mg NANO-lopinavir BID plus 100mg Ritonavir (Norvir) BID
Drug: 400mg NANO-Lopinavir
BID

Drug: 200mg NANO-Lopinavir
BID
Other Name: Efavirenz

Drug: 100mg Ritonavir
BID
Other Name: Norvir

Active Comparator: 2nd Stage-Group A-Group 1-Dose level 1
  1. 21 Days: 300mg NANO-efavirenz OD
  2. 4 weeks: Wash-out period
  3. 21 days: 600mg Sustiva OD
Drug: 300mg NANO-Efavirenz
OD

Drug: 600mg Sustiva
OD
Other Name: Efavirenz

Active Comparator: 2nd Stage-Group A-Group 2-Dose level 2
  1. 21 Days: 200mg NANO-efavirenz OD
  2. 4 weeks: Wash-out period
  3. 21 days: 400mg Sustiva OD
Drug: 200mg NANO-Efavirenz
OD

Drug: 400mg Sustiva
Other Name: Efavirenz

Active Comparator: 2nd Stage-Group B-Arm 1
  1. 7 days: Kaletra® (lopinavir400mg/ritonavir100mg) BD
  2. 2 weeks: Wash-out period
  3. 7 days: NANO-lopinavir (200mg +/- ritonavir®)
Drug: Kaletra® (lopinavir 400mg/ritonavir 100mg)
BID
Other Name: Lopinavir/Ritonavir

Drug: +/- 200mg NANO-Lopinavir
BID

Drug: +/- 200mg ritonavir NORVIR
BID
Other Name: Ritonavir

Active Comparator: 2nd Stage-Group B-Arm 2
  1. 7 days: NANO-lopinavir (200mg +/- ritonavir Norvir)
  2. 2 weeks: Wash-out period
  3. 7 days: Kaletra® (lopinavir400mg/ritonavir100mg) BD
Drug: Kaletra® (lopinavir 400mg/ritonavir 100mg)
BID
Other Name: Lopinavir/Ritonavir

Drug: +/- 200mg NANO-Lopinavir
BID

Drug: +/- 200mg ritonavir NORVIR
BID
Other Name: Ritonavir




Primary Outcome Measures :
  1. The pharmacokinetics of a new pharmaceutical formulation of efavirenz (NANOefavirenz) and lopinavir (NANOlopinavir) in HIV negative healthy volunteers, as measured by Ctrough [ Time Frame: Assessed from baseline visit (day 1) to : 1) Day 31 (Primary Stage Group A); 2) Day 30 (Primary Stage Group B); 3) Day 80 (Secondary Stage Group A); 4) Day 30 (Secondary Stage Group B) ]
    Trough concentration (Ctrough) is defined as the concentration at 24 hours after the observed drug dose.

  2. The pharmacokinetics of a new pharmaceutical formulation of efavirenz (NANOefavirenz) and lopinavir (NANOlopinavir) in HIV negative healthy volunteers, as measured by Cmax [ Time Frame: Assessed from baseline visit (day 1) to : 1) Day 31 (Primary Stage Group A); 2) Day 30 (Primary Stage Group B); 3) Day 80 (Secondary Stage Group A); 4) Day 30 (Secondary Stage Group B) ]
    Cmax is defined as the maximum observed plasma concentration

  3. The pharmacokinetics of a new pharmaceutical formulation of efavirenz (NANOefavirenz) and lopinavir (NANOlopinavir) in HIV negative healthy volunteers, as measured by t1/2 [ Time Frame: Assessed from baseline visit (day 1) to : 1) Day 31 (Primary Stage Group A); 2) Day 30 (Primary Stage Group B); 3) Day 80 (Secondary Stage Group A); 4) Day 30 (Secondary Stage Group B) ]
    t1/2 is defined as the elimination half-life

  4. The pharmacokinetics of a new pharmaceutical formulation of efavirenz (NANOefavirenz) and lopinavir (NANOlopinavir) in HIV negative healthy volunteers, as measured by Tmax [ Time Frame: Assessed from baseline visit (day 1) to : 1) Day 31 (Primary Stage Group A); 2) Day 30 (Primary Stage Group B); 3) Day 80 (Secondary Stage Group A); 4) Day 30 (Secondary Stage Group B) ]
    Tmax is defined as the time point at Cmax (Tmax)

  5. The pharmacokinetics of a new pharmaceutical formulation of efavirenz (NANOefavirenz) and lopinavir (NANOlopinavir) in HIV negative healthy volunteers, as measured by total drug exposure [ Time Frame: Assessed from baseline visit (day 1) to : 1) Day 31 (Primary Stage Group A); 2) Day 30 (Primary Stage Group B); 3) Day 80 (Secondary Stage Group A); 4) Day 30 (Secondary Stage Group B) ]
    Total drug exposure will be expressed as the area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC): from 0-12 (AUC0-12h) and 0-56 hours (AUC0-56h) for lopinavir; or 0-24 (AUC0-24h) and 0-228 hours (AUC0-24h) for efavirenz.


Secondary Outcome Measures :
  1. Safety and tolerability of NANOefavirenz and NANOlopinavir in HIV negative healthy volunteers, as measured by concomitant medication check [ Time Frame: 1) From screening visit to day 45 (Primary Stage Group A); 2) From screening visit to day 44 (Primary Stage Group B); 3) From screening visit to day 94 (Secondary Stage Group A); 4) From screening visit to day 44 (Secondary Stage Group B) ]
  2. Safety and tolerability of NANOefavirenz and NANOlopinavir in HIV negative healthy volunteers, as measured by Adverse Events [ Time Frame: 1) From screening visit to day 45 (Primary Stage Group A); 2) From screening visit to day 44 (Primary Stage Group B); 3) From screening visit to day 94 (Secondary Stage Group A); 4) From screening visit to day 44 (Secondary Stage Group B) ]
  3. Safety and tolerability of NANOefavirenz and NANOlopinavir in HIV negative healthy volunteers, as measured by symptom directed physical exam [ Time Frame: 1) From screening visit to day 45 (Primary Stage Group A); 2) From screening visit to day 44 (Primary Stage Group B); 3) From screening visit to day 94 (Secondary Stage Group A); 4) From screening visit to day 44 (Secondary Stage Group B) ]
  4. Safety and tolerability of NANOefavirenz and NANOlopinavir in HIV negative healthy volunteers, as measured by vital signs [ Time Frame: 1) From screening visit to day 45 (Primary Stage Group A); 2) From screening visit to day 44 (Primary Stage Group B); 3) From screening visit to day 94 (Secondary Stage Group A); 4) From screening visit to day 44 (Secondary Stage Group B) ]
    Temperature, blood pressure, heart rate, and respiratory rate

  5. Safety and tolerability of NANOefavirenz and NANOlopinavir in HIV negative healthy volunteers, as measured by ECG [ Time Frame: 1) From screening visit to day 21 (Primary Stage Group A); 2) From screening visit to day 28 (Primary Stage Group B); 3) From screening visit to day 70 (Secondary Stage Group A); 4) From screening visit to day 28 (Secondary Stage Group B) ]
    12 lead ECG with calculation of corrected QT interval (Fredericia)

  6. Safety and tolerability of NANOefavirenz and NANOlopinavir in HIV negative healthy volunteers, as measured by Urinalysis [ Time Frame: ) From screening visit to day 21 (Primary Stage Group A); 2) From screening visit to day 28 (Primary Stage Group B); 3) From screening visit to day 70 (Secondary Stage Group A); 4) From screening visit to day 28 (Secondary Stage Group B) ]
    Glucose, ketones, blood, pH, proteins, nitrites and leucocytes Pregnancy test for females of childbearing potential (urine) Drug screen

  7. Safety and tolerability of NANOefavirenz and NANOlopinavir in HIV negative healthy volunteers, as measured haematology [ Time Frame: 1) From screening visit to day 45 (Primary Stage Group A); 2) From screening visit to day 44 (Primary Stage Group B); 3) From screening visit to day 94 (Secondary Stage Group A); 4) From screening visit to day 44 (Secondary Stage Group B) ]
    1. Coulter count with differential
    2. Clotting screen; PT, APTT, Fibrinogen

  8. Safety and tolerability of NANOefavirenz and NANOlopinavir in HIV negative healthy volunteers, as measured by clinical chemistry [ Time Frame: 1) From screening visit to day 45 (Primary Stage Group A); 2) From screening visit to day 44 (Primary Stage Group B); 3) From screening visit to day 94 (Secondary Stage Group A); 4) From screening visit to day 44 (Secondary Stage Group B) ]
    Serum Biochemistry - Including sodium, potassium, urea, creatinine, total cholesterol and triglycerides, calcium, phosphate, liver enzymes (ALT, AST, GGT), albumin, glucose.

  9. Safety and tolerability of NANOefavirenz and NANOlopinavir in HIV negative healthy volunteers, as measured by Adherence questioning/ pill count [ Time Frame: 1) Days 14 and 21 (Primary Stage Group A); 2) Days 7 and 28 (Primary Stage Group B); 3) Days 14, 21, 63, and 70 (Secondary Stage Group A); 4) Days 7 and 28 (Secondary Stage Group B) ]
  10. Safety and tolerability of NANOefavirenz in HIV negative healthy volunteers, as measured by CNS symptoms questionnaire [ Time Frame: 1) Days 2 and 21 (Primary Stage Group A); 2) Days 2, 21, 51, and 70 (Secondary Stage Group A) ]
  11. Relationship between genetic polymorphisms and exposure to the studied drugs. [ Time Frame: Sample taken at baseline (if consented) ]
    Preliminary comparison between genotype and phenotype



Information from the National Library of Medicine

Choosing to participate in a study is an important personal decision. Talk with your doctor and family members or friends about deciding to join a study. To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contacts provided below. For general information, Learn About Clinical Studies.


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Ages Eligible for Study:   18 Years to 65 Years   (Adult, Older Adult)
Sexes Eligible for Study:   All
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   Yes
Criteria

Inclusion Criteria:

Volunteers must meet all of the following inclusion criteria within 28 days prior to the baseline visit:

  1. The ability to understand and sign a written informed consent form, prior to participation in any screening procedures and must be willing to comply with all study requirements
  2. Male or non-pregnant, non-lactating females
  3. Between 18 to 65 years, inclusive
  4. Body Mass Index (BMI) of 18 to 30 kg/m2, inclusive
  5. Women of childbearing potential (WOCBP) must be using an adequate method of contraception to avoid pregnancy throughout the study and for a period of at least 12 weeks after the study

    A female may be eligible to enter and participate in the study if she:

    1. is of non-child-bearing potential defined as either post-menopausal (12 months of spontaneous amenorrhea and ≥ 45 years of age) or physically incapable of becoming pregnant with documented tubal ligation, hysterectomy or bilateral oophorectomy or,
    2. is of child-bearing potential with a negative pregnancy test at both Screening and Day 1 and agrees to use one of the following methods of contraception to avoid pregnancy:

      • Complete abstinence from penile-vaginal intercourse from 2 weeks prior to administration of IP, throughout the study, and for at least 2 weeks after discontinuation of all study medications;
      • Double barrier method (male condom/spermicide, male condom/diaphragm, diaphragm/spermicide);
      • Any intrauterine device (IUD) with published data showing that the expected failure rate is <1% per year (not all IUDs meet this criterion, see protocol appendix 7 for an example listing of approved IUDs);
      • Condom and depot medroxyprogesterone acetate ( DMPA) injections
      • Male partner sterilization confirmed prior to the female subject's entry into the study, and this male is the sole partner for that subject;
      • Any other method with published data showing that the expected failure rate is <1% per year.
      • Any contraception method must be used consistently, in accordance with the approved product label and for at least 2 weeks after discontinuation of IP.
  6. Willing to consent to their personal details being entered onto the TOPS database
  7. Willing to provide proof of identity by photographic ID at screen and any subsequent visit
  8. Registered with a GP in the UK

Exclusion Criteria:

Volunteers who meet any of the following exclusion criteria are not to be enrolled in this study.

  1. Any significant acute or chronic medical illness including hypertension (BP persistently >140/90 mmHg) or hypotension (BP persistently <90/60 mmHg)
  2. Prolongation of ECG intervals: PR > 200 msec or QTcF > 450 msec.
  3. Evidence of organ dysfunction or any clinically significant deviation from normal in physical examination, vital signs, ECG or clinical laboratory determinations.
  4. Liver transaminase (ALT or AST > 1.25 x the upper limit of the normal range)
  5. Significant psychiatric history (including severe depression) or history of seizures.
  6. Positive blood screen for either hepatitis B surface antigen or hepatitis C antibody
  7. Positive blood screen for HIV-1 and/or 2 antibodies
  8. Current or recent (within 3 months) gastrointestinal disease
  9. Clinically relevant alcohol or drug use (positive urine drug screen) or history of alcohol or drug use considered by the Investigator to be sufficient to hinder adherence to treatment, follow-up procedures or evaluation of adverse events. Smoking is permitted, but tobacco intake should remain consistent throughout the study
  10. Known cardiac disease history of any family history of sudden cardiac death.
  11. Exposure to any investigational drug or placebo within 3 months of first dose of study drug
  12. Use of any other drugs (unless approved by the Investigator), including over-the-counter medications and herbal preparations, within two weeks prior to first dose of study drug, unless approved/prescribed by the Principal Investigator as known not to interact with study drugs.
  13. Females of childbearing potential without the use of effective non-hormonal birth control methods, or not willing to continue practising these birth control methods for at least 12 weeks after the end of the treatment period
  14. Previous allergy to any of the constituents of the pharmaceuticals administered in this trial
  15. Rare hereditary problems of galactose intolerance, the Lapp lactase deficiency or glucosegalactose malabsorption

Information from the National Library of Medicine

To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contact information provided by the sponsor.

Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier (NCT number): NCT02631473


Locations
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United Kingdom
St Stephen's Centre
London, United Kingdom, SW10 9NH
Sponsors and Collaborators
St Stephens Aids Trust
University of Liverpool
Investigators
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Principal Investigator: Marta Boffito Chelsea & Westminster Hospital
Study Director: Steve Rannard University of Liverpool
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Responsible Party: St Stephens Aids Trust
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02631473    
Other Study ID Numbers: SSAT 055
First Posted: December 16, 2015    Key Record Dates
Last Update Posted: December 7, 2016
Last Verified: December 2016
Additional relevant MeSH terms:
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Ritonavir
Lopinavir
Efavirenz
HIV Protease Inhibitors
Protease Inhibitors
Enzyme Inhibitors
Molecular Mechanisms of Pharmacological Action
Anti-HIV Agents
Anti-Retroviral Agents
Antiviral Agents
Anti-Infective Agents
Cytochrome P-450 CYP3A Inhibitors
Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme Inhibitors
Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors
Nucleic Acid Synthesis Inhibitors
Cytochrome P-450 CYP2C9 Inhibitors
Cytochrome P-450 CYP2C19 Inhibitors
Cytochrome P-450 CYP2B6 Inducers
Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme Inducers
Cytochrome P-450 CYP3A Inducers