Toddler Overweight Prevention Study Among Low-Income Families (TOPS)
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|ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02615158|
Recruitment Status : Completed
First Posted : November 26, 2015
Results First Posted : May 12, 2020
Last Update Posted : May 12, 2020
|Condition or disease||Intervention/treatment||Phase|
|Overweight Obesity Depression||Behavioral: Maternal Physical Activity and Nutrition Behavioral: Parenting Behavioral: Child Safety||Not Applicable|
Overweight is a serious public health problem which can begin in early childhood. Factors which contribute to overweight include: overfeeding, excessive intakes of fat and sugar; frequent sedentary activities (i.e. television watching).
Overweight, defined as a BMI > 95th percentile, in early childhood has reached epidemic proportions with 14% of 2-5 year olds overweight and 26.2% "at risk of overweight," defined as a BMI > 85th percentile (Ogden et al., 2006).
Dietary and physical activity patterns established early in life track over time, making the first few years of life an ideal time to help families establish healthy eating and physical activity behaviors and avoid overweight. This project works to identify techniques that could prevent overweight.
Purpose of Study:
The investigators are collaborating with the Anne Arundel County, MD Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) and the University of Maryland's Pediatric Ambulatory Center to implement strategies that will prevent overweight among toddlers. The project focuses on the dietary, physical activity, and growth patterns of WIC toddlers. The investigators are conducting a 3-cell randomized trial consisting of: 1) a maternal intervention focusing on healthy diet and physical activity patterns for mothers; 2) a toddler parenting intervention focusing on parenting, limit setting, and development strategies; and 3) an intervention on child safety. The interventions are implemented over 3 months, with 8 sessions.
The investigators hypothesize that altering maternal behavior will have a positive impact on the growth and development of the toddler by preventing behaviors that lead to overweight among children. The parenting intervention will improve parenting skills by offering information on proper approaches to feeding, discipline and educational play. The investigators will compare the growth patterns of toddlers whose mothers were randomized to the maternal and parenting interventions with those in the safety intervention. This study design allows us to examine the mechanisms linking the interventions to improvements in diet, physical activity, and growth.
In addition, the investigators will conduct the safety promotion intervention for the attention control group, considering the high risk of unintentional injuries among the toddlers from low-income families. The investigators also hypothesize that the safety promotion intervention will reduce the safety problems of the toddlers' homes. The underlying mechanisms will be examined, if there is a significant intervention effect.
|Study Type :||Interventional (Clinical Trial)|
|Actual Enrollment :||277 participants|
|Intervention Model:||Parallel Assignment|
|Masking:||Double (Investigator, Outcomes Assessor)|
|Official Title:||Toddler Overweight Prevention: Comparison of Maternal and Toddler Intervention|
|Study Start Date :||April 2006|
|Actual Primary Completion Date :||September 2013|
|Actual Study Completion Date :||May 2014|
Experimental: Maternal Physical Activity and Nutrition
A maternal intervention focusing on healthy diet and physical activity patterns for mothers.
Behavioral: Maternal Physical Activity and Nutrition
At each session, mothers will identify a dietary goal for the next session (e.g., reduce soda intake). They will learn to track and evaluate their progress, setting new goals or modifying existing ones as necessary. Mothers will be given pedometers and shown how to keep a pedometer tracking chart. As with dietary choice, our objective is to have the mothers identify personal goals and strategies to achieve those goals, so they are more likely to continue to engage in physical activity after the intervention ends.
A toddler parenting intervention focusing on parenting, limit setting, and development strategies.
Behavior and Development Related to Diet and Physical Activity. The toddler parenting intervention will include modules on toddler behavior and development. We will devote sessions to topics involving parenting toddlers, limit setting, and child development.
Experimental: Child Safety
Attention control group. The parents received intervention to promote safety among toddlers.
Behavioral: Child Safety
The intervention will focus on child safety issues, including car seat safety, fire safety, fall prevention, and poison prevention. Participants will set weekly child safety goals.
- Change of Body Mass Index (BMI) Z-score for Toddlers [ Time Frame: Baseline to 12-month Follow-up ]Measured weight and height for the toddlers, transferred to age and gender-specific body mass index (BMI) Z-score. The range of BMI z-score is usually between -5 and +5. BMI z-score lower than -1.645 is defined as underweight. The BMI z-score from -1.645 to 1.036 is normal weight and BMI z-score greater or equal to 1.645 is obese.
- Change in Body Mass Index (BMI) Score Among Mothers [ Time Frame: Baseline to 12 month Follow-up ]Change body mass index (BMI, kg/m^2, calculated by measured weight and height) from baseline to 12-month follow-up. The BMI ranges usually ranges from 0-50 with higher score indicating higher weight regarding the height. Scores above 25 are considered overweight and scores above 30 are considered obese.
- Change of Diet Quality for Toddlers [ Time Frame: Baseline to 12-month Follow-up ]Healthy Eating Index 2015 (HEI 2015) based on 24-hr diet recall. The range is 0-100, with higher scores representing better diet quality.
- Change of Diet Quality for Mothers [ Time Frame: Baseline to 12-month Follow-up ]Healthy Eating Index (HEI 15) is calculated based on 24 hour diet recall. Scores range from 0-100, with higher scores optimal
- Change of Child Physical Activity [ Time Frame: Baseline to 12-month Follow-up ]Physical activity is measured by wearing an accelerometer for 7 days. Using standards for toddlers, we count the number of minutes in moderate-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) per day, and averaged over the number of days measured, higher scores mean more physical activity.
- Change of Maternal Physical Activity [ Time Frame: Baseline-12 month follow up ]Physical activity is measured by wearing an accelerometer for 7 days. Using standards for adults, we count the number of minutes in moderate-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) per day, and averaged over the number of days measured, higher scores mean more physical activity.
- Feeding Style [ Time Frame: Baseline to 12 month Follow-up ]The Emotional Availability Scales (EAS) include 4 maternal scales (sensitivity, structuring, non-intrusiveness, and non-hostile) and 2 child scales (responsiveness and involvement), each rated on 7-point Likert scales, with high scores optimal. The maternal and child sub-scale scores were averaged for a total mealtime interaction score. The total score ranges from 1-7. Coders were trained until they demonstrated inter-rater reliability >0.80 based on intraclass correlation coefficients with 10 observations from the scale creator and 10 observations with the faculty coordinator. Inter-rater reliability was reviewed through weekly reliability checks.
To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contact information provided by the sponsor.
Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier (NCT number): NCT02615158
|United States, Maryland|
|University of Maryland, School of Medicine|
|Baltimore, Maryland, United States, 21201|
|University of Maryland|
|Baltimore, Maryland, United States, 21201|
|Principal Investigator:||Maureen M Black, PhD||University of Maryland, College Park|