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Comparing Interventions for Opioid Dependent Patients Presenting in Medical Emergency Departments

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ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02586896
Recruitment Status : Completed
First Posted : October 27, 2015
Results First Posted : March 23, 2020
Last Update Posted : May 5, 2020
Sponsor:
Collaborator:
Wright State University
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
NYU Langone Health

Brief Summary:
This study will compare the effects of brief strengths-based case management (SBCM) to the effects of screening, assessment and referral alone (SAR) in opioid-dependent patients. Participants meeting DSM-IV criteria for opioid dependence will be randomly assigned (150 per group) to receive 1) up to 6 sessions of SBCM; or 2) SAR. Follow-up assessments will be completed at 3 and 6 months, by staff who are blinded to treatment condition.

Condition or disease Intervention/treatment Phase
Opioid Dependence Behavioral: Strengths-based Case Management (SBCM) Behavioral: Screening, Assessment, and Referral (SAR) Not Applicable

Detailed Description:

As addiction treatment becomes increasingly integrated into the medical care system, two models have rightly received a great deal of attention. The first is the use of Screening, Brief Intervention, and Referral to Treatment (SBIRT) models to identify cases, provide therapeutic contact, and refer the more severe cases to longer-term care. The second is the treatment of addictions using medical models of treatment, including those that can be implemented in primary care settings. Much less attention has been paid to optimizing strategies for bridging the gap between SBIRT and more intensive/longer-term treatment for those on the severe end of the spectrum. This factor is of critical importance for opioid dependent patients, whose needs are not met by brief interventions or brief treatment. Emergency room interventions for substance use disorders have been largely limited to brief interventions/SBIRT models, and these have focused primarily on alcohol. Although there is a substantial literature documenting the value of case management in linking drug users to treatment, this approach has not been applied to drug users in the emergency department (ED) setting.

In a sample of opioid dependent patients seen in a medical ED who are not currently engaged in treatment, this study will compare the effects of brief strengths-based case management (SBCM) to the effects of screening, assessment and referral alone. Participants meeting DSM-IV criteria for opioid dependence will be randomly assigned (150 per group) to receive 1) Screening, Assessment and Referral or 2) up to 6 sessions of SBCM based on the model previously implemented by Rapp and colleagues in prior studies. Staff who are blinded to treatment condition will complete follow-up assessments at 3 and 6 months. Aims of the study are to identify the main effects of SBCM on substance abuse treatment initiation and engagement, use of opioids and other drugs, and broader measures of health and life functioning; to examine the interactions between treatment assignment and selected participant attributes in predicting treatment initiation, engagement, and substance use outcomes; and to examine effects of treatment involvement on substance use outcomes in the two treatment groups.

The proposed study will be the first trial using a case management approach to link drug dependent patients presenting in EDs to longer-term addiction treatment. It will be one of the first trials focusing specifically on opioid dependent patients in medical EDs. A further innovative feature is that the case management approach will emphasize linkage to pharmacotherapy, facilitating linkage to office-based buprenorphine, methadone, or naltrexone for patients who desire this treatment.

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Study Type : Interventional  (Clinical Trial)
Actual Enrollment : 300 participants
Allocation: Randomized
Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
Masking: Single (Outcomes Assessor)
Primary Purpose: Treatment
Official Title: Comparing Interventions for Opioid Dependent Patients Presenting in Medical Emergency Departments
Actual Study Start Date : March 2016
Actual Primary Completion Date : April 23, 2019
Actual Study Completion Date : April 23, 2019

Resource links provided by the National Library of Medicine


Arm Intervention/treatment
Experimental: Strengths-based Case Management (SBCM)
The structure of SBCM follows the widely accepted functions of case management-assessment, planning, linking, monitoring and advocacy-and the theory-driven gestalt of the strengths perspective. Strengths-based principles include an emphasis on client strengths, teaching clients a method for setting and completing goals, and development of a strong working alliance.
Behavioral: Strengths-based Case Management (SBCM)
The six case management sessions for the proposed trial are based on those described in manuals developed by Dr. Rapp for two clinical trials, one supported by National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) and another by the Centers for Disease Control (CDC). Each session is guided by specific objectives that promote linkage with and retention in substance abuse treatment, particularly pharmacotherapy for opioid dependence in a specialty or primary care setting. Objectives from the earlier trials will be adapted to fit the specific context of this trial, linking with and staying in treatment following an emergency department visit. Initiation of the relationship between client and case manager begins immediately following random assignment and termination takes place when either (1) six sessions have occurred; (2) ninety days have elapsed; or (3) clients discontinue involvement.

Active Comparator: Screening, Assessment and Referral (SAR)
Following randomization, participants in the SAR condition will be provided with minimal scripted feedback to let them know that their assessment indicates substance dependence, and given a recommendation to seek treatment.
Behavioral: Screening, Assessment, and Referral (SAR)
The research assistant will provide these participants with an information sheet listing treatment (including both specialty treatment centers and primary care clinics that provide buprenorphine) and self-help resources in their community. The referral sheet includes names, addresses, and phone numbers of local addiction treatment agencies. Because the emergency department does not currently screen or refer systematically, the SAR condition represents a level of care significantly higher than "treatment as usual." Participants will also receive an informational pamphlet about drug use and its consequences, addiction, and treatment.




Primary Outcome Measures :
  1. Initiation of Treatment for Opioid Dependence [ Time Frame: 3 months ]
    "Initiation" is defined as a dichotomous outcome (yes/no), and is considered to have occurred if patients report any substance abuse counseling sessions (excluding SBCM) from the time of the baseline assessment up to the day before the three-month interview, as captured via self-report on the Form 90-D.

  2. Engagement in Treatment for Opioid Dependence [ Time Frame: 3 months ]
    Using the same timeframe as "initiation," "engagement" is defined as the number days of medication use for opioid dependence, based on Form 90-D self-report verified by clinic dosing logs and Prescription Drug Monitoring Program records.


Secondary Outcome Measures :
  1. Number of Participants With Successful Outcome for Opioid Use [ Time Frame: 3 months ]
    "Successful outcome" will be defined as 1) 3-month urine negative for opioids (opiates, oxycodone, methadone, buprenorphine, or propoxyphene) unless prescribed for opioid dependence, and 2) no more than two days of self-reported opioid use on the Form 90-D in the 4 weeks (30 days) prior to the 3-month evaluation.

  2. Score on World Health Organization Quality of Life (WHOQoL) Brief Questionnaire [ Time Frame: 3 months ]
    The WHOQOL-BREF instrument comprises 26 items, which measure the following broad domains: physical health, psychological health, social relationships, and environment. Participants express how much they have experienced the items in the preceding 2 weeks on a 5-point Likert scale ranging from 1 (not at all) to 5 (completely). Domain scores are scaled in a positive direction (i.e. higher scores denote higher quality of life). Raw domain score is the sum of respective item scores. All domain scores are reported between 4 and 20.

  3. Initiation in Participants With Higher Levels of Environmental Instability at Baseline [ Time Frame: 3 months ]
    "Initiation" is defined as a dichotomous outcome (yes/no), and is considered to have occurred if patients report any substance abuse counseling sessions (excluding SBCM) from the time of the baseline assessment up to the day before the three-month interview, as captured via self-report on the Form 90-D.

  4. Engagement in Participants With Higher Levels of Environmental Instability at Baseline [ Time Frame: 3 months ]
    Using the same timeframe as "initiation," "engagement" is defined as the number days of medication use for opioid dependence, based on Form 90-D self-report verified by clinic dosing logs and Prescription Drug Monitoring Program records.



Information from the National Library of Medicine

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Ages Eligible for Study:   18 Years and older   (Adult, Older Adult)
Sexes Eligible for Study:   All
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   No
Criteria

Inclusion Criteria:

  1. Registration as patient in the ED during study screening hours;
  2. Endorsement of three or more opioid dependence criteria on the DSM-IV checklist
  3. Age 18 years or older;
  4. Adequate English proficiency;
  5. Ability to provide informed consent;
  6. Self-report use of opioids in the last 30 days

Exclusion Criteria:

  1. Inability to participate due to emergency treatment;
  2. Significant impairment of cognition or judgment rendering the person incapable of informed consent. (e.g., traumatic brain injury, delirium, intoxication);
  3. Status as a prisoner or in police custody at the time of treatment;
  4. Current engagement in substance use disorder treatment;
  5. Residence more than 50 miles from the location of follow-up visits;
  6. Inability to provide sufficient contact information (must provide at least 2 reliable locators);
  7. Unavailable for follow-up (e.g., planning to relocate within 6 months)
  8. Prior participation in the current study.
  9. Current participation in a research study related to substance use.

Information from the National Library of Medicine

To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contact information provided by the sponsor.

Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier (NCT number): NCT02586896


Locations
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United States, New York
Bellevue Hospital Center
New York, New York, United States, 10016
Sponsors and Collaborators
NYU Langone Health
Wright State University
Investigators
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Principal Investigator: Michael P Bogenschutz, MD NYU Langone Medical Center
  Study Documents (Full-Text)

Documents provided by NYU Langone Health:
Publications automatically indexed to this study by ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier (NCT Number):
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Responsible Party: NYU Langone Health
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02586896    
Other Study ID Numbers: 15-00862
First Posted: October 27, 2015    Key Record Dates
Results First Posted: March 23, 2020
Last Update Posted: May 5, 2020
Last Verified: April 2020

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Studies a U.S. FDA-regulated Drug Product: No
Studies a U.S. FDA-regulated Device Product: No
Additional relevant MeSH terms:
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Emergencies
Opioid-Related Disorders
Disease Attributes
Pathologic Processes
Substance-Related Disorders
Chemically-Induced Disorders
Mental Disorders