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Endovascular Therapy Following Imaging Evaluation for Ischemic Stroke 3 (DEFUSE 3)

This study has been terminated.
(Interim analysis showed a high likelihood of benefit in the endovascular group)
Sponsor:
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier:
NCT02586415
First Posted: October 26, 2015
Last Update Posted: November 17, 2017
The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Read our disclaimer for details.
Collaborators:
National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS)
University of Cincinnati
Medical University of South Carolina
NINDS Stroke Trials Network (StrokeNet)
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
Gregory W Albers, Stanford University
  Purpose
This is a study to evaluate the hypothesis that FDA cleared thrombectomy devices plus medical management leads to superior clinical outcomes in acute ischemic stroke patients at 90 days when compared to medical management alone in appropriately selected subjects with the Target mismatch profile and an MCA (M1 segment) or ICA occlusion who can be randomized and have endovascular treatment initiated between 6-16 hours after last seen well.

Condition Intervention
Stroke, Acute Cerebral Infarction Procedure: Endovascular Thrombectomy Device: Trevo Retriever Device: Solitaire™ FR Revascularization Device Device: Penumbra thrombectomy system Device: Covidien MindFrame Capture Revascularization Device

Study Type: Interventional
Study Design: Allocation: Randomized
Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
Masking: None (Open Label)
Primary Purpose: Treatment
Official Title: Endovascular Therapy Following Imaging Evaluation for Ischemic Stroke 3

Further study details as provided by Gregory W Albers, Stanford University:

Primary Outcome Measures:
  • The distribution of scores on the modified Rankin Scale (mRS) at day 90 [ Time Frame: 90 days ]

    The modified Rankin Scale (mRS) is a commonly used scale for measuring the degree of disability or dependence in the daily activities of people who have suffered a stroke or other causes of neurological disability. The scale runs from 0-6 with "0" being perfect health without symptoms to "6" being death. 0 - No symptoms.

    1. - No significant disability. Able to carry out all usual activities, despite some symptoms.
    2. - Slight disability. Able to look after own affairs without assistance, but unable to carry out all previous activities.
    3. - Moderate disability. Requires some help, but able to walk unassisted.
    4. - Moderately severe disability. Unable to attend to own bodily needs without assistance, and unable to walk unassisted.
    5. - Severe disability. Requires constant nursing care and attention, bedridden, incontinent.
    6. - Dead.


Secondary Outcome Measures:
  • Functional Independence [ Time Frame: 90 days ]
    This outcome will look at the proportion of patients with mR S 0-2 at day 90 (indicating functional independence). The difference in the proportions of patients with mRS 0-2 between treatment arms will be assessed using logistic regression.


Other Outcome Measures:
  • Death (primary safety outcome) [ Time Frame: 90 days ]
    Death

  • Symptomatic Intracranial Hemorrhage (primary safety outcome) [ Time Frame: 36 hours ]
    Defined as NIHSS worsening of 4 or more points associated with ICH within 36 hours of randomization

  • Early neurological deterioration (Safety Outcome) [ Time Frame: 5 days ]
    Significant neurological deterioration prior to discharge (defined as an increase of 4 points or more on the NIHSS)

  • Parenchymal hematoma type 2 (Safety Outcome) [ Time Frame: 24 hours ]
    PH 2 rates on the 24 hour scan

  • Infarct Volume (Imaging Outcome) [ Time Frame: 24 hours ]
    Infarct volume on diffusion-weighted MRI (or CT if MRI not feasible) at 24 (±6) hours after randomization

  • Lesion Growth (Imaging Outcome) [ Time Frame: 24 hours ]
    Lesion growth between the RAPID-identified ischemic core on baseline imaging and the infarct volume at 24 hours

  • Reperfusion (Imaging Outcome) [ Time Frame: 24 hours ]
    Successful reperfusion defined as a >90% reduction in Tmax>6sec lesion volume between baseline and 24 hours

  • Recanalization (Imaging Outcome) [ Time Frame: 24 hours ]
    Recanalization of the primary arterial occlusive lesion at 24-hours on CTA/MRA


Enrollment: 182
Study Start Date: April 2016
Study Completion Date: August 23, 2017
Primary Completion Date: August 23, 2017 (Final data collection date for primary outcome measure)
Arms Assigned Interventions
Active Comparator: endovascular thrombectomy therapy

Treatment with one or more thrombectomy devices (only the devices listed in this protocol are approved for use in DEFUSE 3) plus standard medical therapy for patients who have evidence of an ICA or MCA M1 occlusion and a Target Mismatch Profile.

Devices approved for use in DEFUSE 3:

  • Trevo Retriever
  • Solitaire™ FR Revascularization Device
  • Penumbra thrombectomy system
  • Covidien MindFrame Capture Revascularization Device
Procedure: Endovascular Thrombectomy
Patients will be treated with thrombectomy devices (stent-retrievers) and/or suction thrombectomy systems currently cleared by the FDA for thrombus removal in patients experiencing an acute stroke following the published instructions for use for these devices. These devices will be used between 6 and 16 hours following symptom onset in DEFUSE 3 based on an FDA IDE. The devices which will be used are the Trevo Retriever, the Solitaire Revascularization Device and the Penumbra system thrombectomy system.
Device: Trevo Retriever
Trevo Retriever is one of the interventional devices that is approved for use in DEFUSE 3 during the endovascular thrombectomy procedure. The device choice is at the discretion of the physician performing the procedure.
Device: Solitaire™ FR Revascularization Device
Solitaire™ FR Revascularization Device is one of the interventional devices that is approved for use in DEFUSE 3 during the endovascular thrombectomy procedure. The device choice is at the discretion of the physician performing the procedure.
Device: Penumbra thrombectomy system

Penumbra thrombectomy system is one of the interventional devices that is approved for use in DEFUSE 3 during the endovascular thrombectomy procedure. The device choice is at the discretion of the physician performing the procedure. The Penumbra System includes:

• Penumbra Aspiration Pump (1115V) Penumbra System 054 Penumbra System MAX Penumbra System 110 Aspiration Tubing Penumbra System [026, 032, 041] Penumbra System Separator Flex [026, 032, 041, 054] Penumbra Pump MAX Penumbra System Reperfusion Catheter ACE64 & ACE68

Device: Covidien MindFrame Capture Revascularization Device
Covidien MindFrame Capture Revascularization Device is one of the interventional devices that is approved for use in DEFUSE 3 during the endovascular thrombectomy procedure. The device choice is at the discretion of the physician performing the procedure.
No Intervention: Medical Management
standard medical therapy alone

Detailed Description:

DEFUSE 3 is a prospective randomized Phase III multicenter controlled trial of patients with acute ischemic anterior circulation strokes due to large artery occlusion treated between 6-16 hours of stroke onset with endovascular thrombectomy therapy vs. control.

The primary endpoint, the modified Rankin Score, will be assessed at 3 months. The patients' participation in the study concludes at that time (3 months from stroke onset). The study will randomize up to 476 patients over 4 years. The purpose of DEFUSE 3 is to assess the safety and efficacy of thrombectomy in carefully selected patients in an extended time window. Only the devices listed in this protocol will be used. Selection of the specific device (or devices) is determined by the individual endovascular therapist.

Patients who meet the inclusion criteria will undergo either CT Perfusion/CT Angiogram or MR DWI/PWI/MRA studies prior to randomization. Patients who have evidence of an ICA or MCA M1 occlusion and a Target Mismatch Profile will be randomized in a 1:1 ratio to treatment with one or more DEFUSE 3 approved thrombectomy devices (only the devices listed in this protocol are approved for use in DEFUSE 3) plus standard medical therapy versus standard medical therapy alone. Patients who are enrolled, but not randomized, will receive standard therapy according to local guidelines. Baseline data, and information about early stroke therapies, will be captured for this group of patients.

Randomization of a maximum of 476 patients is planned. A novel adaptive design will identify, at interim analyses, the group with the best prospect for showing benefit from endovascular treatment, based on baseline core lesion volumes and the times since stroke onset. Interim analyses will be conducted at 200 and 340 patients, at which time the study may stop for efficacy/futility, or the inclusion criteria may be adjusted in the case of futility.

  Eligibility

Information from the National Library of Medicine

Choosing to participate in a study is an important personal decision. Talk with your doctor and family members or friends about deciding to join a study. To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contacts provided below. For general information, Learn About Clinical Studies.


Ages Eligible for Study:   18 Years to 90 Years   (Adult, Senior)
Sexes Eligible for Study:   All
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   No
Criteria

Clinical Inclusion Criteria:

  1. Signs & symptoms consistent w/ the diagnosis of acute anterior circulation ischemic stroke
  2. Age 18-90 years
  3. Baseline NIHSSS is ≥ 6 and remains ≥6 immediately prior to randomization
  4. Endovascular treatment can be initiated (femoral puncture) between 6 and 16 hours of stroke onset. Stroke onset is defined as the time the patient was last known to be at their neurologic baseline (wake-up strokes are eligible if they meet the above time limits).
  5. modified Rankin Scale less than or equal to 2 prior to qualifying stroke (functionally independent for all ADLs)
  6. Patient/Legally Authorized Representative has signed the Informed Consent form.

Clinical Exclusion Criteria:

  1. Other serious, advanced, or terminal illness (investigator judgment) or life expectancy is less than 6 months.
  2. Pre-existing medical, neurological or psychiatric disease that would confound the neurological or functional evaluations
  3. Pregnant
  4. Unable to undergo a contrast brain perfusion scan with either MRI or CT
  5. Known allergy to iodine that precludes an endovascular procedure
  6. Treated with tPA >4.5 hours after time last known well
  7. Treated with tPA 3-4.5 hours after last known well AND any of the following; age >80, current anticoagulant use, history of diabetes or prior stroke, NIHSS >25
  8. Known hereditary or acquired hemorrhagic diathesis, coagulation factor deficiency; recent oral anticoagulant therapy with INR > 3 (recent use of one of the new oral anticoagulants is not an exclusion if estimated GFR > 30 ml/min).
  9. Seizures at stroke onset if it precludes obtaining an accurate baseline NIHSS
  10. Baseline blood glucose of <50mg/dL (2.78 mmol) or >400mg/dL (22.20 mmol)
  11. Baseline platelet count < 50,000/uL
  12. Severe, sustained hypertension (Systolic BP >185 mmHg or Diastolic BP >110 mmHg)
  13. Current participation in another investigational drug or device study
  14. Presumed septic embolus; suspicion of bacterial endocarditis
  15. Clot retrieval attempted using a neurothrombectomy device prior to 6 hrs from symptom onset
  16. Any other condition that, in the opinion of the investigator, precludes an endovascular procedure or poses a significant hazard to the subject if an endovascular procedure was performed.

Neuroimaging Inclusion Criteria:

  1. ICA or MCA-M1 occlusion (carotid occlusions can be cervical or intracranial; with or without tandem MCA lesions) by MRA or CTA

    AND

  2. Target Mismatch Profile on CT perfusion or MRI (ischemic core volume is < 70 ml, mismatch ratio is >/= 1.8 and mismatch volume* is >/= 15 ml)

Alternative neuroimaging inclusion criteria (if perfusion imaging or CTA/MRA is technically inadequate):

A) If CTA (or MRA) is technically inadequate:

Tmax>6s perfusion deficit consistent with an ICA or MCA-M1 occlusion AND Target Mismatch Profile (ischemic core volume is < 70 ml, mismatch ratio is >1.8 and mismatch volume is >15 ml as determined by RAPID software)

B) If MRP is technically inadequate:

ICA or MCA-M1 occlusion (carotid occlusions can be cervical or intracranial; with or without tandem MCA lesions) by MRA (or CTA, if MRA is technically inadequate and a CTA was performed within 60 minutes prior to the MRI) AND DWI lesion volume < 25 ml

C) If CTP is technically inadequate:

Patient can be screened with MRI and randomized if neuroimaging criteria are met.

Neuroimaging Exclusion Criteria:

  1. ASPECTS score <6 on non-contrast CT (if patient is enrolled based on CT perfusion criteria)
  2. Evidence of intracranial tumor (except small meningioma) acute intracranial hemorrhage, neoplasm, or arteriovenous malformation
  3. Significant mass effect with midline shift
  4. Evidence of internal carotid artery dissection that is flow limiting or aortic dissection
  5. Intracranial stent implanted in the same vascular territory that precludes the safe deployment/removal of the neurothrombectomy device
  6. Acute symptomatic arterial occlusions in more than one vascular territory confirmed on CTA/MRA (e.g., bilateral MCA occlusions, or an MCA and a basilar artery occlusion).
  Contacts and Locations
Information from the National Library of Medicine

To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contact information provided by the sponsor.

Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier (NCT number): NCT02586415


  Show 40 Study Locations
Sponsors and Collaborators
Gregory W Albers
National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS)
University of Cincinnati
Medical University of South Carolina
NINDS Stroke Trials Network (StrokeNet)
Investigators
Principal Investigator: Gregory Albers, MD Stanford University
Principal Investigator: Michael Marks, MD Stanford University
Principal Investigator: Maarten Lansberg, MD, PhD Stanford University
  More Information

Responsible Party: Gregory W Albers, Professor of Neurology, Stanford University
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02586415     History of Changes
Other Study ID Numbers: 116661
U10NS086487 ( U.S. NIH Grant/Contract )
U01NS092076 ( U.S. NIH Grant/Contract )
First Submitted: October 21, 2015
First Posted: October 26, 2015
Last Update Posted: November 17, 2017
Last Verified: November 2017

Studies a U.S. FDA-regulated Drug Product: No

Keywords provided by Gregory W Albers, Stanford University:
endovascular
endovascular procedure
Mechanical Thrombectomy

Additional relevant MeSH terms:
Stroke
Infarction
Cerebral Infarction
Cerebrovascular Disorders
Brain Diseases
Central Nervous System Diseases
Nervous System Diseases
Vascular Diseases
Cardiovascular Diseases
Ischemia
Pathologic Processes
Necrosis
Brain Infarction
Brain Ischemia