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The Impact of Piano Training on Cognitive Performance and Psychosocial Well-Being in Older Adults

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ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02564601
Recruitment Status : Completed
First Posted : October 1, 2015
Last Update Posted : May 1, 2019
Sponsor:
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
Jennifer Bugos, University of South Florida

Brief Summary:
This project evaluates the effects of piano training and computerized cognitive training on cognitive performance in healthy older adults compared to controls. The project is intended for healthy older adults (60-80 years) with little to no previous musical training (less than three years of prior musical training or cognitive training and not currently engaged in music reading or musical performance, less than 10 hours of previous cognitive training). Investigators anticipate that musical engagement will serve as an enjoyable cognitive intervention for older adults. Investigators believe that piano training will enhance cognitive performance on executive functions essential for maintaining independence in older adulthood. Learning a musical instrument, while challenging, will improve self-efficacy, mood, and qualtiy of life. Participants engaged in piano training will demonstrate reduced cortisol levels and increased immune function responses. Investigators predict that adults enrolled in computerized cognitive training will demonstrate enhanced memory, working memory and self-efficacy post-training.

Condition or disease Intervention/treatment Phase
Aging Behavioral: Piano Training Behavioral: Computer Cognitive Training Not Applicable

Detailed Description:

The project purpose is to scientifically examine the benefits of piano training as compared to computer cognitive training and no treatment controls on cognitive (processing speed, task-switching, verbal fluency, verbal memory, and working memory), psychosocial (mood, self-efficacy, and quality of life), and physiological variables (biomarkers) in healthy older adult participants in a randomized clinical trial design.

Participants: Ninety community dwelling older adults will be recruited from the community. Criteria for enrollment are: between the ages of 60-80, native English speakers, not currently taking medications affecting memory performance, have no pre-existing cognitive impairment or neurological disorders, (as indicated by the Telephone Interview for Cognitive Status > 30), no moderate to severe depression (as indicated by the Geriatric Depression Scale), no difficulty with hand movements, less than three years of prior musical training, not currently engaged in music reading or musical performance, and less than ten hours of prior computer brain training experience. Participants will be randomly assigned to one of three groups stratified by intelligence and gender: piano instruction, computerized cognitive training or a no treatment control group. Informed written consent will be obtained in accordance with the Institutional Review Board.

Procedure: Participants will be tested in three visits: pre-training, immediately post-training, and three months follow-up. Those randomized to piano training or computerized cognitive training will complete their assigned training between pre-training and post-training visits. Measures of music aptitude and intelligence will be administered at the pre-training visit. These factors can influence cognitive performance. Any significant differences at baseline between the three assigned groups will be statistically controlled for in the analyses. Standardized cognitive measures will be used to examine processing speed, task-switching, verbal fluency, verbal memory, and working memory at each visit. Psychosocial outcomes (mood, self-efficacy, and quality of life) and physiological biomarkers will also be evaluated at each visit.

The goal for both interventions will be to complete 48 hours of group training over a four month period (16 weeks). Sixty participants (30 piano training; 30 auditory computer training) will be asked to attend three hours of training each week. Thirty participants will serve in the no treatment control group. Piano training will consist of basic piano technique, dexterity exercises, piano literature, and music theory. Participants will be expected to perform all major scales, repertoire from the Alfred All-in-One Method, and complete weekly theory assignments. Each class session is structured as a cognitive intervention that focuses upon review of materials (15-20 min), and the remaining portion of the class focuses upon learning new skills and concepts. Computerized cognitive training involves computerized perceptual practice exercises that vary in difficulty ranging from basic auditory processing speed to application through memory exercises. Within each exercise, the stimuli (i.e., tones, speech sounds, words, sentences) become less discriminable and speed of presentation increases (making the exercises more difficult) as performance improves. The Brain Fitness training program with working memory exercises will be used.

Data source(s). Data will consist of a series of standardized cognitive, psychosocial, and neurophysiological measures administered at three time points: pre-training, post-training, and at a three month follow-up. All standardized measures have been previously used to assess the efficacy of cognitive training approaches and demonstrate good psychometric properties.

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Study Type : Interventional  (Clinical Trial)
Actual Enrollment : 93 participants
Allocation: Randomized
Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
Masking: Single (Outcomes Assessor)
Primary Purpose: Other
Official Title: The Impact of Piano Training on Cognitive Performance and Psychosocial Well-Being in Older Adults
Actual Study Start Date : June 2015
Actual Primary Completion Date : June 2017
Actual Study Completion Date : June 2017

Arm Intervention/treatment
Experimental: A1 Piano Training
16 weekly classes will be provided to the piano training group. Each piano class session will focus upon review of materials (15-20 min), and the remaining portion of the class will focus upon learning new skills and concepts. This course includes finger dexterity exercises, basic piano technique, and basic piano repertoire.
Behavioral: Piano Training
The intervention focuses upon progressively difficult piano performance exercises (repertoire), technique, and finger dexterity exercises.

Experimental: A2 Computer Cognitive Training
16 weekly classes will be provided to the computerized cognitive training group. Computerized cognitive training involves process-based computerized practice of adaptive perceptual exercises. Each computer cognitive training class session will focus upon practice of cognitive exercises that vary in difficulty ranging from basic auditory processing speed to application through memory and working memory exercises. Within each exercise, the stimuli (i.e., tones, speech sounds, words, sentences) become less discriminable and speed of presentation increases (making the exercises more difficult) as performance improves.
Behavioral: Computer Cognitive Training
The intervention focuses upon progressively difficult perceptual exercises using the Brain Fitness program plus working memory exercises.

No Intervention: A 3 No Treatment Controls
No classes will be provided to our control group. This is a no-treatment control group.



Primary Outcome Measures :
  1. N-Back [ Time Frame: (CHANGE) up to 16 weeks and after study completion 7 months ]
    Working Memory Measure in the Visual Domain

  2. Cued Color Word Stroop [ Time Frame: (CHANGE) up to 16 weeks and after study completion 7 months ]
    Cognitive Control, Inhibition

  3. Digit Coding- WAIS IV subtest [ Time Frame: (CHANGE) up to 16 weeks and after study completion 7 months ]
    Simple Processing Speed

  4. Symbol Search- WAIS IV subtest [ Time Frame: (CHANGE) up to 16 weeks and after study completion 7 months ]
    Visual Scanning

  5. Paced Auditory Serial Addition Task (PASAT) [ Time Frame: (CHANGE) up to 16 weeks and after study completion 7 months ]
    Complex processing speed

  6. Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test [ Time Frame: (CHANGE) up to 16 weeks and after study completion 7 months ]
    Verbal Memory

  7. Delis Kaplan Executive Function Verbal Fluency subtest [ Time Frame: (CHANGE) up to 16 weeks and after study completion 7 months ]
    Category Fluency, Letter Fluency, Category Switching

  8. Trail Making Test [ Time Frame: (CHANGE) up to 16 weeks and after study completion 7 months ]
    Planning and Processing Speed

  9. Finger Tapper Test [ Time Frame: (CHANGE) up to 16 weeks and after study completion 7 months ]
    Motor Speed

  10. Salivary Cortisol [ Time Frame: (CHANGE) up to 16 weeks and after study completion 7 months ]
    Stress Levels

  11. SIgA levels [ Time Frame: (CHANGE) up to 16 weeks and after study completion 7 months ]
    Immune Function

  12. Musical Performance Self-Efficacy [ Time Frame: (CHANGE) up to 16 weeks and after study completion 7 months ]
    Musical Self-Efficacy

  13. General Self-Efficacy [ Time Frame: (CHANGE) up to 16 weeks and after study completion 7 months ]
    General Self-Efficacy

  14. Cognitive Self-Report Questionnaire (25) [ Time Frame: (CHANGE) up to 16 weeks and after study completion 7 months ]
    Mood



Information from the National Library of Medicine

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Ages Eligible for Study:   60 Years to 80 Years   (Adult, Older Adult)
Sexes Eligible for Study:   All
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   Yes
Criteria

Inclusion Criteria:

  • Between the ages of 60-80
  • native English speakers
  • no pre-existing cognitive impairment or neurological impairment
  • not taking medications affecting memory performance (sleep meds, antidepressants, etc.)
  • Telephone Interview for Cognitive Status (score >30)
  • no moderate to severe depression
  • no difficulty with hand movements
  • less than three years of formal music training
  • no difficulty with the movement of their hands
  • not currently engaged in music reading or musical performance
  • < 10 hours of previous cognitive training

Exclusion Criteria:

  • Those not between 60-80
  • those taking medications affecting memory performance
  • Non-Native English Speakers
  • Those with pre-existing cognitive impairment
  • Telephone Interview for Cognitive Status (score < 30)
  • Those with difficulty in the movement of their hands
  • Those with more than three years of formal music training or currently engaged in music reading or music performance
  • Those with more than ten hours of cognitive training

Information from the National Library of Medicine

To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contact information provided by the sponsor.

Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier (NCT number): NCT02564601


Locations
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United States, Florida
University of South Florida
Tampa, Florida, United States, 33620
Sponsors and Collaborators
University of South Florida
Investigators
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Principal Investigator: Jennifer Bugos, PhD Assistant Professor
Publications of Results:
Publications automatically indexed to this study by ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier (NCT Number):
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Responsible Party: Jennifer Bugos, Assistant Professor, University of South Florida
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02564601    
Other Study ID Numbers: 19415
First Posted: October 1, 2015    Key Record Dates
Last Update Posted: May 1, 2019
Last Verified: April 2019
Individual Participant Data (IPD) Sharing Statement:
Plan to Share IPD: No
Plan Description: No, there is no plan to share individual participant data. We plan on publishing all data collectively.
Keywords provided by Jennifer Bugos, University of South Florida:
intervention
cognition
aging
piano training
computer brain training