Meta-analyses of Food Sources of Fructose-Containing Sugars and Obesity
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Sugars have been implicated in the epidemics of overweight and obesity. This view is supported by lower quality evidence from ecological observations, animal models, and select human trials. Higher level evidence from controlled trials and prospective cohort studies has been inconclusive. Whether sugars contribute to weight gain or increases in adiposity independent of their calories and whether important food sources of sugars other than SSBs are associated with a higher risk of overweight and obesity or weight gain remain unclear. To address the uncertainties, the investigators propose to conduct a series of systematic reviews and meta-analyses of the totality of the evidence from controlled trials and prospective cohort studies to distinguish the contribution of fructose-containing sugars and important food sources of sugars (SSBs, fruit, 100% fruit juice, cakes/sweets, yogurt, cereals, etc) from that of energy in the development of overweight and obesity. The findings generated by this proposed knowledge synthesis will help improve the health of consumers through informing evidence-based guidelines and improving health outcomes by educating healthcare providers and patients, stimulating industry innovation, and guiding future research design
Condition or disease
Body WeightObesityOverweightAdiposityObesity, Abdominal
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Layout table for eligibility information
Ages Eligible for Study:
Child, Adult, Older Adult
Sexes Eligible for Study:
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:
All individuals, both children and adults, regardless of health status.
Inclusion Criteria for controlled trials:
Randomized and non-randomized controlled intervention studies in humans
Oral fructose-containing sugars intervention
Presence of a reduced fructose-containing sugars comparator in one of 4 energy controlled designs (substitution, addition, subtraction, or ad libitum)
Diet duration >=2 weeks
Viable outcome data
Inclusion Criteria for prospective cohort studies:
Prospective cohort studies
Duration >= 1 year
Assessment of the exposure of food sources of fructose-containing sugars
Ascertainment of viable outcome data by level of exposure
Exclusion Criteria for controlled trials:
Observational studies or intervention studies with no control group
IV or parenteral fructose-containing sugars intervention
Lack of an adequate comparator (i.e. lack of a difference (<5 g) in fructose-containing sugars between the intervention and control diets)
Exclusion Criteria for prospective cohort studies:
Ecological, cross-sectional, or retrospective observational studies