An Evaluation of Low Level Laser Light Therapy on Improving the Symptoms of Alzheimer's Disease
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|ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02537626|
Recruitment Status : Completed
First Posted : September 1, 2015
Last Update Posted : May 25, 2021
|Condition or disease||Intervention/treatment||Phase|
|Alzheimer's Disease||Device: Erchonia ALS Laser Device: Placebo Laser||Not Applicable|
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive type of dementia that causes problems with memory, thinking and behavior that gradually worsen over time. With an aging population, AD is an escalating problem, currently affecting an estimated 35 million people worldwide, with this number expected to grow to 65 million by 2030 and over 115 million by 2050. It is the sixth leading cause of death in the United States.
AD is a fatal degenerative disease of the brain that causes brain cells to die which as a result causes the memory failure, personality changes, problems carrying out daily activities and other symptoms associated with AD. AD is thought to be caused by an excess of beta amyloid (β-amyloid), a sticky protein in the brain that forms amyloid plaques and tangles that accumulate over time, and are associated with significant loss of neurons and synaptic activity in the brain.
Patients with AD typically first present with impaired memory and language dysfunction, with visuospatial dysfunction, impaired ability with calculations and complex tasks, behavioral and/or psychiatric symptoms developing as the disease progresses. The most common signs and symptoms of AD as the disease progresses are: memory loss that disrupts daily life, challenges in planning or solving problems, difficulty completing familiar home, work or leisure tasks, confusion with time or place, difficulty understanding visual images and spatial relationships, new problems with words in speaking or writing, misplacing things and losing the ability to retrace steps, decreased or poor judgment, withdrawal from work or social activities, changes in mood, personality and behavior.
There is presently no cure for Alzheimer's disease or its progression. Current available treatments can help to lessen or stabilize symptoms for a limited period of time. The FDA has approved two types of medications to treat the cognitive symptoms (memory loss, confusion, and problems with thinking and reasoning) of AD: cholinesterase inhibitors such as Aricept, Exelon, Razadyne, Cognex and memantine (Namenda). Side effects include nausea, dizziness, confusion, vomiting, headache, loss of appetite, constipation, increased frequency of bowel movements, and possible liver damage. Current alternative treatments include Vitamin E.
There are no medications approved specifically to treat behavioral and psychiatric AD symptoms. However, antidepressants; anxiolytics and antipsychotics are sometimes prescribed.
As currently available treatments for AD are minimal and of limited short-term effectiveness in mild symptom management at best, and have potentially serious associated side-effects, low level laser therapy is being evaluated in this study as a simple, non-invasive side-effect free alternate means of improving cognition and behavior symptoms in patients with mild to moderate AD.
The underlying condition of AD is the degeneration and death of nerve cells responsible for memory and cognition with identified genetic contributions. Application of low level laser therapy (LLLT), with its coherent emission of photons, has been shown to modulate cellular metabolism and alter the transcription factors responsible for gene expression to produce cell regeneration translating to a beneficial clinical effect. It is therefore hypothesized that through this mechanism, application of LLLT to individuals with AD will effect improvement in the expression of symptoms of AD. Prior Erchonia Corporation LLLT trials have shown beneficial clinical effects for other neurodegenerative and neurodevelopment disorders such as Parkinson's Disease and Autism Spectrum Disorder.
|Study Type :||Interventional (Clinical Trial)|
|Actual Enrollment :||43 participants|
|Intervention Model:||Parallel Assignment|
|Masking:||Quadruple (Participant, Care Provider, Investigator, Outcomes Assessor)|
|Official Title:||An Evaluation of the Effect of the Erchonia ALS on Alzheimer's Disease|
|Actual Study Start Date :||March 15, 2018|
|Actual Primary Completion Date :||June 15, 2020|
|Actual Study Completion Date :||October 15, 2020|
Active Comparator: Erchonia ALS Laser
The Erchonia ALS Laser is a mains powered variable hertz laser device made up of five independent red laser diodes mounted in scanner devices and positioned equidistant from each other. Each scanner emits 7.5 milliwatts (mW) ± 1.0 mW 640 nanometers (nm) with a tolerance of ±10 nm of red laser light.
Device: Erchonia ALS Laser
The Erchonia ALS Laser is administered to the subject's frontal cortex, temporal regions and base of the skull 8 times across 4 consecutive weeks, 2 times each week, for 10 minutes of treatment time per administration. The total energy delivered to the subject per procedure administration is 22.5 joules.
Placebo Comparator: Placebo Laser
The Placebo Laser is identical in appearance and operation to the Erchonia ALS Laser but does not emit any therapeutic light.
Device: Placebo Laser
The Placebo Laser is administered to the subject's frontal cortex, temporal regions and base of the skull 8 times across 4 consecutive weeks, 2 times each week, for 10 minutes of treatment time per administration. There is no energy delivered to the subject.
- Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale-Cognitive Subscale (ADAS-Cog) Score [ Time Frame: 4 months ]The Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale-Cognitive Subscale (ADAS-cog) is a validated psychometric instrument to evaluate the following aspects of cognitive function: memory, attention, reasoning, language, orientation, ideational praxis and constructional praxis. Scores on the ADAS-cog range from 0-70 with higher scores indicating greater impairment. Therefore, a decrease in the ADAS-cog score from baseline to study endpoint indicates improved cognitive functioning and is positive for study success; whereas an increase in the ADAS-cog score from baseline to study endpoint reflects potential cognitive deterioration and is negative for study success. The minimal clinical important difference (MCID) on the ADAS-cog has been established as a 4 point change (decrease).
- Alzheimer's Disease Co-Operative Study-Activities of Daily Living Inventory (ADCS-ADL) [ Time Frame: 4 months ]The Alzheimer's Disease Co-Operative Study-Activities of Daily Living Inventory (ADCS-ADL) is a validated tool to assess instrumental and basic activities of daily living (i.e. functional performance) of AD based on a structured interview of the study partner. Scores on the ADCS-ADL range from 0-78 with lower scores indicating greater impairment; Therefore, an increase in the ADCS-ADL score from baseline to study endpoint indicates improved functioning and is positive for study success; whereas a decrease in the ADCS-ADL score from baseline to study endpoint reflects potential functional deterioration and is negative for study success. The minimal clinical important difference (MCID) on the ADAS-ADL has been established as a 2 point change (increase - improvement).
- Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) [ Time Frame: 4 months ]
The Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) tool evaluates five areas of cognitive function: orientation, registration, attention and calculation, recall and language. It is an 11-item tool with a maximum attainable score of 30. A total score of 23 or lower indicates cognitive impairment.
Lower scores indicate progressively greater impairment. Therefore, an increase in the MMSE score from baseline to study endpoint indicates improved cognition and is positive for study success; whereas a decrease in the MMSE score from baseline to study endpoint reflects potential cognitive deterioration and is negative for study success.
- Study Partner Satisfaction With Overall Outcome Rating [ Time Frame: 4 months ]The subject's study partner is asked to indicate how satisfied he or she is with any change observed in the subject's day-to-day functioning following the study procedure administration phase. Responses are recorded on a 5-point scale from 'Very Satisfied' to 'Not at All Satisfied'. Higher ratings indicate greater satisfaction with the study outcome and are positive for study success. Lower ratings indicate lesser satisfaction with the study outcome and are negative for study success
To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contact information provided by the sponsor.
Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier (NCT number): NCT02537626
|Zapopan, Jalisco, Mexico, 45110|
|La Plazuela, Pocitos AGS, Mexico, 20926|
|Principal Investigator:||Leon Morales-Quezada, MD||Neocemod|
|Principal Investigator:||Andrew Campbell, MD||Pruebas Clinicas|