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Cabazitaxel Versus the Switch to Alternative AR-targeted Agent (Enzalutamide or Abiraterone) in Metastatic Castration-resistant Prostate Cancer (mCRPC) Patients Previously Treated With Docetaxel and Who Rapidly Failed a Prior AR-targeted Agent (CARD)

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ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02485691
Recruitment Status : Completed
First Posted : June 30, 2015
Results First Posted : February 14, 2022
Last Update Posted : February 14, 2022
Sponsor:
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
Sanofi

Brief Summary:

Primary Objective:

To compare the radiographic progression-free survival (rPFS) (using Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors [RECIST] 1.1 for tumor lesions and Prostate Cancer Working Group 2 (PCWG2) criteria for bone scan lesions or death due to any cause) with chemotherapy (cabazitaxel plus prednisone, Arm A) versus Androgen Receptor (AR)-targeted therapy (enzalutamide or abiraterone acetate plus prednisone, Arm B) in mCRPC participants who have been treated with docetaxel and who had disease progression while receiving AR-targeted therapy within 12 months of AR treatment initiation (less than or equal to [<=]12 months, either before or after docetaxel).

Secondary Objective:

  • To compare efficacy for:
  • Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) response rate and time to PSA progression (TTPP).
  • Progression-free survival (PFS).
  • Overall survival (OS).
  • Tumor response rate and duration of tumor response.
  • Pain response and time to pain progression.
  • Symptomatic skeletal event (SSE) rate and time to occurrence of any SSE.
  • Health status and Health-related Quality of Life (HRQOL).
  • To evaluate the correlation of a signature of resistance to AR-targeted agents with clinical outcome via the analysis of circulating tumor cell (CTC) phenotypes as well as expression and localization of proteins including AR isoforms in CTCs.
  • To evaluate safety in the 2 treatment arms.

Condition or disease Intervention/treatment Phase
Prostate Cancer Metastatic Drug: cabazitaxel XRP6258 Drug: enzalutamide Drug: abiraterone acetate Drug: prednisone Phase 4

Detailed Description:
The duration of the study per participant was approximately 2 years. Each participant was treated until radiographic disease progression, unacceptable toxicity, or participant's refusal of further study treatment, and each participant was followed after completion of study treatment until death, study cut-off date, or withdrawal of participant consent.

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Study Type : Interventional  (Clinical Trial)
Actual Enrollment : 255 participants
Allocation: Randomized
Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
Masking: None (Open Label)
Primary Purpose: Treatment
Official Title: A Randomized, Open Label, Multicenter Study of Cabazitaxel Versus an Androgen Receptor (AR)-Targeted Agent (Abiraterone or Enzalutamide) in mCRPC Patients Previously Treated With Docetaxel and Who Rapidly Failed a Prior AR-targeted Agent (CARD)
Actual Study Start Date : November 9, 2015
Actual Primary Completion Date : March 27, 2019
Actual Study Completion Date : March 15, 2021


Arm Intervention/treatment
Experimental: Cabazitaxel
Participants received Cabazitaxel 25 mg/m^2 intravenous (IV) infusion for over 1 hour on Day 1 of each 3 week treatment cycle in combination with Prednisone 10 mg orally once daily and primary prophylactic granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) as per investigator decision, until radiographic disease progression, unacceptable toxicity, or participant's refusal of further study treatment (median duration = 22 weeks).
Drug: cabazitaxel XRP6258
Pharmaceutical form: solution Route of administration: intravenous
Other Name: Jevtana

Drug: prednisone
Pharmaceutical form: tablet Route of administration: oral

Experimental: Abiraterone acetate or enzalutamide
Participants received either abiraterone acetate 1000 mg orally once daily from Day 1 to Day 21 of each 3 week treatment cycle in combination with prednisone 5 mg orally twice daily; or enzalutamide 160 mg orally once daily continuously from Day 1 to Day 21 of each 3 week treatment cycle, until radiographic disease progression, unacceptable toxicity, or participant's refusal of further study treatment (median duration = 12.5 weeks).
Drug: enzalutamide
Pharmaceutical form: capsule Route of administration: oral
Other Name: Xtandi

Drug: abiraterone acetate
Pharmaceutical form: tablet Route of administration: oral
Other Name: Zytiga

Drug: prednisone
Pharmaceutical form: tablet Route of administration: oral




Primary Outcome Measures :
  1. Radiographic Progression-Free Survival (rPFS) [ Time Frame: From randomization until tumor progression or bone lesion progression, death due to any cause, or data cut-off date whichever comes first (maximum duration: up to 141 weeks) ]
    Radiographic progression-free survival: time (in months) from randomization to occurrence of any one of following: radiological tumor progressions using response evaluation criteria in solid tumors (RECIST 1.1), progression of bone lesions using Prostate Cancer Working Group 2 (PCWG2) criteria or occurrence of death due to any cause. Progression as per RECIST 1.1: at least a 20 percent (%) increase in sum of diameters of target lesions, unequivocal progression of existing non-target lesions. Progression of bone lesions (PCWG2 criteria): first bone scan with >= 2 new lesions compared to Baseline observed less than (<) 12 weeks from randomization and confirmed by a second bone scan performed >=6 weeks; first bone scan with >=2 new lesions compared to Baseline observed >=12 weeks from randomization. In accordance with protocol, data cut-off date for final analysis of this endpoint was the date when 196 rPFS events had occurred. Analysis done by Kaplan-Meier method.


Secondary Outcome Measures :
  1. Overall Survival (OS) [ Time Frame: From randomization to death due to any cause, or data cut-off date whichever comes first (maximum duration: up to 141 weeks) ]
    Overall survival was defined as the time interval (in months) from the date of randomization to the date of death due to any cause. In the absence of confirmation of death, survival time was censored at the last date participant was known to be alive, or at the cut-off date whichever comes first. Analysis was performed by Kaplan-Meier method.

  2. Progression Free Survival (PFS) [ Time Frame: From randomization until tumor progression or bone lesion progression, pain progression, death due to any cause, or data cut-off date whichever comes first (maximum duration: up to 141 weeks) ]
    PFS:time duration (in months) from date of randomization to date of first occurrence of any of following events: radiological tumor progression (RECIST 1.1); progression of bone lesions (PCWG2); symptomatic progression (developing urinary or bowel symptoms; need to change anti-cancer therapy), pain progression or death due to any cause. Tumor Progression(RECIST 1.1): at least 20% increase in sum of diameters of target lesions, unequivocal progression of existing non-target lesions. Progression of bone lesion (PCWG2 criteria): first bone scan with >=2 new lesions compared to Baseline and confirmed by second bone scan performed >=6 weeks later; pain progression: increase by >=30% from Baseline in pain intensity score (calculated using scale ranged from 0=no pain to 5=extreme pain) or increase in analgesic usage score >=30% (calculated from analgesic use data, non-narcotic medications assigned value of 1 point and narcotic medications assigned 4 points). Analyzed by Kaplan-Meier method.

  3. Percentage of Participants With Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA) Response [ Time Frame: Baseline up to PSA response, death due to any cause or data cut-off date whichever comes first (maximum duration: up to 141 weeks) ]
    PSA response was defined as >= 50% decrease from baseline in serum PSA levels, confirmed by a second PSA value at least 3 weeks later.

  4. Percentage of Participants With Overall Objective Tumor Response [ Time Frame: From randomization until disease progression, death due to any cause or data cut-off date whichever comes first (maximum duration: up to 141 weeks) ]
    Overall objective tumor response was defined as having a partial response (PR) or complete response (CR) according to the RECIST version 1.1. CR was defined as disappearance of all target and non-target lesions and normalization of tumor marker level. Any pathological lymph nodes (whether target or non-target) must have reduction in short axis to <10 mm. PR was defined as at least a 30% decrease in the sum of diameters of target lesions, taking as reference the baseline sum diameters.

  5. Time to PSA Progression (TTPP) [ Time Frame: From time from randomization until PSA progression, death due to any cause or data cut-off whichever comes first (maximum duration: up to 141 weeks) ]
    TTPP was defined as the time duration (in months) between the date of randomization and the date of first documented PSA progression. PSA progression (as per PCWG 2) was defined as: 1) If decline from Baseline value: an increase of >=25% (at least 2 ng/mL) over the nadir value, confirmed by a second PSA value at least 3 weeks apart; 2) If no decline from Baseline value: an increase of >=25% (at least 2 ng/mL) over the baseline value after 12 weeks of treatment, confirmed by a second PSA value at least 3 weeks apart. Analysis performed by Kaplan-Meier method.

  6. Duration of Tumor Response [ Time Frame: From the date of the first response to the date of first documented tumor progression, or death due to any cause or data cut-off date whichever comes first (maximum duration: up to 141 weeks) ]
    Duration of tumor response was defined as the time (in months) from date of first response (CR or PR) until date of first documentation of tumor progression or death, whichever occurs first. As per RECIST 1.1 CR was defined as disappearance of all target and non-target lesions and normalization of tumor marker level. Any pathological lymph nodes (whether target or non-target) must have reduction in short axis to <10 mm. PR was defined as at least a 30% decrease in the sum of diameters of target lesions, taking as reference the baseline sum diameters. Progression was defined as at least a 20% increase in sum of diameters of target lesions, unequivocal progression of existing non-target lesions. Analysis was performed by Kaplan-Meier method.

  7. Percentage of Participants Achieving Pain Response Assessed Using Brief Pain Inventory-Short Form (BPI-SF) Pain Intensity Score [ Time Frame: Baseline until pain progression, first further anticancer therapy, or data cut-off whichever comes first (maximum duration: up to 141 weeks) ]
    Pain response as per BPI-SF was defined as a decrease of at least 30% from Baseline in the average of BPI-SF pain intensity score observed at 2 consecutive evaluations >=3 weeks apart without increase in analgesic usage score (calculated from analgesic use data, with non-narcotic medications assigned value of 1 point and narcotic medications assigned 4 points). The BPI-SF is a self-administered questionnaire developed to assess the severity of pain on a 0-10 categorical scale where 0=no pain, 10=pain as bad as you can imagine. Higher scores indicated worst outcomes. Percentage of Participants Achieving Pain Response assessed using BPI-SF Pain Intensity Score were reported.

  8. Time to Pain Progression [ Time Frame: Baseline until pain progression or data cut-off whichever comes first (maximum duration: up to 141 weeks) ]
    Time to pain progression was defined as the time duration (in months) between the date of randomization and the date of first documented pain progression. Pain progression, in participants with no pain or stable pain at Baseline was defined as increase of >=30% from baseline in the BPI-SF pain intensity score observed at 2 consecutive evaluations >=3 weeks apart without decrease in analgesic usage score or increase in analgesic usage score (calculated from analgesic use data, with non-narcotic medications assigned value of 1 point and narcotic medications assigned 4 points) >=30%. The BPI-SF is a self-administered questionnaire developed to assess the severity of pain on a 0-10 categorical scale where 0=no pain, 10=pain as bad as you can imagine. Higher scores indicated worst outcomes. Analysis was performed by Kaplan-Meier method.

  9. Number of Symptomatic Skeletal Events (SSE) [ Time Frame: Baseline until occurrence of first SSE or data cut-off, whichever comes first (maximum duration: up to 141 weeks) ]
    SSE was defined as occurrence of a new symptomatic pathological fracture, use of external beam radiation to relieve bone pain, occurrence of spinal cord compression or tumor- related orthopedic surgical intervention.

  10. Time to Symptomatic Skeletal Event [ Time Frame: From date of randomization until first SSE, or data cut-off whichever comes first (maximum duration: up to 141 weeks) ]
    Time to SSE was defined as the time duration (in months) between the date of randomization and the date of occurrence of the first SSE. Analysis was performed by Kaplan-Meier method.

  11. Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQOL): Change From Baseline in Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Prostate (FACT-P) Total Score at Cycle 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 and End of Treatment [ Time Frame: Baseline, Day 1 of each Cycle 2, Cycle 3, Cycle 4, Cycle 5, Cycle 6, Cycle 7, Cycle 8 and at End of Treatment (any time up to 141 weeks) ]
    Health-related quality of life (HRQOL) evaluation was performed using the FACT-P questionnaire (Version 4). FACT-P was a 39-item participant rated questionnaire that measures the concerns of participants with prostate cancer. It consisted of 5 sub-scales assessing physical well-being (7 items), social/family well-being (7 items), emotional well-being (6 items), functional well-being (7 items), and prostate-specific concerns (12 items). FACT-P total score was the sum of all 5 subscale scores. It ranged from 0 to156 with higher score indicated better quality of life with fewer symptoms. Baseline corresponded to last evaluable assessment before treatment administration.

  12. Change From Baseline in European Quality of Life Working Group Health Status Measure 5 Dimensions, 5 Levels (EQ-5D-5L) Utility Single Index and Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) Scores at Cycle 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 and End of Treatment [ Time Frame: Baseline, Day 1 of each Cycle 2, Cycle 3, Cycle 4, Cycle 5, Cycle 6, Cycle 7, Cycle 8 and at End of Treatment (any time up to: 141 weeks) ]
    EQ-5D was a standardized HRQOL questionnaire consisting of EQ-5D descriptive system and Visual Analogue Scale (VAS). EQ-5D descriptive system comprised of 5 dimensions: mobility, self-care, usual activities, pain/discomfort and anxiety/depression measured on 3 levels (no problem, some problems & severe problems) within a particular EQ-5D dimension. 5 dimensional 3-level system was converted into single index utility score. Possible values for single index utility score ranged from -0.594 (severe problems in all dimensions) to 1.0 (no problem in all dimensions) on scale where 1 represented best possible health state. EQ-5D VAS was used to record a participant's rating for his/her current health-related quality of life state and captured on a vertical VAS scale ranging from 0-100, where 0=worst imaginable health state and 100=best imaginable health state, where higher states indicated better outcomes. Baseline corresponded to last evaluable assessment before treatment administration.

  13. Radiographic Progression-Free Survival (rPFS) in Participants With Presence and Absence of Biomarker [ Time Frame: From randomization until tumor progression or bone lesion progression, death due to any cause, or data cut-off date whichever comes first (maximum duration: up to 141 weeks) ]
    Circulating tumor cell (CTC) counts were considered as biomarker in a liquid biopsy. rPFS in participants with presence and absence of subtypes of CTC biomarker i.e. chromosomal instability (CIN) and neuroendocrine (NE) was reported in this outcome measure. rPFS was defined as: time (in months) from randomization to the first occurrence of any one of following: radiological tumor progressions (RECIST1.1), progression of bone lesions (PCWG2 criteria) or death due to any cause. Progression (RECIST1.1): at least a 20% increase in sum of diameters of target lesions, unequivocal progression of existing non-target lesions. Progression of bone lesions (PCWG2 criteria): first bone scan with >= 2 new lesions compared to Baseline observed <12 weeks from randomization and confirmed by a second bone scan performed >=6 weeks later; first bone scan with >=2 new lesions compared to Baseline observed >=12 weeks from randomization and new lesions were verified on next bone scan >= 6 weeks later.



Information from the National Library of Medicine

Choosing to participate in a study is an important personal decision. Talk with your doctor and family members or friends about deciding to join a study. To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contacts provided below. For general information, Learn About Clinical Studies.


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Ages Eligible for Study:   18 Years and older   (Adult, Older Adult)
Sexes Eligible for Study:   Male
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   No
Criteria

Inclusion criteria :

Histologically confirmed prostate adenocarcinoma.

  • Metastatic disease.
  • Effective castration with serum testosterone levels less than (<)0.5 ng/mL. If the participant has been treated with Luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone agonist (LHRH) agonists or antagonist (i.e., without orchiectomy), then this therapy should be continued.
  • Progressive disease defined by at least one of the following:
  • Progression in measurable disease (RECIST 1.1 criteria).
  • Appearance of 2 or more new bone lesions (PCWG2).
  • Rising Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA) (PCWG2).
  • Having received prior docetaxel for at least 3 cycles (before or after an AR-targeted therapy). Docetaxel administration in combination with androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) in metastatic hormone-sensitive disease was considered a prior exposure. Docetaxel rechallenge was allowed.
  • Having progressive disease (PD) while receiving AR-targeted therapy with abiraterone acetate or enzalutamide within 12 months of AR treatment initiation (<=12 months), even if treatment duration was longer than 12 months. Participants treated with Abiraterone Acetate + ADT in metastatic hormone-sensitive setting were eligible in the study if they have progressed within 12 months with the AR-targeted agent. Participants having PSA progression only (as per PCWG2) within 12 months were eligible.
  • A PSA value of at least 2 ng/mL was required at study entry.
  • Prior AR-targeted therapy (abiraterone acetate or enzalutamide) must be stopped at least 2 weeks before study treatment.
  • Signed informed consent.

Exclusion criteria:

  • Prior chemotherapy other than docetaxel for prostate cancer, except estramustine and except adjuvant/neoadjuvant treatment completed >3 years ago.
  • Less than 28 days elapsed from prior treatment with chemotherapy, immunotherapy, radiotherapy, or surgery to the time of randomization.
  • Adverse events (excluding alopecia and those listed in the specific exclusion criteria) from any prior anticancer therapy of Grade >1 (National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria [NCI CTCAE] v4.0) at the time of randomization.
  • Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status (ECOG PS) >2 (ECOG 2 must be related to prostate cancer, not to other comorbidities).
  • Prior malignancy. Adequately treated basal cell or squamous cell skin or superficial (pTis, pTa, and pT1) bladder cancer were allowed, as well as any other cancer for which treatment has been completed >=5 years ago and from which the participant has been disease-free for >=5 years.
  • Participation in another clinical trial and any concurrent treatment with any investigational drug within 30 days prior to randomization.
  • Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS-related illnesses) or known human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease requiring antiretroviral treatment.
  • Participants with reproductive potential who do not agree, in conjunction with their partner, to use accepted and effective method of contraception during the study treatment period and up to 6 months after the last administered dose. The definition of "effective method of contraception" described hereafter: oral contraceptives, combined hormonal intravaginal, transdermal, intra uterine device or condoms was based on respective study treatment labelling and country-specific regulatory requirements, and were documented in the Informed Consent Form.
  • Known allergies, hypersensitivity or intolerance to prednisone or excipients of abiraterone acetate, enzalutamide, docetaxel, or polysorbate 80.
  • Known history of mineralocorticoid excess or deficiency.
  • History of seizure, underlying brain injury with loss of consciousness, transient ischemic attack within the past 12 months, cerebral vascular accident, brain arteriovenous malformation, brain metastases, or the use of concomitant medications that may lower the seizure threshold.
  • Unable to swallow a whole tablet or capsule.
  • Inadequate organ and bone marrow function as evidenced by:
  • Hemoglobin <10.0 g/dL;
  • Absolute neutrophil count <1.5 * 10^9/L;
  • Platelet count <100 * 10^9/L;
  • Aspartate aminotransferase/serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase and/or alanine aminotransferase/serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase >1.5 * the upper limit of normal (ULN);
  • Total bilirubin >1.0 * ULN;
  • Potassium <3.5 mmol/L;
  • Child-Pugh Class C.
  • Contraindications to the use of corticosteroid treatment.
  • Symptomatic peripheral neuropathy Grade >=2 (NCI CTCAE v4.0).
  • Uncontrolled severe illness or medical condition including uncontrolled diabetes mellitus, history of cardiovascular disease (uncontrolled hypertension, arterial thrombotic events in the past 6 months, congestive heart failure, severe or unstable angina pectoris, recent myocardial infarction within the last 6 months, or uncontrolled cardiac arrhythmia).
  • Concomitant vaccination with yellow fever vaccine.

The above information was not intended to contain all considerations relevant to a participant's potential participation in a clinical trial.


Information from the National Library of Medicine

To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contact information provided by the sponsor.

Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier (NCT number): NCT02485691


Locations
Show Show 65 study locations
Sponsors and Collaborators
Sanofi
Investigators
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Study Director: Clinical Sciences & Operations Sanofi
  Study Documents (Full-Text)

Documents provided by Sanofi:
Study Protocol  [PDF] March 1, 2019
Statistical Analysis Plan  [PDF] June 20, 2019

Publications automatically indexed to this study by ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier (NCT Number):

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Responsible Party: Sanofi
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02485691    
Other Study ID Numbers: LPS14201
2014-004676-29 ( EudraCT Number )
U1111-1166-5329 ( Other Identifier: UTN )
First Posted: June 30, 2015    Key Record Dates
Results First Posted: February 14, 2022
Last Update Posted: February 14, 2022
Last Verified: February 2022
Individual Participant Data (IPD) Sharing Statement:
Plan to Share IPD: Yes
Plan Description: Qualified researchers may request access to patient level data and related study documents including the clinical study report, study protocol with any amendments, blank case report form, statistical analysis plan, and dataset specifications. Patient level data will be anonymized and study documents will be redacted to protect the privacy of trial participants. Further details on Sanofi's data sharing criteria, eligible studies, and process for requesting access can be found at: https://www.clinicalstudydatarequest.com/
Additional relevant MeSH terms:
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Prostatic Neoplasms
Genital Neoplasms, Male
Urogenital Neoplasms
Neoplasms by Site
Neoplasms
Prostatic Diseases
Prednisone
Abiraterone Acetate
Anti-Inflammatory Agents
Glucocorticoids
Hormones
Hormones, Hormone Substitutes, and Hormone Antagonists
Physiological Effects of Drugs
Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal
Antineoplastic Agents
Steroid Synthesis Inhibitors
Enzyme Inhibitors
Molecular Mechanisms of Pharmacological Action
Hormone Antagonists
Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme Inhibitors