Alcohol Disorder hOsPital Treatment Trial (ADOPT)
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|ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02478489|
Recruitment Status : Completed
First Posted : June 23, 2015
Results First Posted : June 29, 2021
Last Update Posted : June 29, 2021
|Condition or disease||Intervention/treatment||Phase|
|Heavy Drinking Alcohol Dependence Alcohol Use Disorder||Drug: Oral naltrexone (PO-NTX) Drug: Extended-release injectable naltrexone (XR-NTX)||Phase 4|
Hospitalization for medical illness is a unique and missed opportunity for intervention for alcohol use disorders (AUDs). Referrals can help link patients from hospitals to alcohol treatment. But most patients return to heavy drinking after hospital discharge and do not follow-up with alcohol treatment, risking hospital readmission. Pharmacotherapy has efficacy for AUD, but adherence to these medications is poor. Furthermore, these medications are rarely prescribed in general medical settings, during or after hospitalization. Beginning treatment for AUD during a hospitalization for medical illness could broaden the reach of effective treatment and is likely to be more effective than delaying treatment until a specialist visit or treatment program entry. Hospital discharge is a time of both risk (i.e., for drinking and non-adherence to medical care) and opportunity (i.e., to begin alcohol treatment and complete medical treatments). Interventions that work quickly and improve adherence could improve medical and alcohol-related outcomes.
Oral naltrexone (PO-NTX), and the more-costly-per-dose long-acting injectable extended release naltrexone (XR-NTX) are Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved efficacious treatments for AUD. The XR-NTX half-life is 5-10 days and is dosed monthly, whereas the PO-NTX half-life is 13 hours and is dosed daily. The longer half-life of XR-NTX translates into patients receiving effective pharmacotherapy for a longer time without having to adhere to a daily dose. Thus, although more costly per dose, greater effectiveness could mean overall reduced costs of care (including alcohol-related health consequences and healthcare utilization). Despite potential differences in costs and patient preferences, PO-NTX and XR-NTX have not been directly compared in a randomized controlled trial (RCT), they have not been studied as treatments at medical hospital discharge, and their effectiveness in real world practice settings compared with standard care is unknown.
This trial is significant because it will address the clinically relevant comparative effectiveness question and lead to greater adoption of the most effective and cost-effective approach for treating AUD with pharmacotherapy in general hospitals.
|Study Type :||Interventional (Clinical Trial)|
|Actual Enrollment :||248 participants|
|Intervention Model:||Parallel Assignment|
|Masking:||None (Open Label)|
|Official Title:||Oral v. Injection Naltrexone in Hospital: Comparative Effectiveness for Alcoholism|
|Actual Study Start Date :||June 2016|
|Actual Primary Completion Date :||July 2020|
|Actual Study Completion Date :||October 2020|
Experimental: Extended-release injectable naltrexone (XR-NTX)
Monthly XR-NTX (380 mg) Subjects randomized to XR-NTX will receive one intramuscular gluteal injection (in accordance with the FDA approved label/package insert) of 380 mg of NTX for extended-release injectable suspension at study entry (in the hospital) and 1, and 2 months later (outpatient in the primary care clinic), alternating buttocks.
Drug: Extended-release injectable naltrexone (XR-NTX)
Other Name: Vivitrol
Active Comparator: Oral naltrexone (PO-NTX)
Daily PO-NTX (50 mg, up to 100 mg if heavy drinking continues) Subjects randomized to PO-NTX will receive a study prescription (first one in the hospital)(fillable only at the medical center research pharmacy and prepared by the research pharmacist) for a 1-month supply of oral NTX to be taken once daily- 25 mg a day for 3 days, then 50 mg a day. If the subject has a prior history of taking PO-NTX and tolerating it well, the participant may be started at 50 mg. The dose may be increased to 100 mg daily for any participant who continues to have heavy drinking.
Drug: Oral naltrexone (PO-NTX)
Other Name: Revia
- Change in Percent Heavy Drinking Days (%HDDs) Over the Past 30 Days From Baseline to 3 Month Follow-up, Assessed Using the Timeline Follow-Back [ Time Frame: Baseline, 3 months ]The primary alcohol use outcome will be change in percent heavy drinking days (%HDDs) from baseline to 3 month follow-up. %HDDs out of the past 30 days is assessed using the Timeline Follow-Back. %HDDs is the most likely (and most sensitive) to be affected by NTX and is clinically important (any reduction means less risk of harm). We chose self-report because biological testing is not sufficiently valid for detecting drinking levels and changes of clinical importance. The self-report tool is valid, particularly so when staff are well trained, and when the context for the subject is: they are informed they are being tested for consumption (breath alcohol and carbohydrate deficient transferrin (CDT), there are no consequences related to consumption levels, and that results are being recorded confidentially.
- Acute Care Hospital Utilization [ Time Frame: 3 months ]Any acute hospital utilization (emergency department visit or inpatient stay) over the past 90 days assessed at 3-month follow-up by the Form 90. Self-report for short-term high impact, memorable health utilization such as emergency and hospital stays is valid and can measure utilization at any site. Using the clinical data warehouse at one site (Boston Medical Center (BMC)) and statewide data, we will compare self-report to the utilization databases. But, self-report data will remain primary, with databases used to provide a descriptive frame of reference.
- Medication Adherence [ Time Frame: 1, 2 and 3 months ]High adherence to XR-NTX will be defined as administration of XR-NTX by the study nurse 3 times. Medium adherence will be defined as 1 or 2 injections. For PO-NTX, high adherence will be defined as participant self-report of taking PO-NTX for 90 out of the past 90 days at the 3 month study visit, and medium adherence as participant self-report of taking PO-NTX for 30-89 out of the past 90 days at the 3 month study visit (Form 90). We will also assess the presence of detectable beta-naltrexol to confirm reports of recent pill taking.
- Alcohol Consequences Via Questionnaire [ Time Frame: 3 months ]Alcohol consequences over the past 3 months will be measured by collecting participant self-report data via the Short Inventory of Problems (SIP-2R) at 3-month follow-up. The SIP-2R is a validated 15-item measure for assessing recent adverse consequences associated with alcohol use.
- Alcohol Use Disorder-related Treatment Utilization Via Questionnaire and Health Records [ Time Frame: 3 months ]Alcohol use disorder-related treatment utilization over the past 90 days assessed at 3-month follow-up by the Form 90. Using the clinical data warehouse at one site (Boston Medical Center (BMC)) and statewide data, we will compare self-report to the utilization databases. But, self-report data will remain primary, with databases used to provide a descriptive frame of reference.
- Cost Via Utilization Questionnaire, Health Records and Estimates From Local and National Sources [ Time Frame: 3 and 12 months ]Healthcare utilization cost data will be collected via the Form 90 for self-reported outpatient and emergency visits, hospitalizations, and specialty addiction treatment. Utilization episodes will be converted to costs by use of Medicare relative value units (RVUs) for acute inpatient care, Resource Based Relative Value System (RBRVS) units for Medicare reimbursement of outpatient visits, and the average daily rate for long-term care.
To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contact information provided by the sponsor.
Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier (NCT number): NCT02478489
|United States, Massachusetts|
|Boston Medical Center|
|Boston, Massachusetts, United States, 02118|
|Principal Investigator:||Richard Saitz, MD, MPH||Boston University|