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Trial record 69 of 2221 for:    Recruiting, Not yet recruiting, Available Studies | Renal

Trial of Carbamylation in Renal Disease-Modulation With Amino Acid Therapy (CarRAAT-2)

The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Know the risks and potential benefits of clinical studies and talk to your health care provider before participating. Read our disclaimer for details. Identifier: NCT02472834
Recruitment Status : Recruiting
First Posted : June 16, 2015
Last Update Posted : March 20, 2019
National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK)
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
Sahir Kalim, Massachusetts General Hospital

Brief Summary:
Patients with end stage renal disease (ESRD) usually have high levels of urea that may interact with blood proteins and change their structure by a process known as carbamylation. Evidence suggests that high levels of carbamylated proteins may be linked to adverse outcomes in dialysis patients. This is a randomized, open-label study to evaluate the effects of amino acid supplementation on levels of carbamylated proteins in ESRD patients. Secondary objectives will be to determine whether this intervention can modify intermediate markers of inflammation, cardiac stress, and erythropoietin responsiveness in this population. Sixty ESRD patients on dialysis will be randomized into two groups of 30 patients each. Group 1 will receive intravenous supplementation with an FDA-approved amino acid solution (250 mL of NephrAmine®, 5.4% amino acids) during regular dialysis sessions (3 times weekly for 8 weeks); Group 2 will be treated according to standard-of-care (no amino acid supplementation). During the 8 weeks of therapy and for 4 weeks of follow-up, blood will be drawn from patients' existing hemodialysis access ports (~20 mL once per month) to measure levels of carbamylated albumin, amino acids, selected biomarkers, and standard laboratory values. Patients randomized to Group 1 will have fluid volume equivalent to the amino acid therapy removed by ultra-filtration to avoid net fluid gain. All patients will be monitored for safety (adverse events) and for changes in hemodynamics and dialysis prescription.

Condition or disease Intervention/treatment Phase
End Stage Renal Failure on Dialysis Dietary Supplement: Amino acid supplementation NephrAmine® Not Applicable

Detailed Description:

As human kidney function declines, so does the kidney's ability to excrete urea, the chief end product of nitrogen metabolism. Excess urea may accelerate the pathophysiological consequences of kidney failure. Urea spontaneously dissociates to form cyanate, which, in its unprotonated form can react with protein amino groups in a process known as carbamylation. Carbamylation-induced protein alterations may be involved in the progression of various diseases by changing the structure, charge, and function of enzymes, hormones, receptors, and amino acids. For example, proteins such as collagen and low density lipoproteins (LDLs), when carbamylated, have been shown to induce the characteristic biochemical events of atherosclerosis progression. This research aims to evaluate whether amino acid supplementation can attenuate such processes that are known to contribute to morbidity in patients with ESRD.

Percent carbamylated albumin (C-Alb) level will be used as a measure of overall carbamylation burden. Previous studies conducted by MGH Investigators have shown a negative correlation between %C-Alb and circulating amino acids, suggesting that free amino acids may actively scavenge reactive isocyanate. Further, ex vivo studies show that amino acid supplementation reduces the carbamylation reaction. The MGH Investigators recently demonstrated an association between markers of cardiac stress, heart failure and carbamylation in patients with ESRD and found that %C-Alb was strongly associated with erythropoietin resistance in dialysis patients. Additionally, using validated measures of total-body carbamylation, these and other Investigators have reported that elevated protein carbamylation was linked with higher mortality in several distinct ESRD cohorts. Finally, preliminary data from a recent pilot study at MGH (NCT01612429) suggests that amino acid supplementation in patients with ESRD undergoing maintenance hemodialysis can attenuate carbamylation of proteins.

The proposed randomized study will directly evaluate the impact of amino acid supplementation on: (1) the burden of carbamylation in terms of %C-Alb; and (2) selected intermediate determinants of clinical outcomes, i.e., markers of inflammation, cardiac stress, and erythropoietin responsiveness.

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Study Type : Interventional  (Clinical Trial)
Estimated Enrollment : 60 participants
Allocation: Randomized
Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
Masking: None (Open Label)
Primary Purpose: Treatment
Official Title: Amino Acid Therapy to Modify Protein Carbamylation in End Stage Renal Disease: A Randomized Trial
Actual Study Start Date : February 2016
Estimated Primary Completion Date : December 2020
Estimated Study Completion Date : December 2020

Resource links provided by the National Library of Medicine

Arm Intervention/treatment
Experimental: Amino acid supplementation NephrAmine®
250 mL of 5.4% amino acid solution (NephrAmine) by intravenous infusion 3 x weekly for 8 weeks plus 4 weeks of follow-up.
Dietary Supplement: Amino acid supplementation NephrAmine®
Dialysis patients will be randomized to receive either 250 mL of NephrAmine® (5.4% amino acids for injection; B. Braun Medical, Inc) containing ~14 grams of essential amino acids during each dialysis session (3 times weekly for 8 weeks) or no treatment (standard-of-care)
Other Name: NephrAmine®

No Intervention: Standard-of-care
Standard-of-care does not include amino acid supplementation, but this control arm will be evaluated for the same outcomes as the experimental arm for 8 weeks plus 4 weeks of follow-up

Primary Outcome Measures :
  1. Differences in plasma carbamylated albumin (C-Alb) levels [ Time Frame: Baseline and weeks 4, 8, and 12 ]

Secondary Outcome Measures :
  1. Safety of amino acid infusion [ Time Frame: Baseline and weeks 4, 8, and 12 ]
    In terms of in terms of adverse events, changes in amino acid levels, ammonia, routine dialysis labs, intra-dialytic hemodynamics, and dialysis prescription during 8 weeks of therapy and 4 weeks of follow-up post-therapy

  2. Differences in cardiac markers [ Time Frame: Baseline and weeks 4, 8, and 12 ]
    Changes in Troponin T and NT-Pro-BNP during 8 weeks of therapy and 4 weeks of follow-up post-therapy

  3. Differences in inflammatory markers [ Time Frame: Baseline and weeks 4, 8, and 12 ]
    Changes in myeloperoxidase, IL-6, IL-12, IFN-γ, and TNF-α during 8 weeks of therapy and 4 weeks of follow-up post-therapy

  4. Differences in erythropoietin resistance [ Time Frame: Baseline and weeks 4, 8, and 12 ]
    Measured in terms of the erythropoietin responsiveness index (ERI, defined as average weekly erythropoietin dose [U]/ kg body weight/ average hemoglobin [g/dL]) (Kalim et al. 2013) during 8 weeks of therapy and 4 weeks of follow-up post-therapy

Information from the National Library of Medicine

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Ages Eligible for Study:   18 Years and older   (Adult, Older Adult)
Sexes Eligible for Study:   All
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   No

Inclusion Criteria:

  • Informed of the investigational nature of the study and sign written informed consent
  • Willing and able to adhere to all study-related procedures, including adherence to study medication regimen
  • ≥18 years old
  • On stable medical therapy in the last 30 days before the study entry, defined as no change, addition, or removal of medications
  • Patients must satisfy the following criteria based on the initial screening laboratory values:

    • Serum albumin ≥ 3.0 g/dL (30 g/L)
    • Dialysis adequacy recorded as Kt/ V > 1.2
    • Carbamylated albumin (C-Alb) > 7.7 mmol/mol
  • Women of childbearing potential must be practicing barrier or oral contraception, for the duration of the study-related treatment, or be documented as surgically sterile or one year post-menopausal
  • If female, be non-nursing, non-pregnant and have a negative pregnancy test within two weeks of starting study treatment
  • On stable hemodialysis therapy for at least 90 days before the study entry, defined as receiving thrice weekly dialysis and carrying a diagnosis of ESRD
  • Prescribed a dialysis treatment time of 4 hours per session

Exclusion Criteria:

  • Taking any type of amino acid supplementation within the last 90 days
  • Received parenteral nutrition within last 90 days
  • History of allergy to any amino acid compound
  • Poorly controlled hypertension (systolic blood pressure > 180 mmHg and/or diastolic blood pressure > 110 mmHg during any of the previous 3 dialysis sessions (confirmed by repeat)
  • Severe hepatic impairment
  • HIV positive
  • Condition with prognosis <1 year at time of study entry
  • Body Mass Index (BMI) <18 or >30
  • Current active treatment in another investigational study or participation in another investigational study in the 1 month prior to screening
  • Active malignancies or other serious concurrent or recent medical or psychiatric condition which, in the opinion of the Investigator, makes the patient unsuitable for participation in this study
  • Presence of asthma

Information from the National Library of Medicine

To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contact information provided by the sponsor.

Please refer to this study by its identifier (NCT number): NCT02472834

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Contact: Sahir Kalim, MD, MMSc 617-726-5050
Contact: Katherine Brock, BS 617-643-9463

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United States, Massachusetts
Massachusetts General Hospital Recruiting
Boston, Massachusetts, United States, 02114
Contact: Sahir Kalim, MD    617-726-5050   
Contact: Katherine Brock, BS    617-643-9463   
Principal Investigator: Sahir Kalim, MD         
Fresenius Medical Centers (local affilliates) Recruiting
Boston, Massachusetts, United States, 02201
Sponsors and Collaborators
Massachusetts General Hospital
National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK)
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Principal Investigator: Sahir Kalim, MD, MMSc Massachusetts General Hospital

Additional Information:
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Responsible Party: Sahir Kalim, Assistant Professor in Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Massachusetts General Hospital Identifier: NCT02472834     History of Changes
Other Study ID Numbers: 2015-P-000562
5K23DK106479-04 ( U.S. NIH Grant/Contract )
First Posted: June 16, 2015    Key Record Dates
Last Update Posted: March 20, 2019
Last Verified: March 2019
Individual Participant Data (IPD) Sharing Statement:
Plan to Share IPD: Undecided
Keywords provided by Sahir Kalim, Massachusetts General Hospital:
Protein structure
Kidney disease
Additional relevant MeSH terms:
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Kidney Failure, Chronic
Kidney Diseases
Urologic Diseases
Renal Insufficiency
Renal Insufficiency, Chronic