We're building a better ClinicalTrials.gov. Check it out and tell us what you think!
Try the New Site
We're building a modernized ClinicalTrials.gov! Visit Beta.ClinicalTrials.gov to try the new functionality.
ClinicalTrials.gov Menu

Dexamethasone Intravitreal Implant for the Treatment of Persistent Diabetic Macular Edema (DIME)

The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Read our disclaimer for details.
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02471651
Recruitment Status : Completed
First Posted : June 15, 2015
Results First Posted : February 19, 2019
Last Update Posted : February 19, 2019
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
California Retina Consultants

Brief Summary:
Laser photocoagulation and intravitreal anti-vascular growth factor injections are commonly used treatment options for individuals with diabetic macular edema. However, some patients continue to experience persistent diabetic macular edema and poor vision despite continued laser and/or anti-vegf therapy. Recent clinical trials suggest that due to inflammatory mediators dexamethasone intravitreal implant (0.7mg) may be a good alternative therapy for individuals unresponsive to laser photocoagulation or intravitreal anti-vascular growth factor injections. The purpose of this research study is to compare the effectiveness of using a dexamethasone steroid implant versus monthly intravitreal anti-VEGF injections for research participants with persistent diabetic macular edema (DME).

Condition or disease Intervention/treatment Phase
Diabetic Macular Edema Drug: Dexamethasone intravitreal implant (0.7 mg) Drug: Intravitreal anti-VEGF injection Phase 4

Detailed Description:

Macular edema is a major cause of central vision loss in patients presenting with diabetic retinopathy. Diabetic macular edema (DME) occurs when fluid leaks into the center of the macula, the part of the eye where sharp, straight-ahead vision occurs. The fluid makes the macula swell, blurring vision. Diabetic macular edema (DME) affects between 8% to 10% of 23.6 million diabetic individuals in the United States. The prevalence of diabetic macular edema after 15 years of known diabetes is approximately 20% in patients with type 1 diabetes, 25% in patients with type 2 diabetes who are taking insulin, and 14% in patients with type 2 diabetes who do not take insulin. Within two years of diagnosis, nearly half of individuals with DME will lose 2 or more lines of visual acuity (the smallest line you can read on a standardized vision chart held 20 feet away).

Diabetic macular edema is typically treated with laser and/or intravitreal injections of drugs such as anti-VEGF agents. Anti-VEGF agents block a protein that slows the growth of the abnormal blood vessels. Dexamethasone is a corticosteroid used to treat inflammation. Dexamethasone implant is a steroid implant injected into the eye to treat swelling that may occur when there is a blockage of certain blood vessels in your eyes. Both anti-VEGF agents and dexamethasone implant are approved by the FDA to treat DME.

The purpose of this research study is to compare the effectiveness of using a dexamethasone steroid implant versus monthly intravitreal anti-VEGF injections for research participants with persistent diabetic macular edema (DME).

Layout table for study information
Study Type : Interventional  (Clinical Trial)
Actual Enrollment : 40 participants
Allocation: Randomized
Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
Masking: None (Open Label)
Primary Purpose: Treatment
Official Title: Dexamethasone Intravitreal Implant (0.7mg) for the Treatment of Persistent Diabetic Macular Edema Following Intravitreal Anti-Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Therapy
Study Start Date : June 2015
Actual Primary Completion Date : October 24, 2018
Actual Study Completion Date : October 24, 2018

Resource links provided by the National Library of Medicine

MedlinePlus related topics: Edema

Arm Intervention/treatment
Active Comparator: Implant
Subjects randomized to dexamethasone intravitreal implant (0.7mg) will receive the initial treatment at Month 3 (visit 4) and Month 6 (visit 7) and are eligible to receive one additional dose at Month 9 (visit 10), Month 10 (visit 11) or Month 11 (visit 12) for persistent or recurrent macular edema documented on SDOCT. If dexamethasone intravitreal implant (0.7mg) is administered at Month 10 (visit 11) or Month 11 (visit 12) an additional safety study visit will be required at one to two months following Month 12 (visit 13). The investigator can withhold treatment with dexamethasone intravitreal implant (0.7mg) beginning at Month 9 if there is complete resolution of diabetic macular edema document on SDOCT.
Drug: Dexamethasone intravitreal implant (0.7 mg)
Subjects with persistent DME who are randomized to this arm may get up to 3 treatments with the implant (0.7 mg dexamethasone).
Other Name: Ozurdex

Active Comparator: Intravitreal anti-VEGF injection
Subjects randomized to continue on anti-vegf therapy will receive intravitreal anti-vegf injections at Month 3 (visit 4) Month 4 (visit 5) and Month 5 (visit 6). Beginning at Month 6 (visit 7), subjects who have received 6 intravitreal anti-vegf injections and continue to present with persistent diabetic macular edema defined as less than 10% reduction or any increase in CST compared to baseline values and CST is greater than 300 microns, will receive dexamethasone intravitreal implant (0.7mg) at Month 6 (visit 7) and Month 9 (visit 10). The follow-up period for all subjects will continue through 12 months from the baseline study visit.
Drug: Intravitreal anti-VEGF injection
This injection may be ranibizumab, bevacizumab, or aflibercept.
Other Name: ranibizumab, bevacizumab, or aflibercept

Primary Outcome Measures :
  1. Mean Change in Central 1 mm Subfield Thickness Between Baseline and 9 Months [ Time Frame: baseline and 9 months ]
    Mean change in central 1 mm sub-field thickness between baseline and 9 months as measured by Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography (SDOCT).

Secondary Outcome Measures :
  1. Mean Change in Standardized Best-corrected Visual Acuity (BCVA) Between Baseline and 9 Months [ Time Frame: baseline and 9 months ]
    Mean change in standardized best-corrected visual acuity between baseline and 9 months as measured by Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) testing. Participants were challenged with reading letters on lines of an eye chart (5 letters per line). Lines became smaller as participants progressed from the top to the bottom of the chart. Participants read down the chart until they reached a row where a minimum of three letters on a line could be read, and were scored by how many letters could be correctly identified

  2. Total Number of Treatments in Each Arm Between Baseline and 9 Months [ Time Frame: baseline and 9 months ]
    Total number of treatments in each arm between baseline and 9 months.

Information from the National Library of Medicine

Choosing to participate in a study is an important personal decision. Talk with your doctor and family members or friends about deciding to join a study. To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contacts provided below. For general information, Learn About Clinical Studies.

Layout table for eligibility information
Ages Eligible for Study:   18 Years and older   (Adult, Older Adult)
Sexes Eligible for Study:   All
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   No

Inclusion Criteria:

  • Able to provide written informed consent and comply with study assessments for the full duration of the study.
  • Age ≥ 18 years
  • Diagnosis of diabetes mellitus (type 1 or 2)

    • Any one of the following will be considered to be sufficient evidence that diabetes is present:
    • Current regular use of insulin for treatment of diabetes
    • Current regular use of oral anti-hyperglycemia agent for the treatment of diabetes
  • Clinical evidence of retinal thickening due to macular edema involving the center of the macula associated with diabetic retinopathy.
  • Previous history of anti-vegf treatment for diabetic macular edema (DME) with documented incomplete resolution of central subfield thickening by spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SDOCT). At least 4 intravitreal anti-vegf injections within the past six months prior to the baseline study visit are required for eligibility.
  • Central diabetic macular edema present on clinical examination and SDOCT testing with central 1 mm subfield thickness greater than 300 microns as measured on SDOCT at the baseline visit.
  • Visual acuity score greater than or equal to 19 letters (20/400) and less than or equal to 74 letters (20/32) by the ETDRS visual acuity protocol.
  • Media clarity, pupillary dilation and patient cooperation sufficient to allow SDOCT testing and retinal photography.

Exclusion Criteria:

  • Pregnancy (positive pregnancy test) or known to be pregnant; also pre-menopausal women not using adequate contraception.
  • Participation in another ocular investigation or trial simultaneously
  • Blood pressure > 180/110 mmHg (systolic above 180 OR diastolic above 110 mmHg)
  • Any condition that, in the opinion of the investigator, would preclude participation in the study (e.g. chronic alcoholism, drug abuse)
  • Evidence of vitreoretinal interface abnormality after ocular exam or OCT that may be contributing to the macular edema
  • An eye that, in the investigator's opinion, has no chance of improving in visual acuity following resolution of macular edema (e.g. presence of subretinal fibrosis or geographic atrophy)
  • Presence of another ocular condition that may affect the visual acuity or macular edema during the course of the study (e.g. AMD, uveitis, Irvine-Gass)
  • Evidence of active neovascularization of the iris or retina
  • Evidence of central atrophy or fibrosis in the study eye
  • Presence of substantial cataract, one that might decrease the vision by 3 or more lines of vision at sometime during the study.
  • History of vitreous surgery in the study eye
  • History of cataract surgery within 3 months of enrollment.
  • History of YAG capsulotomy within 2 months of enrollment.
  • Visual acuity <20/400 on ETDRS visual acuity charts in the fellow eye
  • Uncontrolled glaucoma (pressure > 30 mmHg) despite treatment with glaucoma medications.
  • History of cerebral vascular accident or myocardial infarction within 3 months prior to Day 0.
  • Use of systemic steroids (eg, oral, intravenous, intramuscular, epidural, rectal, or extensive dermal) within one month prior to the baseline study visit

Information from the National Library of Medicine

To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contact information provided by the sponsor.

Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier (NCT number): NCT02471651

Layout table for location information
United States, California
California Retina Consultants
Bakersfield, California, United States, 93309
California Retina Consultants
Oxnard, California, United States, 93030
California Retina Consultants
Santa Barbara, California, United States, 93103
California Retina Consultants
Santa Maria, California, United States, 93454
Sponsors and Collaborators
California Retina Consultants
Layout table for investigator information
Study Director: Gabriel Gordon, Ph.D. California Retina Consultants
  Study Documents (Full-Text)

Documents provided by California Retina Consultants:
Publications automatically indexed to this study by ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier (NCT Number):
Layout table for additonal information
Responsible Party: California Retina Consultants
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02471651    
Other Study ID Numbers: CRC2015-02
First Posted: June 15, 2015    Key Record Dates
Results First Posted: February 19, 2019
Last Update Posted: February 19, 2019
Last Verified: January 2019
Additional relevant MeSH terms:
Layout table for MeSH terms
Retinal Degeneration
Retinal Diseases
Macular Edema
Macular Degeneration
Eye Diseases
Antineoplastic Agents
Angiogenesis Inhibitors
Angiogenesis Modulating Agents
Growth Substances
Physiological Effects of Drugs
Growth Inhibitors
Anti-Inflammatory Agents
Autonomic Agents
Peripheral Nervous System Agents
Gastrointestinal Agents
Hormones, Hormone Substitutes, and Hormone Antagonists
Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal