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Eltrombopag in Combination With Rabbit Anti-thymocyte Globulin/Cyclosporine A in Naive Aplastic Anemia (AA) Subjects

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ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02404025
Recruitment Status : Completed
First Posted : March 31, 2015
Results First Posted : July 26, 2019
Last Update Posted : July 26, 2019
Sponsor:
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
Novartis ( Novartis Pharmaceuticals )

Brief Summary:
This was an open label, non-randomized, phase II study of eltrombopag in combination with rabbit ATG/CsA in subjects with moderate or more severe AA who did not received prior ATG/ALG-based immunosuppressive therapy. The objective was to assess additive effects of eltorombopag on overall response rate (ORR) at 6 months (Week 26) of treatment with ATG/CsA. Subjects were assessed at least weekly for safety during the period from the start of ATG/CsA to 4 weeks after the start of administration of eltrombopag. After that, subjects had visits every 2 weeks until Week 26. Subjects in whom the treatment was assessed as effective at Week 26 could continued treatment with eltrombopag after 6 months when clinically indicated at the discretion of the investigator. There were five follow-up visits: at discontinuation of the treatment of eltrombopag, and Weeks 1, 2, 3, 4 and 26 after treatment discontinuation. As this study was the first Japanese phase II study in which this product was administered in combination with ATG/CsA to subjects with naive moderate or more severe AA, the subject number of this study was determined to be 10 based on the feasibility survey.

Condition or disease Intervention/treatment Phase
Aplastic Anemia Drug: Eltrombopag Drug: Rabbit ATG Drug: CsA Phase 2

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Study Type : Interventional  (Clinical Trial)
Actual Enrollment : 10 participants
Masking: None (Open Label)
Primary Purpose: Treatment
Official Title: A Non-randomized, Phase II Study of Eltrombopag in Combination With Rabbit Anti-thymocyte Globulin/Cyclosporine A (ATG/CsA) in Subjects With Moderate or More Severe Aplastic Anemia Who Have Not Received Prior ATG/Anti-lymphocyte Globulin (ALG)-Based Immunosuppressive Therapy
Actual Study Start Date : May 12, 2015
Actual Primary Completion Date : July 5, 2016
Actual Study Completion Date : September 6, 2017

Resource links provided by the National Library of Medicine

Drug Information available for: Eltrombopag

Arm Intervention/treatment
Experimental: Eltrombopag+rabbit ATG/CsA arm
Subjects received rabbit ATG diluted by 500 mL of saline or 5% glucose injection at a dose of 2.5 to 3.75 mg per kilogram (kg) per day for 5 days as a slow intravenous infusion over 6 hours. CsA was administered at a dose of 3 mg per kg twice a day from day 0. The dose level was adjusted based on the monitoring of blood level or renal function. Eltrombopag was initiated on day 14 and it could be delayed up to 2 weeks if the subject had infection, serum sickness, or other adverse events. Eltrombopag wasadministered orally once a day at fasting at an initial dose of 75 mg, and the dose adjusted every 2 weeks according to the platelet count. Eltrombopag and CsA were continued until Week 26.After Week 26, eligible subjects received eltrombopag; and CsA was tapered or maintained as per the investigator's discretion.
Drug: Eltrombopag
Eltrombopag was provided as white round film-coated tablets containing 12.5 mg or 25 mg of eltrombopag free acid (SB-497115-GR, eltrombopag).

Drug: Rabbit ATG
Rabbit ATG, as an intravenous drip infusion, diluted by 500 mL of saline or 5% glucose injection was administered at a dose of 2.5 to 3.75 mg per kg per day as a slow intravenous infusion over 6 hours.

Drug: CsA
CsA as capsules, oral solution, or fine granule, was administered at a dose of 3 mg per kg twice a day.




Primary Outcome Measures :
  1. ORR at 6 Months: Overall Response Rate (ORR) Defined as the Number of Participants Who Met the Criteria of Either Complete Response (CR) or Partial Response (PR) at Week 26 [ Time Frame: Week 26 ]
    ORR will be calculated after 6 months of eltrombopag administration by measuring platelet, reticulocyte, neutrophil and transfusion independence. ORR includes Complete Response (CR) and Partial Response (PR) Rate.


Secondary Outcome Measures :
  1. ORR at 3 Months [ Time Frame: Week 14 ]
    ORR will be calculated after 3 months of eltrombopag administration by measuring platelet, reticulocyte, neutrophil and transfusion independence.

  2. Complete Response (CR), and Partial Response (PR) Rate at 3 Months [ Time Frame: Week 14 ]
    CR and PR will be calculated after 3 months of eltrombopag administration by measuring platelet, reticulocyte, neutrophil and transfusion independence.

  3. CR Rate Based on the Criteria Used in NIH 12-H-0150 Study at 6 Months [ Time Frame: Week 26 ]
    CR criteria used in NIH 12-H-150 study is as follows: Hemoglobin >10 gram (g)/ deciliter (dL), and Absolute neutrophil count (ANC) >1,000/microliter, and Platelets >100,000/microliter.

  4. Changes in Hematology Parameters (Haemoglobin) in the Absence of Platelet Transfusion [ Time Frame: Week 26 and week 104 ]
    The change in hematology values ( haemoglobin) were evaluated.

  5. Changes in Hematology Parameters in the Absence of Platelet Transfusion [ Time Frame: Week 26 and week 104 ]
    The change in hematology values from baseline for platelets, neutrophils and reticulocytes were evaluated.

  6. Frequency of Platelet and Red Blood Cells (RBC) Transfusions [ Time Frame: Baseline, Week 26 ]
    RBC transfusion dependency defined as at least one RBC transfusion within 8 weeks prior to D1. Platelet or RBC transfusions will be based on physician's subjective judgement. Platelet transfusion will be done if the platelet count is less than 10×10^9/liter (L) with significant bleeding tendency or the platelet count is less than 20×10^9/L with pyrexia. RBC transfusion will be done to keep the hemoglobin concentration at over 7 g/dL or in the presence of clinical symptoms such as dyspnea.

  7. Volume of Platelet and RBC Transfusions [ Time Frame: Baseline, Week 26 ]
    Platelet or RBC transfusions will be based on physician's subjective judgement. Platelet transfusion will be done if the platelet count is less than 10×10^9/L with significant bleeding tendency or the platelet count is less than 20×10^9/L with pyrexia. RBC transfusion will be done to keep the hemoglobin concentration at over 7 g/dL or in the presence of clinical symptoms such as dyspnea.

  8. The Proportion of Subjects Whose Transfusion Unit (or Volume) Are Decreased or Who Became Transfusion (Platelet, RBC) Independent [ Time Frame: Week 26 ]
    The proportions of the subjects for whom the amount of blood transfusion (platelets and RBC) decreased or the proportions of the subjects for whom blood transfusion (platelets and RBC) became unnecessary. Platelet transfusion will be done if the platelet count is less than 10×10^9/L with significant bleeding tendency or the platelet count is less than 20×10^9/L with pyrexia. RBC transfusion will be done to keep the hemoglobin concentration at over 7 g/dL or in the presence of clinical symptoms such as dyspnea.

  9. Duration of Hospitalization [ Time Frame: Week 26 ]
    Duration of hospitalization is the time period from the administration of ATG up to discharge.

  10. Time to Onset of CR and PR [ Time Frame: Week 26 ]
    The time to onset of CR and PR will be determined by measuring platelet, reticulocyte, neutrophil and transfusion independence.

  11. Duration of CR or PR [ Time Frame: Week 104 ]
    Duration for CR or PR will be determined by measuring platelet, reticulocyte, neutrophil and transfusion independence.

  12. Degree of Exposure to Eltrombopag : Average Daily Dose [ Time Frame: Week 104 ]
  13. Degree of Exposure to Eltrombopag : Cumulative Dose [ Time Frame: Week 104 ]
    The cumulative dose of drug administered to the subject will be calculated.

  14. Degree of Exposure to Eltrombopag : Days on Study [ Time Frame: Week 104 ]
  15. Number of Participants With Adverse Events [ Time Frame: though study completion , approximately 2 years ]
    Adverse events will be collected from the start of study treatment until the approval.

  16. Vital Signs (Blood Pressure) as a Measure of Safety and Tolerability [ Time Frame: baseline and Week 26 ]
    Vital sign measurements : blood pressure

  17. 12-lead Electrocardiogram (ECG) as Measure of Safety and Tolerability [ Time Frame: Baseline, Week 26 ]
    Triplicate 12-lead ECGs will be obtained at designated time points during the study using an ECG machine that calculates the heart rate and measures PR, QRS, QT, and QT interval corrected by Fridericia formula (QTcF) intervals.

  18. The Trough Concentrations of Eltrombopag Following Repeat Doses of at 75 mg, 50 mg and 25 mg [ Time Frame: day 15 ]
    Blood samples will be collected after repeat (14 days) doses of eltrombopag 75, 50, 25 mg to determine the plasma eltrombopag concentration prior to the next dose.

  19. The Concentration After 4 Hours of Dose of Eltrombopag 75 mg [ Time Frame: day 15 ]
    Blood sample will be collected at 4 hours after repeat (14 days) dose of eltrombopag 75 mg

  20. Composite of Laboratory Parameters Assessment as a Safety Measure (Haemoglobin and Albumin). [ Time Frame: Baseline, Week 26 ]
    The laboratory test values (haemoglobin and albumin) were calculated at each time point of evaluation.

  21. Composite of Laboratory Parameters Assessment as a Safety Measure (Lymphocytes and Neutrophils). [ Time Frame: Baseline, Week 26 ]
    The laboratory test values (lymphocytes and neutrophils) were calculated at each time point of evaluation.

  22. Composite of Laboratory Parameters Assessment as a Safety Measure (Alcaline Phosphatase and Aspartate Amino Transferase) . [ Time Frame: Baseline, Week 26 ]
    The laboratory test values (Alcaline Phosphatase and Aspartate Amino Transferase) were calculated at each time point of evaluation.

  23. Composite of Laboratory Parameters Assessment as a Safety Measure. [ Time Frame: Baseline, Week 26 ]
    The laboratory test values (hematological /biochemical examinations) were calculated at each time point of evaluation.

  24. Vital Signs (Temperature) as a Measure of Safety and Tolerability [ Time Frame: baseline and Week 26 ]
    Vital sign measurements : temperature

  25. Vital Signs (Pulse Rate) as a Measure of Safety and Tolerability [ Time Frame: baseline and Week 26 ]
    Vital sign measurements : pulse rate.



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Ages Eligible for Study:   18 Years to 75 Years   (Adult, Older Adult)
Sexes Eligible for Study:   All
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   No
Criteria

Inclusion Criteria:

  • Japanese subjects aged >=18 and <71 years at the time of informed consent. Note: subjects aged >=71 and <75 may be eligible when clinically indicated at the discretion of the investigator by mutual agreement with Novartis medical advisor.
  • Diagnosed with moderate or more severe AA according to the diagnostic criteria of AA. The severity classification is: Stage I - Mild - Other than the stages below; Stage II - Moderate - At least two of the following conditions are met: Reticulocyte <60,000/microliter, Neutrophil <1,000/microliter, Platelet <50,000/microliter; Stage III - Moderately severe - At least two of the following conditions are met and regular red blood cell transfusion (a need for transfusion of >=2 units per month) is required: Reticulocyte <60,000/microliter, Neutrophil <1,000/microliter, Platelet <50,000/microliter; Stage IV - Severe - At least two of the following conditions are met: Reticulocyte <20,000/microliter, Neutrophil <500/microliter, Platelet <20,000/microliter; Stage V - Very severe - At least one of the following conditions is met in addition to neutrophil <200/microliter: Reticulocyte <20,000/microliter, Platelet <20,000/microliter.
  • Subjects who are considered an indication for the treatment with rabbit ATG and CsA.
  • Adequate baseline organ function defined by the following criteria: Alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST)<=3 × local upper limit of normal (ULN) Creatinine, total bilirubin, and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) <1.5 × local ULN (total bilirubin <2.5 × local ULN with Gilbert's Syndrome)
  • Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) Performance Status (PS): 0 or 1
  • Subjects with QTcF<450 millisecond (msec) or QTcF<480 msec with branch block: QTc is QT interval corrected by Fridericia formula (QTcF), machine ,or manual overread. QTcF is based on single or averaged QTc value of triplicate ECG.
  • Subjects are able to understand and comply with protocol requirements and instructions.
  • Subjects have signed and dated informed consent.
  • Subjects who meet one of the following conditions: Male subjects who have a female partner of childbearing potential must either have a prior vasectomy or agree to use an acceptable method of contraception from time of enrollment in the study until 16 weeks after the last dose of eltrombopag (based upon the lifecycle of sperm). Female subjects of non-childbearing potential (who are physiologically unable to become pregnant) defined as: Premenopausal women with documented bilateral oophorectomy, bilateral tubal ligation, or hysterectomy; or postmenopausal women after at least 12 months of natural amenorrhea [if uncertain, postmenopausal state should be confirmed by hematology result of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) >40 milli-international units (mIU)/milliliter (mL) or estradiol <40 picogram (pg)/mL (<140 picomoles (pmol)/L)]. Female subjects of childbearing potential: Defined as those not meeting the definition of non-childbearing potential. Female subjects of childbearing potential must have a negative serum human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) or urine pregnancy test within 7 days prior to the first dose of ATG/CsA. It is recommended that the pregnancy test should be performed as close as possible to the first dose of ATG/CsA. Female subjects with a positive pregnancy test must be excluded from the study. Subjects with a negative pregnancy test must use acceptable contraception including abstinence after the pregnancy test. Subjects must agree to use the acceptable contraception including abstinence from 14 days prior to the first dose of ATG/CsA until 28 days after the last dose of eltrombopag.

Exclusion Criteria:

  • Diagnosis of congenital AA (e.g. Fanconi anemia or Dyskeratosis congenital).
  • Subjects who have a sibling donor with matched human leukocyte antigen (HLA) or who underwent hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) previously. However, such subjects may be enrolled if HSCT is not indicated, or the subject does not want to undergo HSCT.
  • Subjects with abnormal chromosome (monosomy 7 detected by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), or other aberrations detected by G-band staining). Note: Subjects with abnormal chromosome which is not adopted into the clone definition of An International System for Human Cytogenetic Nomenclature (ISCN) may be enrolled after consulting with medical monitor.
  • Previous ATG/ALG-based immunosuppressive therapy or steroid pulse therapy for AA.
  • Treatment with CsA within 6 months before administration of ATG.
  • Subjects with a paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) clone size in granulocytes of >50% by flow cytometric analysis.
  • Pre-existing cardiac disease (congestive heart failure New York Heart Association (NYHA) Grade II/III/IV), or arrhythmias known to involve the risk of thromboembolic events (e.g. atrial fibrillation)
  • Past history of thromboembolic event (including anti-phospholipid antibody syndrome) and current use of anticoagulants.
  • Subjects with past or current malignancy. Note : Subjects who have a history of completely resected malignant tumor and have been disease-free for 5 years are eligible.
  • Subjects who test positive for hepatitis B surface (HBs) antigen, hepatitis C virus (HCV) antibody, or human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) antibody at screening.
  • Infection not adequately responding to appropriate therapy.
  • Subject with liver cirrhosis
  • Subjects with any clinically significant severe cardiac, renal, or hepatic medical condition.
  • Pregnant women (a positive serum or urine pregnancy test within 7 days prior to the first dose of ATG/CsA or lactating women) Note: Female subjects who are lactating are eligible to participate if they discontinue nursing prior to the first dose of ATG/CsA and refrain from nursing until 5 days after the completion of treatment with eltrombopag.
  • Known hypersensitivity, intolerance or allergy to rabbit ATG, cyclosporine A, eltrombopag or any of their excipients.
  • Current alcohol or drug abuse.
  • Treatment with an investigational drug within 30 days or 5 half-lives (whichever is longer) proceeding the first dose of ATG/CsA.
  • Subjects who is not candidates for ATG.
  • Subjects who is not candidates for CsA.
  • History of treatment with eltrombopag, romiplostim or other thrombopoietin-receptor (TPO-R) agonists.

Information from the National Library of Medicine

To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contact information provided by the sponsor.

Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier (NCT number): NCT02404025


Locations
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Japan
Novartis Investigative Site
Aichi, Japan, 453-8511
Novartis Investigative Site
Aichi, Japan, 460-0001
Novartis Investigative Site
Ibaraki, Japan, 305-8576
Novartis Investigative Site
Ishikawa, Japan, 920-8641
Novartis Investigative Site
Miyagi, Japan, 981-1293
Novartis Investigative Site
Okayama, Japan, 700-0962
Novartis Investigative Site
Osaka, Japan, 530-0012
Novartis Investigative Site
Osaka, Japan, 543-8555
Novartis Investigative Site
Osaka, Japan, 565-0871
Novartis Investigative Site
Tochigi, Japan, 329-0498
Novartis Investigative Site
Tokyo, Japan, 141-8625
Sponsors and Collaborators
Novartis Pharmaceuticals
Investigators
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Study Director: Novartis Pharmaceuticals Novartis Pharmaceuticals
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Responsible Party: Novartis Pharmaceuticals
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02404025    
Other Study ID Numbers: 201793
First Posted: March 31, 2015    Key Record Dates
Results First Posted: July 26, 2019
Last Update Posted: July 26, 2019
Last Verified: May 2019

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Studies a U.S. FDA-regulated Drug Product: No
Studies a U.S. FDA-regulated Device Product: No
Keywords provided by Novartis ( Novartis Pharmaceuticals ):
Eltrombopag
rabbit anti-thymocyte globulin
additive effect
cyclosporine A
bone marrow
hematopoietic stem cells
pancytopenia
leukopenia
platelets
throbocytopenia
mature blood cells
bone marrow biopsy
Additional relevant MeSH terms:
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Anemia
Anemia, Aplastic
Hematologic Diseases
Bone Marrow Diseases
Thymoglobulin
Immunologic Factors
Physiological Effects of Drugs
Immunosuppressive Agents