Simvastatin With Topotecan and Cyclophosphamide in Relapsed and/or Refractory Pediatric Solid and CNS Tumors (AflacST1402)
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|ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02390843|
Recruitment Status : Completed
First Posted : March 18, 2015
Last Update Posted : April 3, 2020
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|Condition or disease||Intervention/treatment||Phase|
|Retinoblastoma Clear Cell Sarcoma Renal Cell Carcinoma Rhabdoid Tumor Wilms Tumor Hepatoblastoma Neuroblastoma Germ Cell Tumors Ewings Sarcoma Non-rhabdomyosarcoma Soft Tissue Sarcoma Osteosarcoma Rhabdomyosarcoma||Drug: Simvastatin Drug: Cyclophosphamide Drug: Topotecan Drug: Myeloid growth factor||Phase 1|
|Study Type :||Interventional (Clinical Trial)|
|Actual Enrollment :||13 participants|
|Intervention Model:||Single Group Assignment|
|Masking:||None (Open Label)|
|Official Title:||A Phase 1 Study Using Simvastatin in Combination With Topotecan and Cyclophosphamide in Relapsed and/or Refractory Pediatric Solid and CNS Tumors|
|Study Start Date :||February 2015|
|Actual Primary Completion Date :||September 22, 2019|
|Actual Study Completion Date :||September 22, 2019|
Experimental: simvastatin + topotecan/cyclophosphamide
During dose escalation (phase I), standard 3+3 design will be followed.
The starting dose of simvastatin will be 140 mg/m^2/dose BID for 21 days for the first group. Dose escalation for subsequent groups will be 180 mg/m^2/dose BID, 225 mg/m^2/dose BID, and 290 mg/m^2/dose BID. If the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) has been exceeded at the first dose level, then the subsequent cohort of subjects will be treated at a dose of 100 mg/m2/dose BID (dose level 0). Simvastatin will be administered orally twice daily, approximately 12 hours apart. Feeding tube (nasogastric tube or gastrostomy tube, NOT a jejunum localized tube) administration is allowed. If a subject vomits a dose of simvastatin, it will not be repeated.
Other Name: zocor
The dose of cyclophosphamide will be fixed at 250 mg/m^2/dose. Cyclophosphamide will be administered intravenously over 30 minutes once daily for 5 days every 21 days.
The dose of topotecan will be fixed at 0.75 mg/m^2/dose. Topotecan will be administered, after cyclophosphamide, intravenously over 30 minutes once daily for 5 days every 21 days.
Other Name: Hycamtin
Drug: Myeloid growth factor
Myeloid growth factor (G-CSF or pegylated G-CSF) will be initiated 24-48 hours after the completion of topotecan and cyclophosphamide for all subjects, which would be day 6 or 7. Myeloid growth factor should continue until the absolute neutrophil count is greater than 2,000/mm^3
- Maximum Tolerated Dose (MTD) of Simvastatin [ Time Frame: First treatment to toxicity (up to 24 months) ]MTD will be the maximum dose at which fewer than one-third of subjects experience dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs) during Cycle 1 of therapy.
- Number of Dose-Limiting Toxicities (DLTs) [ Time Frame: Up to 24 months ]
DLT will be defined as any of the following events that are possibly, probably, or definitely attributable to study drug:
Non-hematological dose-limiting toxicity: Any Grade 3 or 4 non-hematological toxicity (excluding nausea, alanine transaminase (ALT) or aspartate aminotransferase (AST) that returns to baseline or ≤ grade 1 within 7 days of study drug interruption, fever, infection, hypophosphatemia, hypokalemia, hypocalcemia, hypomagnesemia, or creatinine phosphokinase (CPK) elevation that returns to baseline or ≤ grade 1 within 7 days of study drug interruption), Any Grade 2 non-hematological toxicity that persists for ≥ 7 days and is considered sufficiently medically significant or sufficiently intolerable by subjects that it requires treatment interruption, or hematological dose-limiting toxicity, defined as neutropenia or thrombocytopenia that precludes initiation of the next cycle of therapy within 14 days of the scheduled start date.
- Percentage of Participants With Overall Tumor Response (Response Rate) [ Time Frame: 24 months ]
Response is defined as CR (Complete Response) or PR (Partial Response) per Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumor (RECIST criteria). Possible evaluations include: CR: Disappearance of all target lesions. PR: At least a 30% decrease in the size of target lesions.
Response rate (%) = (number of patients with CR+PR/number of patients)*100
- Change in Total Cholesterol Level [ Time Frame: Baseline, 24 months ]Change in serum total cholesterol level after treatment with simvastatin. A decrease from baseline to the end of treatment, a negative value, indicates an improvement.
- Change in serum interleukin-6 (IL-6) level [ Time Frame: Baseline, 24 months ]Change in serum interleukin-6 (IL-6) level after treatment with simvastatin. Serum levels of the IL-6 will be assayed using by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Higher levels are typically interpreted as worsening of condition.
- Change in soluble interleukin 6 receptor (sIL-6R) [ Time Frame: Baseline, 24 months ]Change in serum interleukin-6 (IL-6) level after treatment with simvastatin. Serum levels of the sIL-6r will be assayed using by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Higher levels are typically interpreted as worsening of condition.
- Change in signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT-3) expression [ Time Frame: Baseline, 24 months ]Change in STAT-3 expression after treatment with simvastatin. STAT-3 will be measured using phospho-specific flow cytometry, or phospho-flow.
- Change in phospho-STAT3 expression [ Time Frame: Baseline, 24 months ]Change in phospho-STAT3 expression after treatment with simvastatin. Phospho-STAT3 expression will be measured using phospho-specific flow cytometry, or phospho-flow.
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|Ages Eligible for Study:||1 Year to 29 Years (Child, Adult)|
|Sexes Eligible for Study:||All|
|Accepts Healthy Volunteers:||No|
- Subjects must have had histologic verification of malignancy at original diagnosis or relapse. All subjects with relapsed or refractory solid tumors are eligible including primary or metastatic CNS tumors. In the case of diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG), or optic pathway glioma, imaging findings consistent with these tumors will suffice without the need for biopsy for histologic verification.
- Subjects must have either measurable (the presence of at least one lesion that can be accurately measured in at least one dimension with the longest diameter at least 20 mm. With spiral CT scan, lesions must be at least 10 mm.) or evaluable disease (the presence of at least one lesion that cannot be accurately measured in at least one dimension. Such lesions may be evaluable by nuclear medicine techniques, immunocytochemistry techniques, tumor markers or other reliable measures.)
- Subject's current disease state must be one for which there is no known curative therapy.
- Karnofsky ≥ 60% for subjects > 16 years of age and Lansky ≥ 50 for subjects ≤ 16 years of age
Subjects must have fully recovered from the acute toxic effects of all prior anti-cancer chemotherapy
- Myelosuppressive chemotherapy: At least 21 days after the last dose of myelosuppressive chemotherapy (42 days if prior nitrosourea).
- Hematopoietic growth factors: At least 14 days after the last dose of a long-acting growth factor (e.g. Pegfilgrastim) or 7 days for short acting growth factor. For agents that have known adverse events occurring beyond 7 days after administration, this period must be extended beyond the time during which adverse events are known to occur. The duration of this interval must be discussed with the study chair.
- Biologic (anti-neoplastic agent): At least 7 days after the last dose of a biologic agent. For agents that have known adverse events occurring beyond 7 days after administration, this period must be extended beyond the time during which adverse events are known to occur. The duration of this interval must be discussed with the study chair.
- Immunotherapy: At least 42 days after the completion of any type of immunotherapy, e.g. tumor vaccines.
- Monoclonal antibodies: At least 3 half-lives of the antibody after the last dose of a monoclonal antibody.
- external beam radiation therapy (XRT): At least 14 days after local palliative XRT (small port); 6 weeks must have elapsed since treatment with therapeutic doses of I131-meta-iodobenzylguanidine (MIBG); At least 150 days must have elapsed if prior total body irradiation (TBI), craniospinal XRT, or if ≥ 50% radiation of pelvis; At least 42 days must have elapsed if other substantial bone marrow (BM) radiation.
- Stem Cell Infusion without TBI: No evidence of active graft vs. host disease and at least 84 days must have elapsed after transplant and 42 days for autologous stem cell infusion after I131-MIBG therapy.
- Subjects must not have received any prior therapy with simvastatin.
Adequate Bone Marrow Function Defined as:
- For subjects with solid tumors without known bone marrow involvement: Peripheral absolute neutrophil count (ANC) ≥ 750/mm3, Platelet count ≥ 75,000/mm3 (transfusion independent, defined as not receiving platelet transfusions for at least 7 days prior to enrollment)
- Subjects with known bone marrow metastatic disease will be eligible for study provided they meet the blood counts in a. (may receive transfusions provided they are not known to be refractory to red cell or platelet transfusions). These subjects will not be evaluable for hematologic toxicity. If dose-limiting hematologic toxicity is observed, all subsequent subjects enrolled must be evaluable for hematologic toxicity.
Adequate Renal Function Defined as:
- Creatinine clearance or radioisotope glomerular filtration rate (GFR) 70ml/min/1.73 m^2 or
- A serum creatinine based on age/gender as follows:
- Age: 1 to < 2 years; Male and female serum creatinine: 0.6 mg/dL
- 2 to < 6 years; Male and female serum creatinine: 0.8 mg/dL
- 6 to < 10 years; Male and female serum creatinine: 1.0 mg/dL
- 10 to < 13 years; Male and female serum creatinine: 1.2 mg/dL
- 13 to < 16 years; Male serum creatinine: 1.5 mg/dL and female serum creatinine: 1.4 mg/dL
- ≥ 16 years; Male serum creatinine: 1.7 mg/dL and female serum creatinine: 1.4 mg/dL
Adequate Liver Function Defined as:
- Bilirubin (sum of conjugated + unconjugated) ≤ 1.5 x upper limit of normal (ULN) for age
- serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT) or ALT ≤ 135 U/L. For the purpose of this study, the ULN for SGPT is 45 U/L.
- Adequate Cardiac Function Defined as: corrected QT interval (QTc) ≤ 480 msec
- Normal Creatinine Phosphokinase (CPK) Defined As Not Exceeding Maximum Value:
- Age: 0 to < 4 years; Male and female maximum CPK : 305 units/L
- 4 to < 7 years; Male and female maximum CPK : 230 units/L
- 7 to < 10 years; Male and female maximum CPK : 365 units/L
- 10 to < 12 years; Male maximum CPK: 215 units/L and female maximum CPK: 230 units/L
- 12 to < 14 years; Male maximum CPK: 330 units/L and female maximum CPK: 295 units/L
- 14 to < 16 years; Male maximum CPK: 335 units/L and female maximum CPK: 240 units/L
- 16 to < 19 years; Male maximum CPK: 370 units/L and female maximum CPK: 230 units/L
- ≥ 19 years; Male maximum CPK: 170 units/L and female maximum CPK: 145 units/L
- Willing to sign consent or assent/primary caregiver willing to give consent
- Pregnancy or breast-feeding
- Concomitant medication dependency including corticosteroids, investigational drugs, anti-cancer agents, anti-graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) agents post-transplant
- subjects who are unable to swallow a tablet or liquid must have a nasogastric (NG) or gastric (G) tube through which the medicine can be administered
- subjects receiving known cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) Inhibitors or Inducers
- subjects with uncontrolled infection
- subjects who received prior solid organ transplantation
- subjects with current or previous treatment with 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A (HMG CoA) reductase inhibitor (any statin)
To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contact information provided by the sponsor.
Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier (NCT number): NCT02390843
|United States, Georgia|
|Children's Healthcare of Atlanta/Emory University|
|Atlanta, Georgia, United States, 30322|
|Principal Investigator:||Kelly Goldsmith, MD||Emory University/Children's Healthcare of Atlanta|
|Responsible Party:||Kelly Goldsmith, Assistant Professor, Emory University|
|Other Study ID Numbers:||
|First Posted:||March 18, 2015 Key Record Dates|
|Last Update Posted:||April 3, 2020|
|Last Verified:||April 2020|
Sarcoma, Clear Cell
Neoplasms, Connective and Soft Tissue
Neoplasms by Histologic Type
Neoplasms, Glandular and Epithelial
Neoplasms by Site
Female Urogenital Diseases
Female Urogenital Diseases and Pregnancy Complications
Male Urogenital Diseases
Neuroectodermal Tumors, Primitive, Peripheral
Neuroectodermal Tumors, Primitive
Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal
Neoplasms, Nerve Tissue