Heterologous Effects of BCG in Healthy UK Adults
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|ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02380508|
Recruitment Status : Completed
First Posted : March 5, 2015
Last Update Posted : November 30, 2016
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|Condition or disease||Intervention/treatment||Phase|
|Tuberculosis||Drug: BCG SSI Other: No vaccination Drug: BCG Sii||Not Applicable|
Since 1927, it has been observed that BCG-vaccinated neonates have lower all-cause mortality rates. This heterologous or non-specific effect within the first 6-12 months of life has been demonstrated in randomised and observational studies in low income countries with high childhood mortality rates. The most consistent effect is reduced neonatal mortality due to fewer cases of neonatal sepsis, respiratory infection and fever. The main limitation of these studies is the risk of confounding inherent in their cross sectional and observational designs. It is essential that we determine the cogency of this effect, as potential BCG replacement vaccines must be non-inferior to BCG in this regard.
There is a plausible rationale that BCG, a replicating mycobacterium, is capable of inducing non-specific innate immunity, which could induce protection against disease and death from non-mycobacterial infections early in life. For example, intravesical BCG is an effective treatment for bladder cancer, an effect presumed to be non-specific and innate. However, our understanding of the immunological mechanisms involved is incomplete. Data is needed from robust experiments to quantify any causal relationship between infant survival and BCG vaccination. Demonstrating an effect of recent BCG vaccination on the growth of common bacterial pathogens involved in neonatal sepsis, using whole blood in an in-vitro human model, would provide evidence to support a randomised controlled trial in infants in TB high burden countries and would impact on public health vaccination scheduling. In addition it would provide us with an in-vitro model by which to assess future BCG replacement vaccines.
Healthy BCG naïve adults in the UK have been selected for this study because of their low baseline level of anti-mycobacterial immunity and therefore reduced ability to suppress BCG growth. Whilst the target population for the heterologous effects of BCG vaccination is infants, the blood volume required in order to optimise the GIA would not be possible to collect from infants. Therefore by undertaking this work in healthy BCG naïve UK adults we can obtain the blood volumes required for this exploratory work in a population of individuals with a similar background mycobacterial exposure to infants in TB high burden, low income countries.
Volunteers in this study will receive BCG vaccination at the standard dose of 2-8x10^5 cfu. BCG SSI containing Mycobacterium bovis strain Danish 1331 is preferred as it is licensed in the UK for vaccination. However BCG SSI can frequently go into short supply globally with impact on UK supply. In the event of this occurring, BCG vaccine supplied by the Sii (Serum institute of India) will be used instead which contains Mycobacterium bovis BCG strain Moscow 361 I and is on the WHO list of prequalified vaccines. The same strain will be used for all volunteers.
|Study Type :||Interventional (Clinical Trial)|
|Actual Enrollment :||36 participants|
|Intervention Model:||Parallel Assignment|
|Masking:||None (Open Label)|
|Official Title:||Evaluation of the Heterologous Effects of Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) Vaccination in Healthy UK Adults|
|Study Start Date :||February 2015|
|Actual Primary Completion Date :||November 2016|
|Actual Study Completion Date :||November 2016|
Experimental: Group 1
32 BCG-naïve subjects receiving BCG SSI or BCG Sii at standard dose (2-8x10^5 cfu) via Intradermal route.
Drug: BCG SSI
Other Name: Bacille Calmette-Guérin Statens Serum Institute (BCG SSI)
Drug: BCG Sii
Other Name: Bacille Calmette-Guérin Serum Institute of India
Experimental: Group 2
8-16 control volunteers receiving no vaccination.
Other: No vaccination
- Growth inhibition assays [ Time Frame: Up to Day 84 ]Determine the heterologous effects of BCG vaccination in healthy UK adults using in-vitro Growth Inhibition Assays as a surrogate marker to assess the individuals' capacity to control growth of S. aureus, K. pneumonia, Group B streptococci and E.coli.
- Immune response markers [ Time Frame: Up to Day 84 ]Evaluation of laboratory markers of the immune response that correlate with levels of bacterial growth inhibition identified using the in-vitro GIAs.
- Background levels of S. aureus, K. pneumonia, Group B streptococci and E.coli carriage. [ Time Frame: Up to Day 14 ]Use of bacterial antibody titres, nasal swab culture and faecal culture to determine background levels of S. aureus, K. pneumonia, Group B streptococci and E.coli carriage in subjects in this study.
- Confounding effects of BCG on bacterial growth. [ Time Frame: Up tp Day 14 ]Use of bacterial antibody titres, nasal swab culture and faecal culture to evaluate confounding effects of BCG on the growth of S. aureus, K. pneumonia, Group B streptococci and E.coli.
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|Ages Eligible for Study:||18 Years to 45 Years (Adult)|
|Sexes Eligible for Study:||All|
|Accepts Healthy Volunteers:||Yes|
Volunteers must meet all of the following criteria to enter the study:
- Healthy adult aged 18-45 years
- BCG naïve
- Resident in or near Oxford (for CCTVM and John Warin Ward) or Birmingham (for NIHR WTCRF) for the duration of the study period
- No relevant findings in medical history or on physical examination
- Allow the Investigators to discuss the volunteer's medical history with their GP
- Use effective contraception for the duration of the study period (females only)
- Agreement to refrain from blood donation during the duration of the study and for a period of 3 months after their last visit
- Give written informed consent
- Allow the Investigator to register volunteer details with a confidential database to prevent concurrent entry into clinical trials or studies
- Able and willing (in the Investigator's opinion) to comply with all the study requirements
Volunteers must meet none of the following criteria to enter the study:
- Laboratory evidence at screening of latent M. tb infection as indicated by a positive IGRA response
- Clinical, radiological, or laboratory evidence of current active TB disease
- Previous vaccination with BCG, or any candidate TB vaccine
- Within the last year had close household contact with an individual with smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis
- Clinically significant history of skin disorder, allergy, immunodeficiency (including HIV), cancer (except BCC or CIS), cardiovascular disease, respiratory disease, gastrointestinal disease, liver disease, renal disease, endocrine disorder, neurological illness, psychiatric disorder, drug or alcohol abuse
- History of serious psychiatric condition
- Concurrent oral or systemic steroid medication or the concurrent use of other immunosuppressive agents
- Concurrent use of long term antibiotic therapy
- History of anaphylaxis to vaccination or any allergy likely to be exacerbated by any component of the BCG vaccine
- Any abnormality of screening blood or urine tests that is deemed to be clinically significant or that may compromise the safety of the volunteer in the study
- Positive HBsAg, HCV or HIV antibodies
- Female confirmed pregnant or intention to become pregnant during study period, or currently lactating
- Current involvement in another study or trial that involves regular blood tests or an investigational medicinal product
- Use of an investigational medicinal product or non-registered drug, live vaccine, or investigational medical device for four weeks prior to dosing with the study vaccine
- Administration of immunoglobulins and/or any blood products within the three months preceding the planned challenge date
- Any other significant disease, disorder, or finding, which, in the opinion of the Investigator, may either put the volunteer at risk, or may influence the result of the study, or may affect the volunteer's ability to participate in the study
To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contact information provided by the sponsor.
Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier (NCT number): NCT02380508
|Centre for Clinical Vaccinology and Tropical Medicine , University of Oxford|
|Oxford, Oxfordshire, United Kingdom, OX3 7LE|
|Oxford University Hospitals- John Warin Ward, University of Oxford|
|Oxford, Oxfordshire, United Kingdom, OX3 7LE|
|NIHR Wellcome Trust Clinical Research Facility, University of Birmingham|
|Birmingham, West Midlands, United Kingdom, B15 2TH|
|Study Director:||Helen McShane||University of Oxford|
Publications automatically indexed to this study by ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier (NCT Number):
|Responsible Party:||University of Oxford|
|Other Study ID Numbers:||
|First Posted:||March 5, 2015 Key Record Dates|
|Last Update Posted:||November 30, 2016|
|Last Verified:||October 2016|
Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections
Bacterial Infections and Mycoses