NexGen EBA Radiologic and Immunologic Biomarkers of Sterilizing Drug Activity in Tuberculosis
|ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02371681|
Recruitment Status : Completed
First Posted : February 26, 2015
Last Update Posted : April 5, 2018
- Tuberculosis (TB) is a lung infection caused by bacteria. When people with TB cough, they may spread these bacteria. Researchers are looking for new TB medicines. They want to find a faster way to tell if a drug might combat TB.
- To learn the effect of different anti-TB drugs on microbiological, radiographic and immunologic markers in people with TB.
- Adults age 18-65 who weigh 30-90 kg and have common TB bacteria that can be treated with common TB medicines.
- Participants will be admitted to the hospital for screening. They will have medical history, physical exam, and chest radiograph. They will give blood, urine, and sputum samples.
- Participants will be put in 1 of 8 groups.
- Participants will get one or a combination of TB medicines daily for about 14 days.
- Each day, participants:
- Will discuss side effects.
- May have a physical exam.
- Will spit mucus into a cup. They may breathe in saline water through a nebulizer to make them cough.
- Participants will have blood taken 3-4 times during the study
- Participants will have 2-3 Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography (FDG-PET/CT) scans. FDG is a radioactive sugar molecule which helps measure TB disease in the lungs. It will be injected into a vein. Participants will lie in a scanner that takes pictures.
- Around study day 14, participants will leave the hospital. They will be referred to a local TB clinic. There they will get the standard 4 TB medicines. Those in group 8 will already be on these medicines and will have another FDG-PET/CT on day 28.
- Participants will be in the study for up to 28 days.
|Condition or disease||Intervention/treatment||Phase|
|Tuberculosis||Drug: Moxifloxacin Drug: Pyrazindamide Drug: Rifampicin Drug: Isonizaid||Phase 2|
Early bactericidal activity (EBA), which measures decline in serial sputum colony forming unit (CFU) counts over the first 2-14 days of treatment, has been used extensively as a means of initially evaluating the potency of individual or combinations of antituberculous agents. This approach is endorsed by the Global Alliance for TB Drug Development and the US FDA. However, EBA seems to correlate poorly with the relative ability of an agent to prevent relapse and produce a durable cure (often referred to as sterilizing activity ). The reasons for this discrepancy may have to do with a limitation of sputum measurements to capture populations that persist beyond airway surfaces in discrete lesions such as granulomas, nodules, or cavities. The elimination of these persistent populations depend on the pharmacodynamic properties of a regimen and may be better captured by biologic and functional markers that can reflect dynamic treatment effects within these relevant host environments.
Recent studies of the response to TB chemotherapy have identified promising new biomarkers of sterilization in 2 areas. First, immunologic changes appear to have potential in small subject cohorts to predict sterilizing cure within 1 month after commencing treatment. Second, F-FDG PET/CT has been used in tuberculosis as a qualitative means of assessing drug response in small case series at multiple time points, starting as early as 1 month. PET activity reflects uptake and phosphorylation of FDG by neutrophils and macrophages, and CT provides structural information on disease pathology. Hence, PET/CT data may offer additional insights into lesion-specific sterilizing activity. This study will add 18F-FDG PET/CT scans and immunological assays at 0, 2, and (in the HRZE arm) 4 weeks to standard EBA methodology using regimens containing isoniazid (INH), rifampin (RIF), pyrazinamide (PZA), moxifloxacin (MXF), and ethambutol (EM). We hypothesize that drug regimens associated with higher sterilizing activity (e.g., containing rifampin or pyrazinamide) will show distinctive early cytokine and chemokine patterns and discrete, quantifiable changes on PET/CT in certain lesion types during the 2-week period, compared to drug regimens with poor sterilizing activity (e.g., containing isoniazid or moxifloxacin). Demonstration of such an association would provide rationale for including radiologic and immunologic analysis, alongside conventional EBA, in early phase clinical studies of novel drugs, and would also provide important new insights into the biology of human and bacterial responses to TB drugs.
|Study Type :||Interventional (Clinical Trial)|
|Actual Enrollment :||262 participants|
|Intervention Model:||Parallel Assignment|
|Masking:||None (Open Label)|
|Primary Purpose:||Basic Science|
|Official Title:||NexGen EBA Radiologic and Immunologic Biomarkers to Enhance Early Bactericidal Activity Measurements of Sterilizing Drug Activity in Tuberculosis|
|Study Start Date :||February 25, 2015|
|Actual Primary Completion Date :||September 1, 2017|
|Actual Study Completion Date :||November 14, 2017|
TB drugDrug: Pyrazindamide
TB drugDrug: Rifampicin
TB drugDrug: Isonizaid
- Changes from baseline to 14 days in microbiologic, radiographic, and immunologic markers within mono- and combination-therapy arms as outlined. Additional analysis will test whether there are measureable interactions of effects of drug (on marke... [ Time Frame: 14 days ]
- Correlation of change in PET characteristics and change in immunological markers [ Time Frame: 14 days ]
- Correlation of changes of PET characteristics and CFU changes [ Time Frame: 14 days ]
- Correlation of time to Positivity (TTP) of liquid culture and CFU changes [ Time Frame: 14 days ]
Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier (NCT number): NCT02371681
|TASK Applied Sciences|
|Cape Town, South Africa|
|Principal Investigator:||Clifton E Barry, Ph.D.||National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID)|