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A Study of Pembrolizumab (MK-3475) Versus Paclitaxel for Participants With Advanced Gastric/Gastroesophageal Junction Adenocarcinoma That Progressed After Therapy With Platinum and Fluoropyrimidine (MK-3475-061/KEYNOTE-061)

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ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02370498
Recruitment Status : Active, not recruiting
First Posted : February 25, 2015
Results First Posted : November 20, 2018
Last Update Posted : November 20, 2018
Sponsor:
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
Merck Sharp & Dohme Corp.

Brief Summary:

This is a study for participants with advanced gastric or gastroesophageal junction adenocarcinoma who have had tumor progression after first-line treatment with platinum and fluoropyrimidine doublet therapy. The primary study hypotheses are that pembrolizumab (MK-3475) prolongs progression free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) for participants with tumors that show positive programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression.

As of 20-March-2016, enrollment will be limited to PD-L1 positive participants.


Condition or disease Intervention/treatment Phase
Gastric Adenocarcinoma Gastroesophageal Junction Adenocarcinoma Biological: pembroliziumab Drug: paclitaxel Phase 3

Study Type : Interventional  (Clinical Trial)
Actual Enrollment : 592 participants
Allocation: Randomized
Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
Masking: None (Open Label)
Primary Purpose: Treatment
Official Title: A Phase III, Randomized, Open-label Clinical Trial of Pembrolizumab (MK-3475) Versus Paclitaxel in Subjects With Advanced Gastric or Gastroesophageal Junction Adenocarcinoma Who Progressed After First-Line Therapy With Platinum and Fluoropyrimidine
Actual Study Start Date : May 11, 2015
Actual Primary Completion Date : October 26, 2017
Estimated Study Completion Date : July 26, 2019

Resource links provided by the National Library of Medicine


Arm Intervention/treatment
Experimental: Pembrolizumab
Participants receive 200 mg intravenous (IV) pembrolizumab on Day 1 of each 21-day cycle, for up to 35 administrations (approximately 2 years).
Biological: pembroliziumab
200 mg administered as IV infusion on Day 1 of each 21-day cycle.
Other Name: MK-3475

Active Comparator: Paclitaxel
Participants receive 80 mg/m^2 IV paclitaxel on Days 1, 8, and 15 of each 28-day cycle, until disease progression or unacceptable toxicity.
Drug: paclitaxel
80 mg/m^2 administered as IV infusion on Days 1, 8, and 15 of each 28-day cycle.
Other Name: TAXOL®




Primary Outcome Measures :
  1. Progression-free Survival (PFS) According to Response Criteria in Solid Tumors Version 1.1 (RECIST 1.1) Based on Blinded Independent Central Review (BICR) in Programmed Death-Ligand 1 (PD-L1) Positive Participants [ Time Frame: Up to 30 months (through database cut-off date of 26 Oct 2017) ]
    PFS was defined as the time from randomization to the first documented disease progression per RECIST 1.1 based on BICR, or death due to any cause, whichever occurs first. According to RECIST 1.1, progressive disease (PD) was defined as a 20% relative increase in the sum of diameters (SOD) of target lesions, taking as reference the nadir SOD and an absolute increase of >5 mm in the SOD, or the appearance of new lesions. PFS was analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier method and median PFS (95% confidence interval [CI]) in months was reported for PD-L1 positive participants by treatment group.

  2. Overall Survival (OS) in PD-L1 Positive Participants [ Time Frame: Up to 30 months (through database cut-off date of 26 Oct 2017) ]
    OS was defined as the time from randomization to death due to any cause. Participants without documented death at the time of the final analysis were censored at the date of the last follow-up. OS was analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier method and median OS (95% CI) in months was reported for PD-L1 positive participants by treatment group.


Secondary Outcome Measures :
  1. PFS According to RECIST 1.1 Based on BICR in All Participants [ Time Frame: Up to 30 months (through database cut-off date of 26 Oct 2017) ]
    PFS was defined as the time from randomization to the first documented disease progression per RECIST 1.1 based on BICR, or death due to any cause, whichever occurs first. According to RECIST 1.1, PD was defined as a 20% relative increase in the SOD of target lesions, taking as reference the nadir SOD and an absolute increase of >5 mm in the SOD, or the appearance of new lesions. PFS was analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier method and median PFS (95% CI) in months was reported for all participants by treatment group.

  2. OS in All Participants [ Time Frame: Up to 30 months (through database cut-off date of 26 Oct 2017) ]
    OS was defined as the time from randomization to death due to any cause. Participants without documented death at the time of the final analysis were censored at the date of the last follow-up. OS was analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier method and median OS (95% CI) in months was reported for all participants by treatment group.

  3. PFS According to RECIST 1.1 Based on Investigator Assessment in PD-L1 Positive Participants [ Time Frame: Up to 30 months (through database cut-off date of 26 Oct 2017) ]
    PFS was defined as the time from randomization to the first documented disease progression per RECIST 1.1 based on investigator assessment, or death due to any cause, whichever occurs first. According to RECIST 1.1, PD was defined as a 20% relative increase in the SOD of target lesions, taking as reference the nadir SOD and an absolute increase of >5 mm in the SOD, or the appearance of new lesions. PFS was analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier method and median PFS (95% CI) in months was reported for PD-L1 positive participants by treatment group.

  4. PFS According to RECIST 1.1 Based on Investigator Assessment in All Participants [ Time Frame: Up to 30 months (through database cut-off date of 26 Oct 2017) ]
    PFS was defined as the time from randomization to the first documented disease progression per RECIST 1.1 based on investigator assessment, or death due to any cause, whichever occurs first. According to RECIST 1.1, PD was defined as a 20% relative increase in the SOD of target lesions, taking as reference the nadir SOD and an absolute increase of >5 mm in the SOD, or the appearance of new lesions. PFS was analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier method and median PFS (95% CI) in months was reported for all participants by treatment group.

  5. PFS According to Immune-Related Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (irRECIST) Based on BICR in PD-L1 Positive Participants [ Time Frame: Up to 30 months (through database cut-off date of 26 Oct 2017) ]
    PFS defined as time from randomization to first documented PD per irRECIST based on BICR, or death due to any cause, whichever occurs first. Following initial PD by RECIST 1.1 (20% relative increase in SOD of target lesions), participants were assessed according to irRECIST: tumor assessment was repeated ≥4 weeks later to confirm PD with the option of continuing treatment until this scan was obtained for clinically stable participants. If PD confirmed, participant was discontinued from treatment unless investigator determined benefit. If repeat scan indicated stable disease (SD; neither sufficient shrinkage or increase of target lesion), partial response (PR; ≥30% decrease in the SOD of target lesions), or complete response (CR; disappearance of all non-nodal target lesions), participant could continue treatment at investigator's discretion. PFS analyzed using Kaplan-Meier method and median PFS (95% CI) in months was reported for PD-L1 positive participants by treatment group.

  6. PFS According to irRECIST Based on BICR in All Participants [ Time Frame: Up to 30 months (through database cut-off date of 26 Oct 2017) ]
    PFS defined as time from randomization to first documented PD per irRECIST based on BICR, or death due to any cause, whichever occurs first. Following initial PD by RECIST 1.1 (20% relative increase in SOD of target lesions), participants were assessed according to irRECIST: tumor assessment was repeated ≥4 weeks later to confirm PD with the option of continuing treatment until this scan was obtained for clinically stable participants. If PD confirmed, participant was discontinued from treatment unless investigator determined benefit. If repeat scan indicated SD (neither sufficient shrinkage or increase of target lesion), PR (≥30% decrease in the SOD of target lesions), or CR (disappearance of all non-nodal target lesions), participant could continue treatment at investigator's discretion. PFS analyzed using Kaplan-Meier method and median PFS (95% CI) in months was reported for PD-L1 positive participants by treatment group.

  7. Time to Tumor Progression (TTP) According to RECIST 1.1 Based on BICR in PD-L1 Positive Participants [ Time Frame: Up to 30 months (through database cut-off date of 26 Oct 2017) ]
    TTP was defined as the time from randomization to the first documented disease progression per RECIST 1.1 based on BICR. Using RECIST 1.1, progressive disease was defined as a 20% relative increase in the SOD of target lesions, taking as reference the nadir SOD and an absolute increase of >5 mm in the SOD, or the appearance of new lesions. If there was no documented disease progression, TTP was censored at last tumor assessment date. TTP was analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier method and median TTP (95% CI) in months was reported for PD-L1 positive participants by treatment group.

  8. TTP According to RECIST 1.1 Based on BICR in All Participants [ Time Frame: Up to 30 months (through database cut-off date of 26 Oct 2017) ]
    TTP was defined as the time from randomization to the first documented disease progression per RECIST 1.1 based on BICR. Using RECIST 1.1, progressive disease was defined as a 20% relative increase in the SOD of target lesions, taking as reference the nadir SOD and an absolute increase of >5 mm in the SOD, or the appearance of new lesions. If there was no documented disease progression, TTP was censored at last tumor assessment date. TTP was analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier method and median TTP (95% CI) in months was reported for all participants by treatment group.

  9. TTP According to RECIST 1.1 Based on Investigator Assessment in PD-L1 Positive Participants [ Time Frame: Up to 30 months (through database cut-off date of 26 Oct 2017) ]
    TTP was defined as the time from randomization to the first documented disease progression per RECIST 1.1 based on investigator assessment. Using RECIST 1.1, progressive disease was defined as a 20% relative increase in the SOD of target lesions, taking as reference the nadir SOD and an absolute increase of >5 mm in the SOD, or the appearance of new lesions. If there was no documented disease progression, TTP was censored at last tumor assessment date. TTP was analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier method and median TTP (95% CI) in months was reported for PD-L1 positive participants by treatment group.

  10. TTP According to RECIST 1.1 Based on Investigator Assessment in All Participants [ Time Frame: Up to 30 months (through database cut-off date of 26 Oct 2017) ]
    TTP was defined as the time from randomization to the first documented disease progression per RECIST 1.1 based on investigator assessment. Using RECIST 1.1, progressive disease was defined as a 20% relative increase in the SOD of target lesions, taking as reference the nadir SOD and an absolute increase of >5 mm in the SOD, or the appearance of new lesions. If there was no documented disease progression, TTP was censored at last tumor assessment date. TTP was analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier method and median TTP (95% CI) in months was reported for all participants by treatment group.

  11. Objective Response Rate (ORR) According to RECIST 1.1 Based on BICR in PD-L1 Positive Participants [ Time Frame: Up to 30 months (through database cut-off date of 26 Oct 2017) ]
    ORR was defined as the percentage of the participants in the analysis population who had a confirmed CR (disappearance of all non-nodal target lesions and any pathological lymph nodes must have become normal) or PR (at least a 30% decrease in the SOD of target lesions, taking as reference the baseline SOD) according to RECIST 1.1 and based on BICR. ORR was analyzed using the stratified Miettinen and Nurminen method, and reported with 95% CI for PD-L1 positive participants by treatment group.

  12. ORR According to RECIST 1.1 Based on BICR in All Participants [ Time Frame: Up to 30 months (through database cut-off date of 26 Oct 2017) ]
    ORR was defined as the percentage of the participants in the analysis population who had a confirmed CR (disappearance of all non-nodal target lesions and any pathological lymph nodes must have become normal) or PR (at least a 30% decrease in the SOD of target lesions, taking as reference the baseline SOD) according to RECIST 1.1 and based on BICR. ORR was analyzed using the stratified Miettinen and Nurminen method, and reported with 95% CI for all participants by treatment group.

  13. ORR According to RECIST 1.1 Based on Investigator Assessment in PD-L1 Positive Participants [ Time Frame: Up to 30 months (through database cut-off date of 26 Oct 2017) ]
    ORR was defined as the percentage of the participants in the analysis population who had a confirmed CR (disappearance of all non-nodal target lesions and any pathological lymph nodes must have become normal) or PR (at least a 30% decrease in the SOD of target lesions, taking as reference the baseline SOD) according to RECIST 1.1 and based on investigator assessment. ORR was analyzed using the stratified Miettinen and Nurminen method, and reported with 95% CI for PD-L1 positive participants by treatment group.

  14. ORR According to RECIST 1.1 Based on Investigator Assessment in All Participants [ Time Frame: Up to 30 months (through database cut-off date of 26 Oct 2017) ]
    ORR was defined as the percentage of the participants in the analysis population who had a confirmed CR (disappearance of all non-nodal target lesions and any pathological lymph nodes must have become normal) or PR (at least a 30% decrease in the SOD of target lesions, taking as reference the baseline SOD) according to RECIST 1.1 and based on investigator assessment. ORR was analyzed using the stratified Miettinen and Nurminen method, and reported with 95% CI for all participants by treatment group.

  15. Duration of Response (DOR) According to RECIST 1.1 Based on BICR in PD-L1 Positive Participants [ Time Frame: Up to 30 months (through database cut-off date of 26 Oct 2017) ]
    For PD-L1 positive participants who demonstrated CR (disappearance of all non-nodal target lesions and any pathological lymph nodes must have become normal) or PR (at least a 30% decrease in the SOD of target lesions, taking as reference the baseline SOD) according to RECIST 1.1 and based on BICR, DOR was defined as the time from first documented evidence of CR or PR until disease progression or death due to any cause, whichever occurs first. DOR for participants who had not progressed or died at the time of analysis was censored at the date of their last tumor assessment. DOR was analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier method and median DOR (range) in months was reported for PD-L1 positive participants with response by treatment group.

  16. DOR According to RECIST 1.1 Based on BICR in All Participants [ Time Frame: Up to 30 months (through database cut-off date of 26 Oct 2017) ]
    For participants who demonstrated CR (disappearance of all non-nodal target lesions and any pathological lymph nodes must have become normal) or PR (at least a 30% decrease in the SOD of target lesions, taking as reference the baseline SOD) according to RECIST 1.1 and based on BICR, DOR was defined as the time from first documented evidence of CR or PR until disease progression or death due to any cause, whichever occurs first. DOR for participants who had not progressed or died at the time of analysis was censored at the date of their last tumor assessment. DOR was analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier method and median DOR (range) in months was reported for all participants with response by treatment group.

  17. DOR According to RECIST 1.1 Based on Investigator Assessment in PD-L1 Positive Participants [ Time Frame: Up to 30 months (through database cut-off date of 26 Oct 2017) ]
    For PD-L1 positive participants who demonstrated CR (disappearance of all non-nodal target lesions and any pathological lymph nodes must have become normal) or PR (at least a 30% decrease in the SOD of target lesions, taking as reference the baseline SOD) according to RECIST 1.1 and based on investigator assessment, DOR was defined as the time from first documented evidence of CR or PR until disease progression or death due to any cause, whichever occurs first. DOR for participants who had not progressed or died at the time of analysis was censored at the date of their last tumor assessment. DOR was analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier method and median DOR (range) in months was reported for PD-L1 positive participants with response by treatment group.

  18. DOR According to RECIST 1.1 Based on Investigator Assessment in All Participants [ Time Frame: Up to 30 months (through database cut-off date of 26 Oct 2017) ]
    For participants who demonstrated CR (disappearance of all non-nodal target lesions and any pathological lymph nodes must have become normal) or PR (at least a 30% decrease in the SOD of target lesions, taking as reference the baseline SOD) according to RECIST 1.1 and based on investigator assessment, DOR was defined as the time from first documented evidence of CR or PR until disease progression or death due to any cause, whichever occurs first. DOR for participants who had not progressed or died at the time of analysis was censored at the date of their last tumor assessment. DOR was analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier method and median DOR (range) in months was reported for all participants with response by treatment group.

  19. Percentage of PD-L1 Positive Participants Who Experienced an Adverse Event (AE) [ Time Frame: Up to 30 months (through database cut-off date of 26 Oct 2017) ]
    An AE was defined as any untoward medical occurrence in a participant administered a pharmaceutical product and which does not necessarily have to have a causal relationship with this treatment. An AE could therefore be any unfavourable and unintended sign, symptom, or disease temporally associated with the use of a medicinal product or protocol-specified procedure, whether or not considered related to the medicinal product or protocol-specified procedure. Any worsening of a pre-existing condition that was temporally associated with the use of the Sponsor's product was also an AE. The percentage of participants with at least one AE was reported for PD-L1 positive participants by treatment group.

  20. Percentage of All Participants Who Experienced an AE [ Time Frame: Up to 30 months (through database cut-off date of 26 Oct 2017) ]
    An AE was defined as any untoward medical occurrence in a participant administered a pharmaceutical product and which does not necessarily have to have a causal relationship with this treatment. An AE could therefore be any unfavourable and unintended sign, symptom, or disease temporally associated with the use of a medicinal product or protocol-specified procedure, whether or not considered related to the medicinal product or protocol-specified procedure. Any worsening of a pre-existing condition that was temporally associated with the use of the Sponsor's product was also an AE. The percentage of participants with at least one AE was reported for all participants by treatment group.

  21. Percentage of PD-L1 Positive Participants That Discontinued Study Treatment Due to AE [ Time Frame: Up to 30 months (through database cut-off date of 26 Oct 2017) ]
    An AE was defined as any untoward medical occurrence in a participant administered a pharmaceutical product and which does not necessarily have to have a causal relationship with this treatment. An AE could therefore be any unfavourable and unintended sign, symptom, or disease temporally associated with the use of a medicinal product or protocol-specified procedure, whether or not considered related to the medicinal product or protocol-specified procedure. Any worsening of a pre-existing condition that was temporally associated with the use of the Sponsor's product was also an AE. The percentage of participants that discontinued study treatment due to an AE was reported for PD-L1 positive participants by treatment group.

  22. Percentage of All Participants That Discontinued Study Treatment Due to AE [ Time Frame: Up to 30 months (through database cut-off date of 26 Oct 2017) ]
    An AE was defined as any untoward medical occurrence in a participant administered a pharmaceutical product and which does not necessarily have to have a causal relationship with this treatment. An AE could therefore be any unfavourable and unintended sign, symptom, or disease temporally associated with the use of a medicinal product or protocol-specified procedure, whether or not considered related to the medicinal product or protocol-specified procedure. Any worsening of a pre-existing condition that was temporally associated with the use of the Sponsor's product was also an AE. The percentage of participants that discontinued study treatment due to an AE was reported for all participants by treatment group.



Information from the National Library of Medicine

Choosing to participate in a study is an important personal decision. Talk with your doctor and family members or friends about deciding to join a study. To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contacts provided below. For general information, Learn About Clinical Studies.


Ages Eligible for Study:   18 Years and older   (Adult, Older Adult)
Sexes Eligible for Study:   All
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   No
Criteria

Inclusion Criteria:

  • Histologically- or cytologically-confirmed diagnosis of gastric or gastroesophageal junction adenocarcinoma
  • Confirmed metastatic or locally advanced, unresectable disease (by computed tomography [CT] scan or clinical evidence)
  • Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status of 0 or 1
  • Progression on or after prior first-line therapy containing any platinum/fluoropyrimidine doublet
  • Willing to provide tumor tissue for PD-L1 biomarker analysis (new or archived specimens with agreement of Sponsor). As of 20 March 2016, participants must be PD-L1 positive to be enrolled.
  • Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER-2/neu) status known and participants with HER2/neu positive tumors show documentation of disease progression on treatment containing trastuzumab
  • Female participants of childbearing potential should be willing to use 2 methods of birth control or be surgically sterile, or abstain from heterosexual activity for the course of the study through 120 days after the last dose of pembrolizumab or through 180 days after the last dose of paclitaxel.
  • Male participants should agree to use an adequate method of contraception starting with the first dose of study therapy through 120 days after the last dose of pembrolizumab or through 180 days after the last dose of paclitaxel.
  • Adequate organ function

Exclusion Criteria:

  • Currently participating and receiving study therapy, or participated in a study of an investigational agent and received study therapy or used an investigation device within 4 weeks of the first dose of medication
  • Squamous cell or undifferentiated gastric cancer
  • Active autoimmune disease that has required systemic treatment in past 2 years (replacement therapy is not considered a form of systemic treatment
  • Diagnosis of immunodeficiency or receiving systemic steroid therapy or any other form of immunosuppressive therapy within 7 days prior to the first dose of study medication
  • Prior anti-cancer monoclonal antibody (mAb) within 4 weeks prior to study Day 1 or not recovered from AEs due to agents administered more than 4 weeks earlier
  • Prior chemotherapy, targeted small molecule therapy, or radiation therapy within 2 weeks prior to study Day 1 or not recovered from adverse events due to a previously administered agent or surgery
  • Known additional malignancy that is progressing or requires active treatment (with the exception of basal cell carcinoma of the skin, squamous cell carcinoma of the skin, or in situ cervical cancer that has undergone potentially curative therapy)
  • Known active central nervous system (CNS) metastases and/or carcinomatous meningitis
  • History of (noninfectious) pneumonitis that required steroids or current pneumonitis
  • Active infection requiring systemic therapy
  • Known psychiatric or substance abuse disorders that would interfere with cooperation with the requirements of the trial
  • Pregnant or breastfeeding, or expecting to conceive or father children within the projected duration of the trial, starting with the screening visit through 120 days after the last dose of pembrolizumab or through 180 days after the last dose of paclitaxel.
  • Prior immunotherapy including anti-PD-1, anti-PD-L1, or anti-PD-L2 agent, or previously participated in Merck pembrolizumab (MK-3475) clinical trial
  • Known history of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)
  • Known active Hepatitis B or Hepatitis C
  • Live vaccine within 30 days of planned start of study therapy
  • Known allergy or hypersensitivity to paclitaxel or any components used in the paclitaxel preparation or other contraindication for taxane therapy

Information from the National Library of Medicine

To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contact information provided by the sponsor.

Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier (NCT number): NCT02370498


Sponsors and Collaborators
Merck Sharp & Dohme Corp.
Investigators
Study Director: Medical Director Merck Sharp & Dohme Corp.
  Study Documents (Full-Text)

Documents provided by Merck Sharp & Dohme Corp.:

Additional Information:
Publications automatically indexed to this study by ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier (NCT Number):
Responsible Party: Merck Sharp & Dohme Corp.
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02370498     History of Changes
Other Study ID Numbers: 3475-061
2014-005241-45 ( EudraCT Number )
152988 ( Registry Identifier: JAPIC )
MK-3475-061 ( Other Identifier: Merck Protocol Number )
First Posted: February 25, 2015    Key Record Dates
Results First Posted: November 20, 2018
Last Update Posted: November 20, 2018
Last Verified: October 2018
Individual Participant Data (IPD) Sharing Statement:
Plan to Share IPD: Yes
Plan Description: https://www.merck.com/clinical-trials/pdf/ProcedureAccessClinicalTrialData.pdf
URL: http://engagezone.msd.com/ds_documentation.php

Studies a U.S. FDA-regulated Drug Product: Yes
Studies a U.S. FDA-regulated Device Product: No

Keywords provided by Merck Sharp & Dohme Corp.:
Gastric cancer
Gastroesophageal junction cancer
PD1
PD-1
PDL1
PD-L1

Additional relevant MeSH terms:
Esophageal Neoplasms
Neoplasms, Glandular and Epithelial
Neoplasms by Histologic Type
Neoplasms
Gastrointestinal Neoplasms
Digestive System Neoplasms
Neoplasms by Site
Head and Neck Neoplasms
Pembrolizumab
Adenocarcinoma
Carcinoma
Digestive System Diseases
Esophageal Diseases
Gastrointestinal Diseases
Paclitaxel
Albumin-Bound Paclitaxel
Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic
Antineoplastic Agents
Tubulin Modulators
Antimitotic Agents
Mitosis Modulators
Molecular Mechanisms of Pharmacological Action