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e-Compared-S: Comparative Effectiveness Research on Internet-based Depression Treatment - Spanish Trial (E-COMPARED_S)

The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Read our disclaimer for details. Identifier: NCT02361684
Recruitment Status : Completed
First Posted : February 12, 2015
Last Update Posted : September 20, 2019
University of Valencia
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
Universitat Jaume I

Brief Summary:
To compare the clinical and cost-effectiveness of blended Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT) for adults with major depressive disorder (MDD) with treatment as usual (TAU) in Spanish population.

Condition or disease Intervention/treatment Phase
Major Depressive Disorder Behavioral: Blended CBT treatment Other: Treatment as usual Not Applicable

Detailed Description:

Depression is a common mental disorder with a negative impact on mental well-being, quality of life, and social and work-related functioning both in the short and longer term. Additionally, depression is associated with increased morbidity, mortality, health care utilization and health care costs. On a population level, depression is one of the most costly diseases. The economic costs of depression were estimated at €136.3 billion (EU25) in 2010 in the EU and are still rising. European health care systems face the challenge of improving access to cost-effective treatments while simultaneously working to sustain budgetary stability in times of economic austerity.

Internet-based depression treatment appears a very promising alternative to current routine depression treatment strategies. Meta-analyses have demonstrated the clinical effectiveness and potential cost-effectiveness of Internet-based treatment for depression in controlled research setting. Internet-based treatment thus has the potential to keep depression treatment affordable, as it enables mental health care providers to reach out to large populations needing depression treatment at a better cost-effectiveness than those of standard treatment as usual (TAU), but with similar levels of clinical efficacy and quality of care.

The trials will be conducted in 8 European countries. In Spain the trial will be carried out in routine primary, comparing the clinical and cost-effectiveness of CBT and TAU for adults with major depressive disorder (MDD). Respondents will be followed until 12 months after baseline (measures will be taken at BL, 3 months, 6 months and 12 months).

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Study Type : Interventional  (Clinical Trial)
Actual Enrollment : 160 participants
Allocation: Randomized
Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
Masking: Single (Investigator)
Primary Purpose: Treatment
Official Title: European Comparative Effectiveness Research on Internet-based Depression Treatment - Spanish Trial
Actual Study Start Date : February 2015
Actual Primary Completion Date : June 2019
Actual Study Completion Date : September 2019

Resource links provided by the National Library of Medicine

Arm Intervention/treatment
Experimental: Blended CBT treatment Behavioral: Blended CBT treatment
Internet based blended CBT depression treatment combines individual face-to-face cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) with CBT delivered through an Internet based treatment platform with mobile phone components (either integrated in the treatment platform or as a separate system). The core components of the CBT treatment are: (1) psycho-education, (2) cognitive restructuring, (3) behavioural activation, (4) positive psychology, and (5) relapse prevention. These will be delivered over 10 sessions. For this study, the ratio between the number of face-to-face sessions and the number of online module will be 1/3 face-to-face and 2/3 online.

Active Comparator: Treatment as usual Other: Treatment as usual
Treatment as usual (TAU) is defined as the routine care that subjects receive when they are diagnosed with depression in the primary care system. In practice, this means that treatment as usual may vary between patients. We will not interfere with treatment as usual but we will monitor carefully which health care services are utilized by usual care patients using patient records and through self-report

Primary Outcome Measures :
  1. Change in Patient Health Questionnaire-9 [ Time Frame: Baseline, 3 months, 6 months and 12 months ]
    The PHQ-9 is a nine-item mood module that can be used to screen and to diagnose patients with depressive disorders. The 9 items are each scored on a 0-3 scale with the total score ranging from 0-27 and higher scores indicating more severe depression. The PHQ-9 has shown to have good psychometric properties (Wittkampf, Naeije, Schene, Huyser, & van Weert, 2007).

Secondary Outcome Measures :
  1. Change in Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology Self-Report (QIDS-16-SR) US Translation [ Time Frame: Baseline, 3 months, 6 months and 12 months ]
    The QIDS is a questionnaire that screens for depressive symptoms and assesses depression severity. The QIDS is available in both clinician-rated (IDS-C) and patient self-report (IDS-SR) forms. The QIDS consists of 16 items (each item scores 0-3) and includes symptom domains of MDD based on DSM-IV and Research Diagnostic Criteria (RDC). The QIDS has shown good psychometric properties.

  2. Change in the MINI International Neuropsychiatric Interview (M.I.N.I) version 5.0 [ Time Frame: Baseline and 12 months ]
    The M.I.N.I. is a structured diagnostic interview based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV) and on International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10) criteria. The M.I.N.I has been translated to 65 languages and is used for both clinical and research practice. The interview compares well with Structural Clinical Interview for DSM-IV disorders (SCID) (Sheehan et al., 1998) and the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) (Lecrubier et al., 1997; Sheehan et al., 1998).

  3. Change in the EQ-5D-5L (EuroQol) [ Time Frame: Baseline, 3 months, 6 months and 12 months ]
    The EQ-5D-5L is a self-report questionnaire which measures health related quality of life and enables conversion to utility scores to calculate Quality-Adjusted Life-Years (QALYs). The EQ-5D-5L consists of five dimensions: mobility, self-care, ordinary activities, discomfort, and mood state related to anxiety or depression. Each item consists of five categories ranging from no problems to a lot of problems (Van Agt, Essink-Bot, Krabbe, & Bonsel, 1994).

  4. Change in the Questionnaires on Costs Associated with Psychiatric Illness (TiC-P; Hakkaart-van Rooijen, van Straten, Donker, Tiemens, 2002) [ Time Frame: Baseline, 3 months, 6 months and 12 months ]
    The TiC-P is a self-report questionnaire and consists of two different parts that can be administrated separately. Part I will be used to assess the participants' healthcare utilization and medication use. Part II (short form health and labor questionnaire [SF-HLQ]) measures lost productivity costs resulting from absenteeism (being absent from work because of illness) and presenteeism (being present at work while ill which may lead to reduced efficiency) and consists of 11 items. Healthcare utilization and productivity losses will be valued using country-specific prices.

  5. Change in the Working Alliance Inventory (WAI-SF) [ Time Frame: 3 months ]
    The WAI-SF is a 12-item self-report questionnaire with responses on a 5-point Likert scale ranging from 1 (never) to 5 (always) (Hatcher & Gillaspy, 2006). The questionnaire covers three dimensions of working alliance: (1) therapeutic goals, (2) tasks, and (3) bond and the subscales have shown to have good internal consistencies. Both the patient and the 10-item therapist version of the questionnaire will be administered

  6. Change in the credibility and expectancy questionnaire (CEQ; Devilly and Borkovec, 2000) [ Time Frame: Baseline ]
    The scale consists of 6 questions, with answer options rated on a 10 point scale and on a 1-100% scale and evaluates 2 factors : credibility and expectancy

  7. Change in the Satisfaction Questionnaire (CSQ-8; Nguyen, Attkinson, & Stegner, 1983) [ Time Frame: 3 months ]
    This questionnaire is used to measure global patient satisfaction. The questionnaire consists of 8 items that are measured on a 4 points scale with total scores ranging from 8 to 32 and has shown good psychometric properties.

  8. Change in the system usability scale (SUS; Brooke, 1996) [ Time Frame: 3 months ]
    SUS is a simple ten item scale giving a global view of subjective assessments of usability of a technology system. All items are measured on a 5-point scale ranging from strongly disagree until strongly agree. Total SUS scores have a range from 0-100.

Information from the National Library of Medicine

Choosing to participate in a study is an important personal decision. Talk with your doctor and family members or friends about deciding to join a study. To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contacts provided below. For general information, Learn About Clinical Studies.

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Ages Eligible for Study:   18 Years and older   (Adult, Older Adult)
Sexes Eligible for Study:   All
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   No

Inclusion Criteria:

  • Being 18 years of age or older
  • Meet DSM-IV diagnostic criteria for MDD confirmed by MINI International Neuropsychiatric Interview version 5.0
  • a score a score of 5 or higher on the PHQ-9 screening questionnaire.

Exclusion Criteria:

  • Current high risk for suicide according to the MINI Interview section C
  • Serious psychiatric co-morbidity: substance dependence, bipolar affective disorder, psychotic illness, obsessive compulsive disorder, as established at the MINI interview
  • Currently receiving psychological treatment for depression in primary or specialised mental health care
  • Being unable to comprehend the spoken and written language (Spanish)
  • Not having access to a PC and fast Internet connection (i.e. broadband or comparable).
  • Not having a Smartphone that is compatible with the mobile component of the intervention that is offered or not willing to carry a Smartphone during the duration of treatment

Information from the National Library of Medicine

To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contact information provided by the sponsor.

Please refer to this study by its identifier (NCT number): NCT02361684

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University Jaume I
Castelló de la Plana, Castellón, Spain, 12071
University of Valencia
Valencia, Spain, 46010
Sponsors and Collaborators
Universitat Jaume I
University of Valencia
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Principal Investigator: Cristina Botella Arbona, PhD Universitat Jaume I;CIBERObn ISC III, Castellón de la Plana, Spain
Principal Investigator: Rosa Baños Rivera, PhD Universitat de Valencia; CIBERObn ISC III, Castellón de la Plana, Spain
Principal Investigator: Azucena García-Palacios, PhD Universitat Jaume I;CIBERObn ISC III, Castellón de la Plana, Spain
Principal Investigator: Ernestina Etchemendy, PhD CIBERObn ISC III, Castellón de la Plana, Spain
Principal Investigator: Rocio Herrero Camarano, PhD Universitat Jaume I

Rush AJ, Carmody T, Reimitz PE. (2000). The Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology (IDS): Clinician (IDS-C) and Self-Report (IDS-SR) ratings of depressive symptoms. International Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research, 9(2), 45-59.
Lecrubier Y, Sheehan DV, Weiller E, Amorim P, Bonora I, Harnett Sheehan K, Dunbar GC. (1997). The Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI). A short diagnostic structured interview: reliability and validity according to the CIDI. European Psychiatry, 12(5), 224-231.
Hatcher RL, Gillaspy JA. (2007). Development and validation of a revised short version of the working alliance inventory. Psychother Res, 16:12-25.
Hakkaart-van Rooijen L, van Straten A, Donker M, Tiemans B. (2002). Manual Trimbos/iMTA questionnaire for costs associated with psychiatric illness (TIC-P). Rotterdam: Institute for Medical Technology Assessment.
Food Drug Administration (FDA) (1997). International conference on harmonization, good clinical practice: consolidated guidelines. Federal Register 62: 25692-25709.
Brooke J. (1996). SUS-a quick and dirty usability scale. In Usability Eval Ind. Volume 189. Edited by Jordan PW, Thomas B, Weerdmeester BA, McClelland IL. London: Taylor & Francis Ltd; 1996:189-194.
Bangor A, Kortum PT, Miller JT. (2008). An Empirical Evaluation of the System Usability Scale. Int J Hum Comput Interact 2008, 24:574-594.

Publications automatically indexed to this study by Identifier (NCT Number):
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Responsible Party: Universitat Jaume I Identifier: NCT02361684     History of Changes
Other Study ID Numbers: UJaumeI07
First Posted: February 12, 2015    Key Record Dates
Last Update Posted: September 20, 2019
Last Verified: September 2019
Keywords provided by Universitat Jaume I:
blended treatment
Internet based treatment
cognitive behavioural therapy
Additional relevant MeSH terms:
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Depressive Disorder
Depressive Disorder, Major
Behavioral Symptoms
Mood Disorders
Mental Disorders