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Delays to Influence Snack Choice (DISC)

The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Read our disclaimer for details.
 
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02359916
Recruitment Status : Completed
First Posted : February 10, 2015
Results First Posted : January 26, 2018
Last Update Posted : February 23, 2018
Sponsor:
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
Brad Appelhans, Rush University Medical Center

Brief Summary:
The pervasiveness of high-calorie, nutrient-poor snacks in the environment is believed to have contributed to the epidemic levels of obesity and cardiometabolic disease in the U.S. This project tests whether a novel snack vending machine system that uses brief time delays to reduce the immediacy of reward from unhealthy snacks will improve the healthfulness of snack choices. If successful, this project will identify a new environmental intervention that could contribute substantially to obesity and cardiometabolic disease prevention efforts in schools, worksites, and other settings.

Condition or disease Intervention/treatment
Food Choice Other: Time delays on delivery of less healthy snacks Other: 25%/$0.25 discount on healthy snacks Other: 25%/$0.25 tax on less healthy snacks

Detailed Description:
Environmental interventions that address the high availability of unhealthy snacks in the environment are needed to prevent a large projected increase in the incidence of obesity and cardiometabolic disease in the U.S. Prior studies from the investigators group and others suggests that the human preference for immediate gratification from food drives dietary overconsumption, but this knowledge has not yet translated to more effective dietary intervention strategies. This project tests whether a novel snack vending machine system that uses brief time delays to reduce the immediacy of reward from unhealthy snacks will improve the healthfulness of snack choices. This study uses an experimental design to compare brief time delays, two forms of 25% differential pricing, and time delays combined with both forms of 25% differential pricing on their ability to increase purchasing of healthy snacks. Test machines will be placed in existing, high-volume vending locations, and each of these five experimental conditions will run for roughly four weeks. Additionally, baseline purchasing under no intervention will be monitored for four weeks before and four weeks after the five experimental conditions. Specific Aim 2 compares the effects of these five interventions against baseline on the proportion of total vending sales from healthy snacks. Specific Aim 3 tests whether time delays or differential pricing harm overall vending machine sales in the test machines. This study not only tests a compelling theory about the effects of time delays and immediate reward on food choice, but evaluates the efficacy and feasibility of a novel intervention to improve the healthfulness of snack choices in worksites, schools, and other settings.

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Study Type : Observational
Actual Enrollment : 32662 participants
Observational Model: Ecologic or Community
Time Perspective: Cross-Sectional
Official Title: Time Over Money? A Novel System to Influence Snack Machine Choices
Study Start Date : June 2015
Actual Primary Completion Date : August 2016
Actual Study Completion Date : August 2016

Group/Cohort Intervention/treatment
A
Snacks sold under equal pricing, no delays
B
Healthier snacks sold at 25% or $0.25 discount, no delays
Other: 25%/$0.25 discount on healthy snacks
C
Less healthy snacks sold at equal pricing with delays
Other: Time delays on delivery of less healthy snacks
D
Healthy snacks sold at 25% or $0.25 discount, plus delays on less healthy snacks
Other: Time delays on delivery of less healthy snacks
Other: 25%/$0.25 discount on healthy snacks
E
Less healthy snacks sold at 25% or $0.25 higher price, no delays
Other: 25%/$0.25 tax on less healthy snacks
F
Less healthy snacks sold at 25% or $0.25 higher price, plus delays
Other: Time delays on delivery of less healthy snacks
Other: 25%/$0.25 tax on less healthy snacks
G
Snacks sold under equal pricing, no delays



Primary Outcome Measures :
  1. Proportion of Healthy Snacks Purchased [ Time Frame: 28 weeks per vending location ]
    For each experimental condition, we will calculate the proportion of healthy vs unhealthy snacks sold over 4 weeks.


Secondary Outcome Measures :
  1. Total Daily Vending Revenue in US$/Day [ Time Frame: Number of days per condition were as follows - Baseline: 119 days, Discount only: 59 days, Delay only: 68 days, Delay + Discount: 49 days, Tax only: 73 days, Delay + Tax: 60 days ]
    Total vending machine revenue under each condition



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Ages Eligible for Study:   Child, Adult, Older Adult
Sexes Eligible for Study:   All
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   Yes
Sampling Method:   Non-Probability Sample
Study Population
This is an environmental intervention. No subjects will be recruited or enrolled.
Criteria

Inclusion Criteria:

  • Not applicable

Exclusion Criteria:

  • Not applicable

Information from the National Library of Medicine

To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contact information provided by the sponsor.

Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier (NCT number): NCT02359916


Locations
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United States, Illinois
Rush University Medical Center
Chicago, Illinois, United States, 60612
Sponsors and Collaborators
Rush University Medical Center
Investigators
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Principal Investigator: Bradley M Appelhans, PhD Associate Professor
Publications automatically indexed to this study by ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier (NCT Number):
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Responsible Party: Brad Appelhans, Associate Professor, Rush University Medical Center
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02359916    
Other Study ID Numbers: 13012802
First Posted: February 10, 2015    Key Record Dates
Results First Posted: January 26, 2018
Last Update Posted: February 23, 2018
Last Verified: January 2018